We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Saturday, December 8, 2012
I have problems with the conclusions been drawn here in this item and
do not trust them at all. I would like to have data that likely does
not even exist yet. However, it at least draws attention to a
Beyond that the global atmospheric CO2 content has continued to climb
and has reached and passed the ten percent mark over the past forty
years. This is obviously significant and remains troublesome. The
very good news is that geological carbon consumption is ready to
flatten out and enter a long decline as superior energy sources are
put into play.
Yet human production certainly is responsible for CO2 rise. On a
positive note, this fresh introduction of CO2 has modestly recovered
the levels experienced in geological times. We will be needing huge
amounts for Terraforming Terra anyway simply to manufacture soils. I
even see the possibility that in the future we will deliberately burn
massive amounts of geological carbon merely to restore the declining
CO2 level although the huge oceanic reserves make that unlikely.
Ocean acidification affecting live marine creatures in the
by Staff Writers
London, UK (SPX)
Nov 28, 2012
The shells of marine
snails - known as pteropods - living in the seas around Antarctica
are being dissolved by ocean acidification according to a new study
published this week in the journal Nature Geoscience. These tiny
animals are a valuable food source for fish and birds and play an
important role in the oceanic carbon cycle.
During a science
cruise in 2008, researchers from British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and
the University of East Anglia (UEA), in collaboration with colleagues
from the US Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), discovered severe
dissolution of the shells of living pteropods in Southern Ocean
The team examined an
area of upwelling, where winds cause cold water to be pushed upwards
from the deep to the surface of the ocean. Upwelled water is usually
more corrosive to a particular type of calcium carbonate (aragonite)
that pteropods use to build their shells. The team found that as a
result of the additional influence of ocean acidification, this
corrosive water severely dissolved the shells of pteropods.
Ocean acidification is
caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere emitted as
a result of fossil fuel burning. A number of laboratory experiments
have demonstrated the potential effect of ocean acidification on
However, to date,
there has been little evidence of such impacts occurring to live
specimens in their natural environment. The finding supports
predictions that the impact of ocean acidification on marine
ecosystems and food webs may be significant.
Lead author, Dr Nina
Bednarsek, formerly of BAS and UEA, and now of the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) says: "We know that the
seawater becomes more corrosive to aragonite shells below a certain
depth - called the 'saturation horizon' - which occurs at around
"However, at one
of our sampling sites, we discovered that this point was reached at
200m depth, through a combination of natural upwelling and ocean
acidification. Marine snails - pteropods - live in this top layer of
properties of the water caused shells of live animals to be severely
dissolved and this demonstrates how vulnerable pteropods are. Ocean
acidification, resulting from the addition of human-induced carbon
dioxide, contributed to this dissolution. "
Co-author and science
cruise leader, Dr Geraint Tarling from BAS, says: "Although the
upwelling sites are natural phenomena that occur throughout the
Southern Ocean, instances where they bring the 'saturation horizon'
above 200m will become more frequent as ocean acidification
intensifies in the coming years.
"As one of only a
few oceanic creatures that build their shells out of aragonite in the
polar regions, pteropods are an important food source for fish and
birds as well as a good indicator of ecosystem health.
"The tiny snails
do not necessarily die as a result of their shells dissolving,
however it may increase their vulnerability to predation and
infection consequently having an impact to other parts of the food
Co-author, Dr Dorothee
Bakker from the University of East Anglia, says: "Climate models
project a continued intensification in Southern Ocean winds
throughout the 21st century if atmospheric carbon dioxide continues
"In turn, this
will increase wind-driven upwelling and potentially make instances of
deep water - which is under-saturated in aragonite - penetrating into
the upper ocean more frequent.
predictions are for the 'saturation horizon' for aragonite to reach
the upper surface layers of the Southern Ocean by 2050 in winter and
by 2100 year round. "