We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
This describes a healing experience guided by an advanced spirit being. Imagine we could do this as well.. One can percieve the existence of method, perhaps directed aspects of the spirit body making use of celllular components of its spirit.
It would be an effective way to eliminate a pervasive disease within the body.
A woman is going through several negative life experiences, when she is confronted by an unknown 'energy' or entity that continues to manifest in order to help her heal.
The following account was forwarded to me by a reader:
"This happened a number of years ago. I was in a terrible state of mind, because I had just left a relationship that had basically brainwashed me into not knowing who I was at all. I moved back to my parent's house and could barely socialize. I spent all my time meditating because I didn’t know what else to do, I just wanted to get better. A bunch of crazy things happened during this time and I went through a huge transformation, but I’ll just explain the alien bit.
I was laying in bed, during daylight hours, basically “praying.” I remember mentally calling out to any beings who wanted to genuinely help me to come to my aid. Suddenly my face became the face of what looked like an alien. To me it seemed like a fairy-like being. It had the traditional face shape of an alien with super big eyes, not much of a nose but it wasn’t ugly at all. It was pulsing with a swirling pink energy, and it felt extraordinarily beautiful, magical and loving. It was like I became this being, or rather this being became me/took over my consciousness yet we were still in a sense separate. Then, very clearly I heard a high-pitched slightly feminine voice speak in my head. It said, “now we are going to heal you, with bubbles!” Then suddenly thousands or millions of the same being that was inhabiting my face coursed through my body, like tiny versions of this being were pulsing through me, still with swirling pink light. It was like they were of a collective consciousness all together, but there was one main being who spoke first who was leading them (I think).
As they coursed through me, I physically felt small bubbles in my body being popped, as if there were bubbles of energy that were being released over and over again. It felt amazing. After a little while the beings left me. It felt as if they rose out of me and kind of got suctioned away.
At this point I was super sad, almost heartbroken that they had left. So I begged them to come back. And they did! The alien/fairy became my face again and once again I felt this amazing source of love and magic. Then they left for good.
Since then I still experience the same sort of energy bubbles in my body popping - usually when I meditate or do reiki on myself, but nothing to the extent of that experience.
I never really considered these beings to be related to the grays or as an alien encounter until now. At the time it felt like they were coming from a different dimension, and they felt completely loving and wonderful.
Has anyone else had any positive experiences or anything like this happen to them?" GV
NOTE: I'd like to know your thoughts on this experience. Is it possible to 'summon' healing energy or entities capable of healing? Where these entities alien or another type of metaphysical manifestation? LMK. Lon
An Austrian farmer has experienced a trailblazing “eureka moment” on how to grow vegetables throughout the winter—and he is now teaching his technique to other European gardening communities as well.
According to a recent interview with Reasons to Be Cheerful, horticulturist Wolfgang Palme says he accidentally discovered his “winter farming” technique after a batch of his Asian lettuce was left undamaged by an early frost in the vegetable fields behind his house in Lower Austria.
The temperature had dropped to -11º Celsius (12º Fahrenheit), and although the crop is generally frost-resistant to temperatures of -3 or so, the lettuce—and Palme’s other vegetables—had survived the cold.
Palme, who is head of the Research Institute of Horticulture in Austria, was puzzled by the agricultural phenomenon. Upon doing some digging on why his vegetables may have survived the cold snap, the horticulturist found that the existing scientific literature on the frost-hardiness of Central European vegetables was just wrong… so he started to make it right.
The result is that Zinsenhof, the experimental farm where Palme conducts his research, now grows lettuce, spinach, scallions, red radishes, purslane, lacinato kale, turnips, carrots, celery, herbs, and pea sprouts throughout the winter.
These vegetables are all part of a crop of more than 70 species which Palme has learned to cultivate in the winter.
For the most part, Palme’s technique involves combining the use of unheated plastic tunnels under the produce and heating the ground with manure. He has also been experimenting with planting his crops at varying times of the year, his reasoning being that if he plants seeds too late, their roots wont be strong enough to last winter; if they are planted too early in the year, the plants will fruit too quickly.
According to Palme’s gardening guide published by Reasons to Be Cheerful, you can grow iceberg lettuce throughout winter temperatures of between 0 and 8 degrees Celsius if you sow your seeds at the beginning of August, plant at the end of the month, and harvest the crop between November and January.
Since Palme is now passionate in using his research to impact society at large, he now holds winter gardening classes in Augarten Park, Vienna where attendees can manage their own vegetable beds. He also works with commercial and small-time farmers with the hopes of helping them to exploit the year-long potential of their fields.
Not only do his teachings help farmers to exponentially improve their crop yields, it also helps reduce the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the demand for imported vegetables flown in from tropical climates, which is roughly 15 times the cost of growing domestically.
“In a cold winter night, a heated greenhouse of 1.5 acres causes as much CO2 equivalent as a detached house in a whole year,” says Palme. “Mankind can no longer afford this.”
House arrest and liberty restriction are a rehearsal for your NWO-imprisonment
Businesses stopped doing business – Consumers stopped consuming
The end of the existing global financial debt-money system
People need to see for themselves what is going on
Mass awakening is urgently required
Quarantine is Imprisonment on Soundcloud
Diabolical Plan behind Corona
Taking a few steps back – it is clear, it is no coincidence that the entire world is stricken by the same virus and virtually at the same time. That does not happen naturally – but can happen, as it did, when the virus is artificially implanted in every country – and that at the same time. So, there is a diabolical plan behind this so-called corona-crisis which does not even have to be a crisis, when looked at real disease cases and death rates – not the inflated fear-inspiring ones, as has been proven by Italy and Switzerland.
The world has arrived in a ‘Wondrous New Age’, where anything is possible no matter how ridiculous it is. With free money only with exception of the people themselves, because they are on their trajectory for imprisonment into the New World Order. By stripping step by step away their constitutional liberties. And now being quarantined they have lost their free movement, to becoming accustomed to inconvenient restrictions. Being increased gradually every time a little more till eventually they are settled in their prison cell before they realise it.
As a result, the economic activity across the globe has collapsed, GDP is shrinking at the fastest pace on record, and the economic data is worse than anytime in history. Every sector of the economy is contracting and every economic indicator is pointing south.
Think about; It was the ability to produce goods and services that gave people the ability to buy goods and services. In reality, money has no value of its own. Not even gold. It is given value depending on how many goods and services are available to buy with it. For example; Give a million dollars to a shipwrecked survivor on a deserted island and it is worthless. Give it to a man in London and he can live like a prince.
A lethal virus has struck the world; GDP could be cut in half – worse than the Great Depression. But there’s a deeper story behind it, one that needs to be told. Why are Treasury bonds suddenly going down, when they should be going up? Why is cash suddenly becoming so scarce when the Central Banks are supplying hundreds of billions of dollars every night?
The money is running out. No jobs available, fewer hours for the part-timers. Temperatures are rising. This is just the beginning, as the money-printing continues and the financial calamity worsens, it will cause more and more opposition, complains, and uprising.
House arrest and liberty restriction are a rehearsal for your NWO-imprisonment
This will lead to more softening in the centre and hardening on the edges. Riots are inevitable as these are instigated by the Cabal sponsored Antifa. Lawlessness is just part of the process. It gives the authorities another “war” to fight, another reason to assert their authority, and to spend more money.
The Deep State want to cull 90% of the existing populace, that is the reason whole nations are put under house arrest. They view the current restrictions as a rehearsal, and then let the people evaporate by mandatory vaccination!
It’s a whole new world; the economy will never go back to the old normal. Never. Because it wasn’t the least bit normal when this crisis started. This isn’t about a virus; it never was; it has always been about money and power.
The coronavirus didn’t cause this crisis. It only triggered it. It is as if a huge financial bubble had formed, bigger than in 1999 or 2007. It was looking for a pin, and along came Corona! The virus will come and go. But the effects of this financial blow-up will be with us for years.
Businesses stopped doing business – Consumers stopped consuming
Stocks are down 30%, with wild price gyrations, is the bottom in? Is there more damage to come? Corporate bonds – some $16 trillion worth – face a meltdown. Will some of the biggest banks and businesses being forced to default? Is a “Lehman moment” coming soon?
Governments have begun inflating, in other words; printing new money on a scale never before seen. What will that mean? Will consumer prices soon “take off”? It will be chaos, as the markets are in crisis.
Governments add money. And still prices go down. It is the most dangerous, and potentially profitable market ever seen. Nothing like this has come along before. Most likely nothing of it will come again as long as we live.
By the time this started, the government was already lending money at less than zero % and flooding the economy with vast sums of new money. Yet, that didn’t stop the biggest sell-off in history.
All over the world, businesses have stopped doing business. Consumers have stopped consuming. Wage earners have stopped earning wages. And taxpayers have stopped paying taxes. The government can say they are delaying the tax deadline, but it’s not out of the kindness of their hearts, it’s because they don’t want to stoke mass panic when everyone realises there’s no money left to pay those taxes with. What is seen is far uglier than the crisis of ’08-’09.
Among things, corporate bonds are going to be wiped out. Erased from the face of the Earth. There are some very weak companies that have destroyed their own balance sheets because of too much borrowing, too many share buybacks, too many bad acquisitions financed by cheap money. Boeing. GE. Occidental Petroleum. Hertz car-rental, Hotel chains. Airlines, Shopping Malls, Travel industry, Housing, too many to name them all. A majority of these companies are never coming back. They dug their own grave during the boom years. Then as a result of the lockdown; Two thirds of restaurants will not re-open or are closed within a year. Zara with a retail chain all over the world will close 1200 outlets, BSCH bank the largest bank in the world fires 35,000 staff and the list goes on. All these employees have lost their job!
More lost jobs were from leisure, hospitality, or health care. In other words, from the “service sectors,” where almost all the new jobs were created from 2009 to 2019.
How many of them will go back to work before the summer? Business Insider:
Even with dining rooms reopening in some parts of the country, it’s still nearly impossible for casual-dining restaurants to generate a profit at reduced dine-in capacity.
As a result, many chains have permanently closed some stores, and some brands have decided to throw in the towel altogether.
So, when the money is running out. No jobs available, means fewer hours for the part-timers. And this is just the beginning. And as the money-printing continues and the financial calamity worsens, it will cause more and more opposition, complains, and uprising. Then, put the nation under house arrest – the current restrictions are only a rehearsal, as more is planned for. And then, mass cull the populace. Hopefully the people are going to understand the tactic of their government. Although elected by the people they don’t work for the people, because they are paid for by the Deep State to complete Agenda 2030. Be certain your government is your biggest enemy.
The end of the existing global financial debt-money system
When a central bank economy is contracting it automatically creates a shortage of new debt, thus available debt-money too. Resulting in less debt-money in circulation, meaning lack of available money. In other words, it is the end of the existing global financial debt-money system.
That – and not a lack of any reform is triggering the ongoing debt and Repo crisis. Any financial system based on debt-money, like the current will blow up anyway. No paper-money system has ever survived a full credit cycle, because paper money – is a form of primitive, credit/debt-backed money – without any discipline it is unlimited.
For at least the past one hundred-ten-years, the monetary system has been manipulated, bringing the world to its knees through financial engineering that should have been alarming on its own for every well-educated economist. But the majority of economists have been masterfully kept in the dark about the hidden agenda, despite the occasional ringing of bells by people who had gained insight into the deception.
Extensive in-depth research and analyses, has learned the whole monetary system – by design – is intentionally destructing itself. The excessive printing of fiat-debt-money has arrived in its final ‘reflation’ stage of self-destruction, because the debt in the world has grown so excessive that the credit-system has gone into reverse mode, as now the paradox occurs; there is no liquidity left to pay back the debt.
Reflation is no longer possible and the deflationists are being proven correct. They are correct in regards to a credit system working in reverse with a negative feedback loop, stoking a deflationary death spiral.
People need to see for themselves what is going on
There is just one small problem; what will happen to the currencies of these central bank issuers, who apparently also are caught up in the negative feedback loop? – This is the main and most pressing financial question that has ever been faced. Will the fiat currencies survive and thrive during the deflation or will these be seen by the masses for what these are, IOU’s of bankrupt issuers at the very centre of the credit crisis quagmire? If you answer this question incorrectly, you have finished your own financial destiny.
The key question is against what assets will these fiat currencies “deflate”? The answer of course is as it has always been; “gold”. – The foundation of any stable currency is nothing else as being supported by valuable reserves. It is a requirement for the future of any currency and of vital importance, to secure the national wealth even in rough times.
In times like these, real wealth does not disappear. Gold, Silver, prime land and estate, factories, brands, inventions, technology, skills – none of these things go away. But they change hands. “Rich” people, if they are not careful, suddenly become poor. And a few smart investors create fortunes that is going to last, for many decades.
People need to see for themselves what is going on, or risk being caught up in a great national tragedy. Although still is known what is going to happen in the near future. But remember; When the going gets rough, governments get rough, too. Huge new taxes, capital controls, the nationalisation of important industries, bank takeovers to save them, devaluations, and asset seizures. While the value of the money itself inevitably goes down. There’s no mystery to this. It’s a pattern that goes back to the Roman Era.
As proof observe the ongoing misère, how everything is going crazy, the real insanity is that the Central banks have bailed out the Banks every night since Sept. 11, 2019 and now the banks need $3.7 Trillion/ every night! The debt-repo market is seriously in panic. Almost every repo operation is oversubscribed dealers are scrambling for liquidity, while the central bank is submitting billions in securities, which is ominous because of the liquidity shortage.
Lies, money, corruption, greed, and human madness. The scale of all made mistakes is massive. Big enough to cripple everyone’s financial well-being and eventually the financial stability of the whole world. It is getting very ugly for the big banks, as readers of FWC-articles about the Repo market may have understood.
Fake money and central control will destroy the economy, but they can still boost stock prices, and keep people unnecessary Corona Virus quarantined. It’s a virus with a Facebook page, a Twitter account, and a PR firm. It has gotten more press coverage and more views, than any ailment ever visited the human race on planet Earth.
And now, every crisis, every calamity, and every disaster, caused by the governments themselves, will be met with more money-printing, and more war. The war on terror, the war on COVID-19, the Mortgage Finance Crisis of ’08-’09, and what they are able to create more. Each time, the central banks and governments go back to doing the only thing they know how to do; the single thing that increases their power and enriches their friends – running the printing press. Remarkably, each bailout plan is designed to enrich the Rich over the back of the people.
The biggest unsolved problem is a failed economic system. Negative interest rates and fiat money have taken power away from real savers and real bankers and concentrated it in the hands of the cabal, who own both the central banks and the Fortune 500 companies, and are engaged in a giant self enrichment programme. They have used their money to buy control of the media, so that the political system has degenerated to the point of dysfunction.
And each time, they make the situation worse. And, when the money goes, everything goes. Because, money represents time, and life. And when people can’t trust it, they lose faith in their institutions, in the system, in the government, and in each other.
Resulting from the fake Corona pandemic with needless house arrest and prohibited protests, people are waking up as they realise their authorities are liars and oppressors with their false quarantine, phony face masks and social distancing requirements. They begin to understand the government is bribed by the Global mafia as they work against the interest of the people who have elected them and pay their salaries. It is time, to realise your Government is your biggest enemy, and they only can be over powered when the majority of the populace is awake and united!
If awake people really want change, they have to come together, lock arms and showing in one voice that they stand against those that rip their society apart. We people stand against those who have divided us, we stand together against those that are doing us harm. We the people are united as ONE that is why Q has mentioned HOW as the answer because how means by the people for the people. How do we get there? People must be awake and say it is enough. Remember; there is more of us, than there is of them. The MSM will tell us otherwise. But when people are awake they see and understand what is going on, and realise that the Deep State doesn’t want this to happen. They may try an all out assault on us, but we’ll make sure it is the opposite it will be an all out assault by the people on them. It must be the people; the people will make the final push.
People shall unite and sound as one voice. The Government the MSM all what they say will not work, the few will become the many. The many will have the most powerful voice, and can do this peacefully. They will simply keep saying it is enough! And. that is The Great Awakening this is the Power of the people. Listen to Q as we are heading in that direction, it is about bringing society together, that will unite all of us instead of separating us. Then, with this action everything that the DS has done against the people will be destroyed.
The Deep State and MSM worst nightmare is coming true, the silent majority is now becoming awake and united, the world will soon see that we actually are united and not divided. What people are witnessing now is the withdrawal from the DS-Dictatorship by the people. There will be more of these events as people are seeing the truth.
Help to increase people’s awareness by sharing this and any other FWC-article. – With FWC-source acknowledgment: Reproduction in other languages, on other sites, or media forms is permitted. The goal is to awake as many people as is possible, because that will prevent chaos when the truth is coming out. ________________________________________
I’d like to address some aspects of the Greater Depression in this essay.
I’m here to tell you that the inevitable became reality in 2008. We’ve had an interlude over the last few years financed by trillions of new currency units.
However, the economic clock on the wall is reading the same time as it was in 2007, and the Black Horsemen of your worst financial nightmares are about to again crash through the doors and end the party. And this time, they won’t be riding children’s ponies, but armored Percherons.
To refresh your memory, let me recount what a depression is.
The best general definition is: A period of time when most people’s standard of living drops significantly. By that definition, the Greater Depression started in 2008, although historians may someday say it began in 1971, when real wages started falling.
It’s also a period of time when distortions and misallocations of capital are liquidated, and when the business cycle, which is caused exclusively by currency debasement (also known as inflation), climaxes. That results in high unemployment, business failures, uncompleted construction, bond defaults, stock market crashes, and the like.
Fortunately, for those who benefit from the status quo, and members of something called the Deep State, the trillions of new currency units delayed the liquidation. But they also ensured it will now happen on a much grander scale.
The Deep State is an extremely powerful network that controls nearly everything around you. You won’t read about it in the news because it controls the news. Politicians won’t talk about it publicly. That would be like a mobster discussing murder and robbery on the six o’clock news. You could say the Deep State is hidden, but it’s only hidden in plain sight.
The Deep State is the source of every negative thing that’s happening right now. To survive the coming rough times, it’s essential for you to know what it’s all about.
Now, what causes economic problems? With the exception of natural events like fires, floods, and earthquakes, they’re all caused directly and indirectly by the State, through its wars, taxes, regulations, and inflation.
Yes, yes, I know this is an oversimplification, that human nature is really at fault, and the institution of the State is only a mass dramatization of the psychological aberrations and demons that lie within us all.
But we don’t have time to go all the way down the rabbit hole, so let’s just talk about the proximate rather than the ultimate causes of the Greater Depression. And here, I want to talk about the nature of the State, in general, and then something called the Deep State, in particular.
A key takeaway (and I emphasize that because I expect it to otherwise bounce off the programmed psyches of most people) is that the very idea of the State itself is poisonous, evil, and intrinsically destructive. But, like so many bad ideas, people have come to assume it’s part of the cosmic firmament, when it’s really just a monstrous scam.
It’s a fraud, like your belief that you have a right to free speech because of the First Amendment, or a right to be armed because of the Second Amendment. No, you don’t. The U.S. Constitution is just an arbitrary piece of paper… entirely apart from the fact the whole thing is now just a dead letter. You have a right to free speech and to be armed because they’re necessary parts of being a free person, not because of what a political document says.
Even though the essence of the State is coercion, people have been taught to love and respect it. Most people think of the State in the quaint light of a grade school civics book. They think it has something to do with “We the People” electing a Jimmy Stewart character to represent them.
That ideal has always been a pernicious fiction, because it idealizes, sanitizes, and legitimizes an intrinsically evil and destructive institution, which is based on force. As Mao once said, political power comes out of the barrel of a gun. But things have gone far beyond that. We’re now in the Deep State.
The Deep State
The concept of the Deep State originated in Turkey, which is appropriate, since it’s the heir to the totally corrupt Byzantine and Ottoman empires. And in the best Byzantine manner, the Deep State has insinuated itself throughout the fabric of what once was America. Its tendrils reach from Washington down to every part of civil society. Like a metastasized cancer, it can no longer be easily eradicated.
I used to joke that there was nothing wrong with Washington that 10 megatons on the capital couldn’t cure. But I don’t say that anymore. Partially because it’s too dangerous, but mainly because it’s now untrue. What’s now needed is 10 megatons on the capital, and four more bursts in a quadrant 10 miles out.
In many ways, Washington models itself after another city with a Deep State, ancient Rome. Here’s how a Victorian freethinker, Winwood Reade, accurately described it:
“Rome lived upon its principal till ruin stared it in the face. Industry is the only true source of wealth, and there was no industry in Rome. By day the Ostia road was crowded with carts and muleteers, carrying to the great city the silks and spices of the East, the marble of Asia Minor, the timber of the Atlas, the grain of Africa and Egypt; and the carts brought out nothing but loads of dung. That was their return cargo.”
The Deep State controls the political and economic essence of the U.S. This is much more than observing that there’s no real difference between the left and right wings of the Demopublican Party.
It’s well known by anyone with any sense (that is, by everybody except the average voter) that although the Republicans say they believe in economic freedom (but don’t), they definitely don’t believe in social freedom. And the Democrats say they believe in social freedom (but don’t), but they definitely don’t believe in economic freedom.
Who Is Part of the Deep State?
The American Deep State is a real, but informal, structure that has arisen to not just profit from, but control, the State.
The Deep State has a life of its own, like the government itself. It’s composed of top-echelon employees of a dozen Praetorian agencies, like the FBI, CIA, and NSA… top generals, admirals, and other military operatives… long-term congressmen and senators… and directors of important regulatory agencies.
But the Deep State is much broader than just the government. It includes the heads of major corporations, all of whom are heavily involved in selling to the State and enabling it. That absolutely includes Silicon Valley, although those guys at least have a sense of humor, evidenced by their “Don’t Be Evil” motto.
It also includes all the top people in the Fed, and the heads of all the major banks, brokers, and insurers. Add the presidents and many professors at top universities, which act as Deep State recruiting centers… all the top media figures, of course… and many regulars at things like Bohemian Grove and the Council on Foreign Relations. They epitomize the status quo, held together by power, money, and propaganda.
Altogether, I’ll guess these people number 1,000 or so. You might analogize the structure of the Deep State with a huge pack of dogs. The people I’ve just described are the top dogs.
But there are hundreds of thousands more who aren’t at the nexus, but who directly depend on them, have considerable clout, and support the Deep State because it supports them.
This includes many of the wealthy, especially those who got that way thanks to their State connections… the more than 1.5 million people who have top secret clearances (that’s a shocking, but accurate, number)… plus top players in organized crime, especially the illegal drug business, little of which would exist without the State. Plus, mid-level types in the police and military, corporations, and non-governmental organizations.
These are what you might call the running dogs.
Beyond that are the scores and scores of millions who depend on things remaining the way they are. Like the 50%-plus of Americans who are net recipients of benefits from the State… the 60 million on Social Security… the 66 million on Medicaid… the 50 million on food stamps… the many millions on hundreds of other programs… the 23 million government employees and most of their families. In fact, let’s include the many millions of average Joes and Janes who are just getting by.
You might call this level of people, the vast majority of the population, whipped dogs. They both love and fear their master, they’ll do as they’re told, and they’ll roll over on their backs and wet themselves if confronted by a top dog or running dog who feels they’re out of line.
These three types of dogs make up the vast majority of the U.S. population. I trust you aren’t among them. I consider myself a Lone Wolf in this context and hope you are, too. Unfortunately, however, dogs are enemies of wolves, and tend to hunt them down.
The Deep State is destructive, but it’s great for the people in it. And, like any living organism, its prime directive is: Survive! It survives by indoctrinating the fiction that it’s both good and necessary. However, it’s a parasite that promotes the ridiculous notion that everyone can live at the expense of society.
Is it a conspiracy, headed by a man stroking a white cat? I think not. I find it’s hard enough to get a bunch of friends to agree on what movie to see, much less a bunch of power-hungry miscreants bent on running everyone’s lives. But, on the other hand, the top dogs all know each other, went to the same schools, belong to the same clubs, socialize, and, most important, have common interests, values, and philosophies.
The American Deep State rotates around the Washington Beltway. It imports America’s wealth as tax revenue. A lot of that wealth is consumed there by useless mouths. And then, it exports things that reinforce the Deep State, including wars, fiat currency, and destructive policies. This is unsustainable simply because nothing of value comes out of the city.
This is self evident in my Cloud Cosmology. Central is that empirical infinity is a finite large number and this means that the sine and cosine functions are ever so slightly positive. This produces gravity. The rest is then all about solid geometry.
We are dealing with the same physicals which i describe as two D ribbons forming bundles to produce photons.
So of course gravity and light speed are the same as they are the same thing. Recall just how little spectrum we actually see.
This Is Why The Speed Of Gravity Must Equal The Speed Of Light
If the Sun were to spontaneously cease emitting light, we wouldn't know about it for about 8 minutes and 20 seconds. The light that's arriving here on Earth, right at this very moment, was emitted from the Sun's photosphere a finite amount of time in the past, and is only being seen now after a journey across the 150 million km (93 million miles) separating the Sun from the Earth. If the Sun were to go dark right now, we wouldn't find out until the light stopped arriving.
But what about gravitationally? If the Sun were spontaneously (somehow) removed from existence, how long would Earth remain in its elliptical orbit before flying off in a straight line? Believe it or not, the answer to this must be exactly the same amount of time as it was for light: 8 minutes and 20 seconds. The speed of gravity not only equals the speed of light to an incredibly precise degree observationally, but these two constants must be exactly equal theoretically, or General Relativity would fall apart. Here's the science behind why.
Newton's law of Universal Gravitation has been superseded by Einstein's General Relativity, but... [+] WIKIMEDIA COMMONS USER DENNIS NILSSON
Before General Relativity came along, our most successful theory of gravity was Newton's universal law of gravitation. According to Newton, the gravitational force between any two objects in space defined by just four parameters:
The gravitational constant of the Universe, G, which is the same for everyone.
The mass of the first object, m, which experiences the gravitational force. (By Einstein's equivalence principle, this is the same m that goes into the laws of motion, like F = ma.)
The mass of the second object, M, which attracts the first object.
The distance between them, r, which extends from the center-of-mass of the first object to the center-of-mass of the second.
Keep in mind that these are the only four parameters that are allowable in Newtonian gravitation. You can perform all sorts of calculations from this force law to derive, for example, elliptical planetary orbits around the Sun. But the equations only work if the gravitational force is instantaneous.
The orbits of the eight major planets vary in eccentricity and the difference between perihelion... [+] NASA / JPL-CALTECH / R. HURT
This might puzzle you a little bit. After all, if the speed of gravity is only equal to the speed of light, rather than an infinitely fast force, then the Earth should be attracted to where the Sun was 8 minutes and 20 seconds ago, not where the Sun is right now, at this particular instant in time. But if you do that calculation instead, and allow Earth to be attracted to the Sun's past position rather than its current position, you get a prediction for its orbit that is so thoroughly wrong that Newton himself, with quality observations going back less than 100 years (to the time of Tycho Brahe), could have ruled it out.
In fact, if you used Newton's laws to calculate the orbits of the planets and demanded that they match modern observations, not only would the speed of gravity have to be faster than the speed of light, it would have to be a minimum of 20 billion times faster: indistinguishable from an infinite speed.
An accurate model of how the planets orbit the Sun, which then moves through the galaxy in a... [+] RHYS TAYLOR
The problem is this: if you have a central force, where a bound particle like (for example) the Earth is attracted to the Sun but moves around the Sun (orbiting, or propagating) at a finite speed, you will only get a purely elliptical orbit if that force's propagation speed is infinite. If it's finite, then you don't just get a radial acceleration (towards the other mass), but you also get a component that accelerates your particle tangentially.
This would make orbits not only elliptical, but unstable. On the scale of a mere century, orbits would shift substantially. By 1805, Laplace had used observations of the Moon to demonstrate that the speed of Newtonian gravity must be 7 million times greater than the speed of light. Modern constraints are now 20 billion times the speed of light, which is great for Newton. But all of this placed a great burden on Einstein.
One revolutionary aspect of relativistic motion, put forth by Einstein but previously built up by... [+] CURT RENSHAW
According to Einstein, there's a big problem, conceptually, with Newton's gravitational force law: the distance between any two objects is not an absolute quantity, but rather is dependent on the motion of the observer. If you're moving towards or away from any imaginary line you draw, distances in that direction will contract, depending on your relative velocities. For the gravitational force to be a calculable quantity, all observers would have to derive consistent results, something that you cannot get by combining relativity with Newton's gravitational force law.
Therefore, according to Einstein, you'd have to develop a theory that brought gravitation and relativistic motions together, and that meant developing General Relativity: a relativistic theory of motion that incorporated gravity into it. Once completed, General Relativity told a dramatically different story.
An animated look at how spacetime responds as a mass moves through it helps showcase exactly how,... [+] LUCASVB
In order to get different observers to agree on how gravitation works, there can be no such thing as absolute space, absolute time, or a signal that propagates at infinite speed. Instead, space and time must both be relative for different observers, and signals can only propagate at speeds that exactly equal the speed of light (if the propagating particle is massless) or at speeds that are below the speed of light (if the particle has mass).
In order for this to work out, though, there has to be an additional effect to cancel out the problem of a non-zero tangential acceleration, which is induced by a finite speed of gravity. This phenomenon, known as gravitational aberration, is almost exactly cancelled by the fact that General Relativity also has velocity-dependent interactions. As the Earth moves through space, for example, it feels the force from the Sun change as it changes its position, the same way a boat traveling through the ocean will come down in a different position as it gets lifted up and lowered again by a passing wave.
Gravitational radiation gets emitted whenever a mass orbits another one, which means that over long... [+] AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY
What's remarkable, and by no means obvious, is that these two effects cancel almost exactly. The fact that the speed of gravity is finite is what induces this gravitational aberration, but the fact that General Relativity (unlike Newtonian gravity) has velocity-dependent interactions is what allowed Newtonian gravity to be such a good approximation. There's only one speed that works to make this cancellation a good one: if the speed of gravity equals the speed of light.
So that's the theoretical motivation for why the speed of gravity should equal the speed of light. If you want planetary orbits to be consistent with what we've seen, and to be consistent for all observers, you need a speed of gravity that equals c, and to have your theory be relativistically invariant. There's another caveat, however. In General Relativity, the cancellation between the gravitational aberration and the velocity-dependent term is almost exact, but not quite. Only the right system can reveal the difference between Einstein's and Newton's predictions.
When a mass moves through a region of curved space, it will experience an acceleration owing to the... [+] DAVID CHAMPION, MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY
In our own neighborhood, the force of the Sun's gravity is far too weak to produce a measurable effect. What you'd want is a system that had large gravitational fields at small distances from a massive source, where the velocity of the moving object is both fast and changing (accelerating) rapidly, in a gravitational field with a large gradient.
Our Sun doesn't give us that, but the environment around either a binary black hole or a binary neutron star does! Ideally, a system with a massive object moving with a changing velocity through a changing gravitational field will showcase this effect. And a binary neutron star system, where one of the neutron stars is a very precise pulsar, fits the bill exactly.
When you have a single object, like a pulsar, orbiting in space, it will pulse every time it... [+] ESO/L. CALÇADA
A pulsar, and in particular, a millisecond pulsar, is the best natural clock in the Universe. As the neutron star spins, it emits a jet of electromagnetic radiation that has a chance of being aligned with Earth's perspective once every 360 degree rotation. If the alignment is right, we'll observe these pulses arriving with extraordinarily predictable accuracy and precision.
If the pulsar is in a binary system, however, then moving through that changing gravitational field will cause the emission of gravitational waves, which carry energy away from the gravitating system. The loss of that energy has to come from somewhere, and is compensated by the decay of the pulsar's orbits. The predictions of pulsar decay is highly sensitive to the speed of gravity; using even the very first binary pulsar system ever discovered by itself, PSR 1913+16 (or the Hulse-Taylor binary), allowed us to constrain the speed of gravity to be equal to the speed of light to within only 0.2%!
The rate of orbital decay of a binary pulsar is highly dependent on the speed of gravity and the... [+] NASA (L), MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY / MICHAEL KRAMER (R)
Since that time, other measurements have also demonstrated the equivalence between the speed of light and the speed of gravity. In 2002, chance coincidence caused the Earth, Jupiter, and a very strong radio quasar (known as QSO J0842+1835) to all align. As Jupiter passed between the Earth and the quasar, its gravitational effects caused the starlight to bend in a fashion that was speed-of-gravity dependent.
Jupiter did, in fact, bend the light from the quasar, enabling us to rule out an infinite speed for the speed of gravity and determine that it was actually between 255 million and 381 million meters-per-second, consistent with the exact value for the speed of light (299,792,458 m/s) and also with Einstein's predictions. Even more recently, the first observations of gravitational waves brought us even tighter constraints.
Illustration of a fast gamma-ray burst, long thought to occur from the merger of neutron stars. The... [+] ESO
As long as gravitational waves and photons have no rest mass, the laws of physics dictate that they must move at exactly the same speed: the speed of light, which must equal the speed of gravity. Even before the constraints got this spectacular, requiring that a gravitational theory reproduce Newtonian orbits while simultaneously being relativistically invariant leads to this inevitable conclusion. The speed of gravity is exactly the speed of light, and physics wouldn't have allowed it to be any other way.