Saturday, December 30, 2023

Graphene removal

The image above shows us how very small particles of graphene are first mechanicaly reduced in size, thhen hit with acid to produce attached ions and then reduced to produce a desired product.

And you do not want any of this in your bloodstream.

It is like powdered glass,  it is also not seen before by our global biology and what possibly could go wrong?

It has been possible to have a decade of clinical trials to investigate the impact on biollogy.  We need to see the published literature.  Just Saying.

Guide on how to remove Graphene, the substance being transmitted from the COVID-19 vaccinated to the Unvaccinated, from your body…

Graphene oxide, a substance that is poisonous to humans, has allegedly been found in the Covid 19 “vaccines”, in the water supply, in the air we breathe through chemtrails, and is even in our food supply.

It interacts and is activated by electromagnetic frequencies (“EMF”), specifically the broader range of frequencies found in 5G which can cause even more damage to our health.

The symptoms of graphene oxide poisoning and EMF radiation sickness are similar to those symptoms described as Covid.

The bad news for those who have so far refused to get a single dose of the Covid-19 injection is that some doctors believe Graphene is being transmitted from the Covid-19 vaccinated to the unvaccinated.

But the good news is, now that graphene oxide has been identified as a contaminant, there are ways to remove graphene oxide from your body and restore your health.

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This is a holistic approach of using several different methods simultaneously for the best effect. Including, specific supplements to degrade the graphene oxide in the body, and controlling EMFs in the environment to minimize graphene oxide activation.

This information comes from several sources and is based on scientific studies. Links are referenced below.
Understanding Glutathione

Glutathione is a substance made from the amino acids: glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid. It is produced naturally by the liver and involved in many processes in the body, including tissue building and repair, making chemicals and proteins needed in the body, and for the immune system. We have a natural glutathione reserve in our bodies. This is what gives us a strong immune system.

When glutathione levels are high in the body, we have no problems and our immune system functions well. But when the amount of graphene oxide in the body exceeds the amount of glutathione, it causes the collapse of the immune system and triggers a cytokine storm. The way that graphene oxide can rapidly grow to exceed glutathione in the body is by electronic excitation. Meaning, EMF’s that bombard the graphene to oxidise it, which rapidly triggers the disease.

At the age of 65 glutathione levels fall drastically in the body. This can explain why the population most affected by Covid-19 are the elderly. Glutathione levels are also very low in people with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, obesity, etc. Likewise, glutathione levels are very high in infants, children and athletes. This can explain why Covid-19 has not affected these people.

Graphene oxide when oxidised or activated by specific EMF frequencies overruns the body’s ability to create enough glutathione, which destroys the immune system and causes the illness. In events of illness (such as Covid symptoms and all the “variants”) it is necessary to raise glutathione levels in the body in order to cope with the toxin (graphene oxide) that has been introduced or electrically activated.
ICU Intubated Covid Patients Healed Within Hours When Treated with Glutathione And NAC, Example from Ricardo Delgado

“We have seen clinical trials with hundreds of patients who were in the ICU, on a respirator and intubated, practically on the verge of death. With bilateral pneumonias caused by the spread of graphene oxide and subsequent 5G radiation in the lung plaques. Well, this diffuse stain in these patients is symmetrical, which would not happen with a biological agent since it would be rather asymmetrical, as for example when there is a pneumococcal infection, right? Well, in that case a diffuse stain usually appears in one part of the lung, but not in another, not in both symmetrically. So, when treated with glutathione via direct intravenous —or even orally as well— or with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 600 mg or higher doses, people within hours began to recover their oxygen saturation” – Ricardo Delgado, La Quinta Colmuna

N-acetylcysteine (“NAC”) is a supplement that causes the body to produce glutathione, it is known as the precursor to glutathione and causes the body to secrete glutathione endogenously, just as it does when you do sports intensely. NAC comes from the amino acid L-cysteine and is used by the body to build antioxidants. Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage. You can get NAC as a supplement or a prescription drug.

Zinc in combination with NAC are essential antioxidants used to degrade graphene oxide. Ricardo Delgado states that with these two antioxidants he has personally helped people affected by magnetism after inoculation. This is in people with two doses of Pfizer who have become magnetic and after these supplements they no longer have this symptom.

Other supplements that can be taken to assist in the removal of graphene oxide are:Astaxanthin
Milk Thistle
Vitamin C
Vitamin D3

For more information on these supplements for graphene oxide removal please see this LINK.
Understanding The Connection Between EMF, 5G, Graphene Oxide, Hydrogels and Covid

Graphene oxide is activated by EMF, specifically the frequencies that are part of the 5G spectrum. All materials have what is known as an electronic absorption band. An absorption band is a range of wavelengths, frequencies or energies in the electromagnetic spectrum which are characteristic of a particular transition from initial to final state in a substance. This is a specific frequency above which a substance is excited and oxidises very quickly. Frequencies beamed at human beings that have a build-up of graphene oxide in their body can cause the graphene oxide to multiply very rapidly, breaking the balance of glutathione and causing a cytokine storm in a matter of hours.

Graphene oxide is the main ingredient in DARPA patented hydrogels. It is these hydrogels that are in the Covid injections, the PCR test swabs and the masks. A conductive hydrogel is a polymer like material that has substantial qualities and applications. They are developing different kinds of conductive hydrogels that are being used in many things, in our food, our water, and injected into our bodies in vaccines. Conductive hydrogels contain nanotech that locks on to your DNA and can be controlled by 5G sensors. They allow for DNA collection and manipulation. Conductive hydrogels allow for tracking and tracing of human beings. There are thousands of peer-reviewed scientific studies and articles discussing conductive hydrogels. We’ve put together a short list of some relative studies as backup documentation.

Summary of Hydrogel & Quantum Dot Nanotechnology Characteristics – Click to Download

It is from these studies that we can summarise some of the characteristics of conductive hydrogels.

Characteristics of conductive hydrogels: self-recoverability, electrical conductivity, transparency, freezing resistance, stretching, self-healing, stimuli responsiveness which means it does certain things when 5G hits it (or other frequencies for that matter).

We are surrounded in EMF radiation from cell phones (or mobile phones), TV’s and Wi-Fi. Many areas are also turning on 5G and there have been investigations done showing the correlation between the 5G networks and the Covid outbreaks in an area. To best protect yourself from graphene oxide poisoning and the activation of graphene oxide in your body it is necessary to do several things to limit your EMF exposure.

Some suggestions on how to do this include: do not live in a city with a lot of towers if you can help it, turn off your Wi-Fi at night and stay away from smart meters and other smart devices if at all possible. Another option is to use EMF protection products such as orgone energy devices to help transform the EMF radiation to mitigate the harmful effects.
Orgone Energy, EMF Protection and Graphene Oxide

Since graphene oxide is activated by EMF, you want to create a protective barrier in your immediate environment that mitigates the EMF so that it does not activate the graphene oxide. In the 1930’s a discovery was made that can be applied today to help with EMF protection. During a series of experiments, the late Dr. Wilhelm Reich discovered that living samples placed within containers made from alternating layers of steel and non-conductive organic material were able to harness healthy “cosmic energy” from the environment. He called this energy “orgone.” These orgone accumulators and had the ability to: preserve blood samples for longer periods of time; sprout healthier plant seedlings; and, provide pain relief for his patients who sat inside them.

Today, instead of using sheets of steel and plastic we use a composite made from a blend of iron oxide, steel, brass, shungite and crystal powders encased in epoxy resin. The end result is a harmoniser that is able to transform the harmful wireless fields from cell towers, smart meters, smartphones, internet router and your television, into more beneficial energy for you and your plants and pets. The effects of this scientific phenomenon were replicated and well documented in studies done by the University of Pennsylvania and the Heraclitus Microscopic research laboratory.
Striking Resemblance of Reich Blood Test to Recent Graphene Oxide EMF Blood Samples

The most striking study in light of recent discoveries of graphene oxide can be found in the “Reich Blood Test” performed by the Heraclitus Microscopic Research Laboratory. In this test, they show the effectiveness that orgone energy has on the blood. They took two blood samples and put one in a control box and the other in an orgone energy box. Over time they took microscopic photos of the blood samples and witnessed that the orgone energy sample was able to maintain its life force for a longer period of time (it was like the fountain of youth for blood).

When a red blood cell has defects and starts to die, they can develop something called Acanthocyte formation, where multiple spiky like projections of varying lengths protrude from the cell. The pictures below show what it looks like when a blood cell dies.Reich Experimental Blood Test – Blood Disintegration

Decaying blood cells forming into what Dr. Reich called “bions” from the Reich Blood Test work done by Hericlitus Labs.
Orgone Energy Blood Test, 30 September 2020 (23 mins)

These slides above are showing the bionic disintegration of living and non-living matter. The healthier cell has a more solid membrane with a blue light around it. This blue light is actually the lifeforce or “Aura” of the cell. It is what Dr. Reich called “orgone” energy. As the cell dies and disintegrates, the membrane wall forms spikey protrusions coming out of it.

The graphene oxide-based nanoparticles used in the Covid injections is designed to penetrate the membrane of the cells in order to get the mRNA into them. This constant penetration of the cell membrane wall could be what is causing these membrane deformities. According to A Laboratory Guide to Clinical Haematology at the Open Education of Alberta:

“Acanthocyte formation occurs as a result of either hereditary or acquired membrane defects. Defects that cause an imbalance between the membrane cholesterol and lipid content affect the RBC’s ability to deform resulting in more rigid plasma membrane”

Now shown below are three photos taken from recent [updated 1 October 2021] blood work from Dr. Robert Young.

His conclusion is that what we are seeing in these blood cells is from the effect of EMF radiation poisoning, graphene oxide poisoning. He calls the formation of the blood cell membranes the “corona effect” and the “spike protein effect”.Scanning & Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Graphene Oxide in CoV-19 Vaccines

This looks identical to the behaviour of the dying blood cells in the Reich Blood Test experiment. What we are seeing here are cells that have been poisoned and are dying. We also see the formation of the spike protein in the last slide.

A striking discovery is found in the Reich Blood Test that shows how the orgone energy devices slows down, and stops this decay of blood cells. This is showing, at a cellular level, how the orgone energy devices protect the human body from harmful EMF.

The slide below shows the results of the Reich Blood Test. The sample on the left is the one that was inside the orgone accumulator box. The rate of cell death and decay is 5%. The sample on the right is the one that was not in the orgone accumulator box. The rate of decay is 50%. Clearly, the orgone energy is doing something to help preserve the life force and health of the blood.

A Preemptive Strike Against an Orwellian Future

There is nothing government fears more than a free mind outside their grasp.  folks in the trenches have been fighting this from the very beginning because we all instinctievely know that command and control stops innovation dead and this must be replaced by the RULE of TWELVE on the NATURAL community.

The problem is that the stupid never understand that this is true even when demoed over and over.  Even when it feeds them.

So yes, the resistance has put enormous pressure on the stupid for decades now.

A Preemptive Strike Against an Orwellian Future

“If I disappear, make sure this gets out.”

That’s what Mark Miller, a young student at Yale, told his closest friends.

He knew what he was sitting on had revolutionary potential and that powerful people had disappeared others for much less.

Miller was steadfast. He wanted to get this information out, even if it was over his dead body.

In 1977, a group of brilliant researchers at MIT made an astonishing discovery—public-key cryptography.

It was a mathematical system for encrypting information so that only the intended recipient could read it. It would otherwise take millions of years for the world’s most powerful supercomputers to crack.

Cryptography, or the practice of encoding information, is as old as civilization.

One of the oldest known cryptography uses dates back to around 600 BC when the ancient Spartans would pass encrypted messages on thin papyrus sheets. To decrypt the message, the recipient could wrap the papyrus around a scytale (a cylinder of varying dimensions).

The words written on the papyrus itself were gibberish. But you could decrypt the message if you had the right scytale. This is how the Spartans sent and received secret military plans.

Today, computers allow for radically more sophisticated cryptography.

That’s why the discovery of public-key cryptography was a development of historical significance.

Never before had unbreakable cryptography been available to the average person. It had always been a government monopoly, and they didn’t want to give it up.

The MIT researchers broke that monopoly in 1977.

The average person could now use public-key cryptography to preserve the privacy of their communications from anyone, including the world’s most powerful governments.

Public-key cryptography altered the status quo between the rulers and the ruled. It was similar to the invention of gunpowder or the printing press.

That’s precisely why the US government stopped the publication of this information. They threatened the MIT researchers with federal prison if they proceeded under the pretext that the US government considered cryptography a military munition. Those who distributed it would be treated no differently than arms traffickers.

So, MIT halted plans to distribute the paper… but not before Mark Miller got his hands on it.

Miller understood the world-changing significance of their discovery. He believed bringing cryptography to the average person was mankind’s best chance at avoiding an Orwellian future.

Miller made countless copies of the MIT research paper at significant personal risk and sent them to his closest friends, prominent computer enthusiasts, magazines, and other media outlets.

It became clear the cat was out of the bag. The information was already widely available, and there was no point in prohibiting its publication.

Eventually, the US federal government backed off and allowed the paper to be published.

It was the spark that would lead to the end of the government’s monopoly over cryptography and have profound consequences that nobody could have foreseen.

The release of public-key cryptography also laid the philosophical and technological foundation for Bitcoin, which would come more than 30 years later.

But in the meantime, the conflict between cryptography enthusiasts and the government—the Crypto Wars—was just beginning.
The Crypto Wars

The US government was not about to throw in the towel so easily.

While they reluctantly allowed the publication of the MIT research paper on public-key cryptography, they remained opposed to the widespread use of cryptography.

It remained a mostly theoretical discussion for years because there was no practical way to implement public-key cryptography on a mass scale.

That all changed in the 1990s with the advancement of computers and the Internet.

The Crypto Wars were about to heat up again.

The Clinton administration argued that “Americans have no Constitutional right to choose their own method of encryption.”

They wanted only government-approved cryptography, in which the state would always have backdoor access and the ability to decrypt any message.

The government may have had its way had it not been for the Cypherpunks.

The Cypherpunks are a loosely affiliated group of activists advocating for strong cryptography and privacy technologies as a route to social and political change.

They aim to empower the individual and disempower the state, not by engaging in the political process or asking permission, but by writing code and releasing unstoppable software.

The term “Cypherpunk” is derived from “cipher” (a method of encryption) and “punk” (indicative of a counter-cultural ethos).

The movement emerged in the early 1990s as an email list and discussion group.

A primary concern of theirs was combating the trend of the emerging surveillance state. They believed the widespread use of cryptography was essential to defeat Big Brother.

In the early 1990s, Cypherpunk Phil Zimmermann released Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), computer software that made public-key encryption available on a mass scale for the first time.

PGP was a direct rebuke of the government’s efforts to contain cryptography. The Cypherpunks viewed it as a preemptive strike against an Orwellian future.

The US government was not impressed.

They launched a three-year criminal investigation into Zimmermann because they classified PGP alongside bombs and flamethrowers as a military “munition,” a weapon under the purview of government regulation for national security purposes.

The US government sought to charge Zimmermann with violating the Arms Export Control Act, which calls for a penalty of up to 20 years in prison and a $1 million fine.

The US government hoped to make an example of Zimmermann and scare away anyone else from doing the same to prevent cryptography technology from spreading.

But Zimmermann and his Cypherpunk allies didn’t back down, even with the prospect of bankruptcy and decades in prison. They understood what was at stake and launched a decisive counterattack.

They printed the PGP code into a book and had it published at a university, knowing that if the government tried to prohibit it, they would likely lose in court.

They even printed the PGP code on a T-shirt to ridicule the government’s position.

Eventually, the US government realized it was fighting a losing battle and dropped its criminal investigation of Zimmermann without charging him.

Around the same time, in the Bernstein v. the US Department of State case, US federal courts ruled that computer code is equivalent to speech protected by the 1st Amendment of the US Constitution. It set an important precedent and delivered a crucial victory to the Cypherpunks in the Crypto Wars.

The US government tried to stop the average person from accessing cryptography and failed.

The Cypherpunks’ victory in the Crypto Wars opened the door to many new disruptive technologies—including Bitcoin.

WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange is a Cypherpunk, as are the people behind the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital rights advocacy group.

The Cypherpunks were connected with the development of Tor, which stands for “The Onion Router.” It encrypts your internet traffic and then hides it by bouncing through a series of computers worldwide to obfuscate your IP address and physical location.

Cypherpunks were also behind BitTorrent, a decentralized, peer-to-peer file-sharing network that is impossible to shut down, unlike centralized services like Napster.

A common theme among the Cypherpunk projects was leveraging cryptography, decentralized networks, and open-source software to create unstoppable technologies.

However, one thing eluded them… creating a free-market, non-state, digital money.

That would eventually come with Bitcoin.

Today, Bitcoin could be on the cusp of another massive upside explosion.

Historically, Bitcoin’s biggest moves to the upside happen very quickly… especially amid a financial crisis.

With multiple crises unfolding right now, the next big move could happen imminently.

Matthew Ehret: Gnostic cults masquerading as Christian movements promoting Zionism

I will try to track this work, because it is important.  These narritives are convincing and have been actionable.  much of what we accept as even plausible could easily have been made up out of whole cloth to obscure any truth whatsoever.

The only thing certain about all of our histories is that we have anything at all and every monkey with an. agenda will try to rewrite what is known.  So yes we have material about the Greek Helenistic empire and the roman empire and the Byzantium empire and just about no one else and they numbered millions.

We do speak here to the known zionist narritive and just how that came about.  It surely was part of a european elite conspiracy and likely had nothing whatsoever to do with scripture.  Think about that ladies.  If you cannot find any such scripture then it was bogus.

You get my point.  The result is still a european modernist colony placed in the Levant against indigenous resistence.  Bad thinking and so nineteenth century as well.  What if the whole damn thing was a hoax top to bottom?

What judaism has done for us all is to show us a better way to educate our children.  We also need to do better.

In the event, a powerful prophetic theme was introduced in the ninettenth century that led to direct action creating Israel.  That it has led history does suggest that it all came from the other side as well.

i do want to say that the other side does act to lead history and that prophecy is used to nudge things along.  At the same time, it can also be a nasty source of disinformation that must be countered through a disciplined mind.  Recall that the underlying theme is the emergence of Yesua in our own time. So yes, all this is likely adhering to biblical sources, just as yesua did for his ministry.

Matthew Ehret: Gnostic cults masquerading as Christian movements promoting Zionism

Having described that without the force of numerous anti-Semitic fascists throughout the last two centuries, Zionism would have never been possible, Matthew Ehret continued to set the scene by describing “apostolic” cults operating under the banner of Christianity which contributed to the belief that all Jews should be sent to Palestine.

These gnostic cults included The Plymouth Brethren and a tightly knit network of Anglican/Jesuit intelligence operatives. Not forgetting the British Israelis who believed that the 10 lost Tribes of Israel settled in Britain.

Ehret recently wrote an essay titled ‘Sir Henry Kissinger: Midwife to New Babylon’ describing how Henry Kissinger’s 2012 prophecy that “in 10 years, there will be no more Israel” is linked to mystical Babylon.

As his essay is more than most would read in one sitting, we are republishing it in sections over a series of articles, you can read Part 1 HERE and Part 2 HERE. The following are sections of Ehret’s essay with the same titles. You can read his full essay HERE.

The Plymouth Brethren Gnostic Overhaul of Christianity

The Plymouth Brethren were a gnostic sect of pseudo-Christians founded in 1829 by an agent of the British East India Company named Anthony Norris Groves. Groves was sent to the Ottoman Empire and then India in 1830 as an orientalist engaged in recruiting young elites to train in British universities while carrying out espionage under the banner of Christian missionary work. Groves was soon joined by John Nelson Darby (godson of Admiral Horatio Nelson and father of modern rapture theology).

Darby, who considered himself a prophet, conducted six tours of the US seeding his doctrine into dozens of gnostic cults. Each one taught followers to interpret Bible prophecy the same way. This obviously required sending all Jews to Palestine, at which point a “secret rapture” for believers would unfold – followed by a hellscape of pain for heathens left to burn under the fires of global war and the anti-Christ.

Of course, in 1856, Darby’s prophetic gifts taught him that Russia – then Britain’s dominant nemesis after the US – was the anti-Christ and that the Civil War was a sign of the End Times. Darby went so far as to encourage his American followers not to fight to save the union since that would go against God’s will (to blow up the universe). Instead, he believed they should wait like good passive sheep atop their barns to be beamed up to heaven.

Among those American Christian movements influenced (and even created by Darby and the Plymouth Brethren sect), we have Cyrus Scofield. His 1909 reference bible became the most popular in the US during the 20th century and drew heavily upon Darby’s works.

Darby’s influence can also be seen in the works of Charles Fox Parham (the founder of Pentecostalism), George Pember, (the originator of the “fallen Nephilim” interpretation of demonology now advanced by the alien disclosure movement), Dwight Lyman Moody (founder Moody Bible College), and James Hall Brookes (founding father and president of the Niagara Bible Conference, which helped spread Dispensationalism across America).

The 1826 Albury Conferences on Prophecy

The Plymouth Brethren emerged onto the scene in tandem with a tightly knit network of Anglican/Jesuit intelligence operatives who operated under the leadership of 1) Henry Drummond (financier and co-founder of the New Apostolic Church founded in 1834), 2) Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, and 3) John Nelson Darby (founder of the “Exclusive Brethren” Plymouth Brethren and leader of the sect).

In fact, the entire Christian Zionist movement of war-pushing, faith-healing, rapture-loving preachers from John Hagee to Benny Hinn and Pat Robertson all sit on foundations created by Darby’s Plymouth Brethren – not the Bible.

Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper was a follower of Henry Drummond, who devoted himself to the cause of “Premillennial Dispensationalism” soon after a series of conferences on prophecy were held between 1826 and 1830. They were dubbed “The Albury Conferences.”

These conferences, overseen by Drummond at a vast estate he purchased featuring 70 bedrooms in Surrey, England, included leading figures of London’s gnostic intelligentsia. This included occultists Robert Haldane and Sir Thomas Carlyle, both of whom went on to become 12 “apostles/prophets” of the New Apostolic Catholic Church created by Drummond and George Irving in 1830.

The Albury Conferences themselves were sparked by the rediscovery of the writings of the influential Jesuit Francisco Ribera (1537-1591) of Salamanca, who played a major role in the Council of Trent of 1545, which ensured never-ending wars between Catholics and Protestants. This council and its Jesuit controllers are sometimes called ‘the counter-reformation.’

A Jesuit Sleight of Hand Sets the Stage for Zionism

Ribera’s primary task was to create an intellectual argument in opposition to the Protestant affirmation that the end times were now (i.e. 545) and that the Whore of Babylon described in the Book of Revelation was the Catholic Church. Ribera’s solution was simple: make the case why the events of Revelation were neither in the present nor in the past (the majority of Christians at the time believed that the subject of the “Whore of Babylon” was Nero’s Rome). Rather, he argued, they were to take place at some distant moment in the future.

Jesuit grand strategist and true father of Christian Zionism Francisco Ribera (1537-1591). Note the Templar Cross. That will make more sense later.

Moreover, in his 500-page treatise ‘In Sacrum Beati Ioannis Apostoli, & Evangelistiae Apocalypsin Commentari’, Ribera explained that the signs of the end times would only occur when the temple of Solomon, destroyed in 70 CE during the first Roman Jewish War, was rebuilt (additionally implying the restoration of Jews to their homeland). Ribera’s writings became known as the ‘Futurist School of Pre-Millennial Dispensationalism’, from which arose such modern perversions of Christian-Zionism, Rapture theology, and the diverse array of End Times Cultists of Christian and Jewish brands in our modern era.

By the early 17th century, Ribera’s writings had fallen into obscurity. They were only rediscovered when S.R. Maitland (Keeper of Manuscripts for the Archbishop of Canterbury) found himself working in the Vatican archives. Maitland believed the Jesuitical concepts were revolutionary, and they inspired him to write books on the antichrist and End Times in the form of ‘An Inquiry into the Grounds of the Prophetic Period in Daniel and St, John’ (1826), ‘A Second Inquiry’ (1829), and ‘An Attempt to Elucidate the Prophecies Concerning Anti-Christ’ (1830).

Perhaps most importantly, Ribera’s eschatology lent itself to the geopolitical aims of a British Empire struggling to 1) prevent the spread of independence movements across the world that followed America’s lead and 2) maintain a system of global enslavement with India, Russia, Egypt, China, and the Ottoman Empire as prime targets.

The obvious danger of the renewal of Silk Road routes of cooperation connecting these ancient civilisational states would be a disaster for the British Empire’s ambitions to become a New Roman Empire retaining control through divide-to-conquer tactics.

The Cabalistic Fraud of Apostolic End Times Cults

Echoing a similar gnostic “secret doctrine” that paralleled the Cabalistic traditions of “exoteric” (public) Torah and esoteric (hidden/oral) Torah, these self-professed “apostles” claimed to hold prophetic gifts and that they could interact with angels and Jesus through what they called “the holy spirit” (a practice commonly involving going into self-induced trances and speaking in uncontrolled gibberish/tongues).

Dozens of End Times cults splintered off from this source. Various prophets like Edward Irving (founder of the Irvingites), John Dowie (founder of Zion Illinois), John Darby (founder of Exclusive Brethren), Charles Parham (founder of Pentecostalism), Joseph Smith of the Mormons, and Dwight L. Moody (founder of Moody Bible College) created occult societies masquerading as “Christian” movements.

The thread tying these new sects together tended to revolve around 1) rapture interpretations of the Bible, 2) the restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land, and, in most cases, 3) the rebuilding of Solomon’s Temple.

Were these actions to occur, it was taught by those with “special gnostic knowledge,” the apocalyptic End Times would be invoked. The dual origins of Christian Zionism and End Times rapture theology are found here – not in the Bible.

The Fraud of British Israelism

It is also noteworthy that many of these “apostolic” cult creators were also devotees of “British Israelism,” which claimed that the 10 lost Tribes of Israel actually settled in Britain, and the British Royal family was directly descended from the House of David – the “secret children” of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. Films such as Martin Scorsese’s ‘The Last Temptation of Christ’ and the popular book ‘Holy Blood Holy Grail’made these actual beliefs of the oligarchy into articles of popular mythology in the minds of plebian consumers.

Most people watching King Charles III sprinkled with water from the River Jordan during his coronation had no idea what insane symbolism was occurring. In the mind of Charles and the broader oligarchy he represents, this ritual symbolises Charles as the blood heir to the throne of Christ himself. The choice to carry a metallic globe and cross symbolising his divine right to rule the entire globe as prima inter pares (first among equals) – a symbol of the Holy Roman Emperor – should also not be ignored (see image below).

In 1834, British Israelite Henry Drummond stated that “The majority of what was called the religious world, disbelieved that the Jews were to be restored to their own land and that the Lord Jesus Christ was to return and reign in person on this earth.”

Part 4 in our series is the sections of Ehret’s essay titled ‘The Logic of England’s Use of Zionism’ and ‘Templars, Mithra, and the Roots of the Palestinian Exploration Fund’.

About the Author

Matthew Ehret is the Editor-in-Chief of the ‘Canadian Patriot Review’, a Senior Fellow at the American University in Moscow, and Director of ‘The Rising Tide Foundation’. He has authored three volumes of the ‘Untold History of Canada book series and four volumes of the Clash of the Two Americas’. He hosts ‘Connecting the Dots’ on TNT Radio, ‘Breaking History’ on Badlands Media, and ‘The Great Game’ on Rogue News.

Shocking Truth behind COVID Vaccines

Well, this takes us to the end of 2022.  What is now locked in is meta stat proof that the JAB is producing excess deaths and this had not abated or changed a year ago.  Now I do think that it has at least slacked off.

However, we now need to see the excess death rate to swing down into negative territory for at least two years in order to undo the Stat shift.  No reports yet, but we will certainly have it next christmas.

Now if the perps expected a death rate that was able to take out four billion folks, we are not there yet.  If four billion folks have a fore shortened lifespan, then this increased death rate needs to be sustained over decades.

in the meantime,  just where are those medbeds which seemed decades too early?  We now have silence there curiously.  Propaganda or something else?

Shocking Truth behind COVID Vaccines: 52.5k Brits Died Suddenly in 8 Months in 2022 due to Vaccination with Official Data proving they cause a 5-Month Countdown to Death

As the death toll rises, a dark shadow has been cast over Britain.

Official data reveals that from April 2022 through to December 2022, 407,910 deaths occurred, with 47,379 excess deaths against the 2015-2019 five-year average.

As the investigation deepens, it has become increasingly clear that the Covid-19 vaccines are the most likely cause of the unprecedented loss of life in Britain. The evidence is damning, with a startling correlation between the rollout of the vaccines and the spike in deaths.

We were told the vaccines would bring hope and healing amid an alleged global pandemic. But now, it seems that they have instead brought even more devastation and pain.

In the week ending on December 11th, there were 11,694 deaths, with 687 excess deaths against the 2016-2019 + 2021 five-year average and 999 excess deaths against the 2015-2019 five-year average.

While Covid-19 is often blamed for such increases, this time the numbers tell a different story. Out of all the deaths, only 326 were attributed to the alleged disease – a mere 2.8%.

So what is causing this surge in fatalities?

Meanwhile, according to Public Health Scotland (PHS), Scotland suffered 1,257 deaths in the week ending 27th November, resulting in 127 excess deaths.

According to the Office for National Statistics, excess deaths have been occurring in England and Wales on a weekly basis since April 2022. To uncover the full extent of this tragedy, we dug into the data, analyzing the weekly number of deaths over the past six months and comparing them to the five-year average. What we discovered was a disturbing trend, as the chart below reveals.

As we delve deeper into the mystery of the excess deaths occurring in England and Wales, a disturbing possibility comes to light: the Covid-19 vaccines may be to blame.

According to the Office for National Statistics, excess deaths have been occurring on a weekly basis since April 2022, and while the data initially seemed to point to other causes, closer examination reveals a startling correlation between the rollout of the 2021 winter “Booster” shot and the spike in fatalities.

To uncover the full extent of this tragedy, we dug into the data, analysing the weekly number of deaths over the past eight months and comparing them to the 2015-2019 five-year average.

The chart reveals a disturbing trend, with excess deaths occurring in all but two weeks since April 2022. These two exceptions, it turns out, coincide with the late Queen’s Platinum Jubilee and funeral, which would have caused delays in death registrations due to the bank holidays.

But even taking these weeks into account, the data shows an average of 1,268 excess deaths every single week.

The following chart is taken from Public Health Scotland’s Covid-19 Dashboard, and it shows the weekly number of deaths compared to the 2015-2019 five-year average –

Because the chart doesn’t reveal the true picture, we downloaded the death data from the Public Health Scotland Covid-19 Dashboard, which you can also do so here, and calculated the total number of deaths between week 16 and week 47 of 2022.

According to the data, there were 34,316 deaths during this period in the 2015-2019 five-year average and 38,611 deaths during this period in 2022.

This means Scotland has suffered 4,264 excess deaths against the five-year average over the past 34 weeks.

The following chart shows the overall number of deaths and excess deaths in England, Wales & Scotland –

The five-year average number of deaths in Britain over these 8 months equates to 360,531. Meanwhile, the total number of deaths in 2022 in Britain over these 8 months equates to 407,910. Therefore, Britain has suffered 47,379 excess deaths since the middle of April 2022.

Could it be that the Covid-19 vaccines, which we were told would bring hope and healing, are instead causing unimaginable tragedy?

Well, as our investigation into the excess deaths in the UK deepened, a disturbing pattern emerged.

An analysis of official ONS data reveals that approximately five months after each dose of the Covid-19 vaccine is administered, the mortality rates among the vaccinated rise significantly compared to the unvaccinated in each age group.

The following charts were created using data extracted from table 1 of the Office for National Statistics dataset on ‘Deaths by vaccination status (Jan 21 to March 22)’ which can be accessed on the ONS website here, and downloaded here.

The first chart shows the age-standardised mortality rates per 100,000 person-years by vaccination status between the 1st January 2021 and the 30th April 2021 –

As you can see, mortality rates were highest among the unvaccinated each month. However, by the end of April 2021, five months after the first Covid-19 injection was administered in the UK, things started to even out among each vaccination group and the unvaccinated.

But look what happened in the following four months.

The first chart shows the age-standardised mortality rates per 100,000 person-years by vaccination status between the 1st May 2021 and the 30th August 2021 –

The mortality rate among the vaccinated began to surpass the mortality rate among the unvaccinated significantly. By the end of August 2022, the mortality rate per 100,000 among the unvaccinated was the second lowest among each vaccination group.

Unfortunately, a follow-up report published by the ONS on 6th July 2022, proves that things did not improve for the vaccinated population.

In fact, things got so bad that by the end of May 2022, mortality rates were lowest among the unvaccinated in every age group in England, and highest among those who received one, two, or three doses of the vaccine.

Click to enlarge
Click to enlarge

A more detailed analysis of the data contained in the above charts can be read here,

But the pattern doesn’t stop there. The data shows that not only does this pattern persist in all-cause deaths, but each dose of the vaccine also causes a significant increase in Covid-19 deaths.

Between March and July 2021, the vaccinated accounted for the majority of Covid-19 deaths in England, with the one-dose vaccinated accounting for 66% of those deaths.

The pattern repeated itself over the next five months, with deaths nearly tripling, and the two-dose vaccinated accounting for the majority of deaths at 83%.

And in the five months between January and May 2022, deaths again increased, with the triple vaccinated accounting for the majority at 82%.

The evidence is clear and undeniable: the vaccines have been and are still killing people, with the deadly consequences being fully realised approximately five months after each vaccination.

This is a tragedy of epic proportions,

Friday, December 29, 2023

A silken web

I can make no end of vcomments regarding trade and labor and it is often subject to a guess at best when it comes to hard numbers.  This is where silk comes in so handy.  We know how much labor was needed to produce it all and that it represented real value to everyone everywhere.

It took a thousand years for the name to travel across Asia.  That tells us how fast real knowledge traveled during the stone age.  and we neded to know that because it was important.

Nothing really stood still or was blocked from transmission if it was important.

all this means is that silk provided an independent currency for global trade forever and could even act as a natural mirror for price comparisons.

A silken web

From its mythic beginnings in a Chinese garden, the story of silk is a window into how weaving has shaped human history

Some say that history begins with writing; we say that history begins with clothing. In the beginning, there was clothing made from skins that early humans removed from animals, processed, and then tailored to fit the human body; this technique is still used in the Arctic. Next came textiles. The first weavers would weave textiles in the shape of animal hides or raise the nap of the fabric’s surface to mimic the appearance of fur, making the fabric warmer and more comfortable.

The shift from skin clothing to textiles is recorded in our earliest literature, such as in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, where Enkidu, a wild man living on the Mesopotamian steppe, is transformed into a civilised being by the priestess Shamhat through sex, food and clothing. Judaism, Christianity and Islam all begin their accounts of their origins with a dressing scene. A naked Adam and Eve, eating from the forbidden tree, must flee the Garden of Eden. They clothe themselves and undertake a new way of life based on agriculture and animal husbandry. The earliest textile imprints in clay are some 30,000 years old, much older than agriculture, pottery or metallurgy.

Persian Carpet Dealer on the Street (1888) by Osman Hamdi Bey (1842-1910). Nationalgalerie der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons

In the 21st century, the Silk Roads have re-emerged as the catch-all name for a highly politicised infrastructure project across Asia. The name Silk Roads comes from the origin and spread of sericulture – the practice of making silk fibres – in which Chinese women have played a special role. The discovery of silk fibres is attributed to the Empress Ling Shih, known as Lei Zhu. Legend says a silk cocoon fell into her cup and began to unravel in the hot tea water while she sat under a mulberry tree. Another legend tells that it was a Chinese princess who brought sericulture out of China to the Kingdom of Khotan by hiding silkworm eggs in her hair when she was sent to marry the Khotanese king.

In Modern Chinese, sī (絲, ‘silk, thread, string’) is commonly reconstructed as Middle Chinese *si. Linguists believe that the word journied via nomadic tribes in western China who also adapted the Mongolian word sirkeg (‘silk fabric’) and the Manchu sirge or sirhe (‘silk thread, silk floss from a cocoon’). The Greek noun sērikón and Latin sēricum come from the same Chinese root. The English word silk, Old Norse silki and Scandinavian silke – transferred into Finnish and Karelian as silkki, Lithuanian šilkas, and Old Russian šĭlkŭ – all have the same origin in Chinese. It took approximately one millennium for the word ‘silk’ to travel from China to northern Europe via Central Asia and Iran: 10,000 kilometres in 1,000 years.

In ancient Asia, silk was valuable and coveted, even by the powerful. It is said that in the year 1 BCE, China paid off invaders from the north with 30,000 bolts of silk, 7,680 kg of silk floss and 370 pieces of clothing. Among the less powerful, textiles possessed even greater value. We know from 3rd- and 4th-century Kroraina kingdom legal documents (from Chinese Turkistan, present-day Xinjiang province) that the theft of ‘two jackets’ could occasion a crime and that ‘two belts’ were significant enough to appear in wills.

Silk became the symbol of an extravagance and decadence

The classical Greek and Roman world thought of India as the site of great textiles and garments. The Romans marvelled at Indian saffron (Crocus indicus), a precious spice and dye plant yielding a bright yellow. Indigo was among the most valuable commodities traded from Asia. Diocletian’s Edict of Maximum Prices of 301 CE tells us that one Roman pound of raw silk cost the same as nine years’ wages of a smith.

In Rome, silk became the symbol of an extravagance and decadence that some saw as corrupt and anti-Roman. Cleopatra was also said to wear quite inappropriate clothing of Chinese origin, revealing her breasts and therefore also her vanity, and indicating loose morals and greed. The Roman emperor Elagabalus was described contemptuously by his contemporary Herodian, who wrote that the ruler refused to wear traditional Roman clothes because they were made of inferior textiles. Only silk ‘met with his approval’.

The Roman poet Horace dismissed women who wore silk, arguing that its lightness meant that ‘you may see her, almost as if naked … you may measure her whole form with your eye.’

Wall painting of two young Roman women wearing fine translucent fabric. Roman, 1-75 CE. Gift of Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman. Photo by J Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

The technology behind silk had long been a historical puzzle. The recent archaeological discovery of a 2nd-century BCE Han dynasty burial chamber of a woman in Chengdu has now solved it. Her grave contained a miniature weaving workshop with wooden models of doll-sized weavers operating pattern looms with an integrated multi-shaft mechanism and a treadle and pedal to power the loom. Europeans wouldn’t devise the treadle loom, which enhances power, precision and efficiency, for another millennium.

Chengdu loom model (digital reconstruction). Photo courtesy China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province

This technology, known as weft-faced compound tabby, also emerged in the border city of Dura-Europos in Syria and in Masada in Israel, dating to the 70s CE. We can, however, be confident that the technique known as taqueté was first woven with wool fibre in the Levant. From there, it spread east, and the Persians and others turned it into a weft-faced compound twill called samite. Samites became the most expensive and prestigious commodity on the western Silk Roads right up until the Arab conquests. They were highly valued international commodities, traded all the way to Scandinavia.

Fragments of silk samite from fabric no 1 from Oseberg, as drawn by Sofie Krafft. Photo by Ann Christine Eek. © Museum of Cultural History, Oslo, Norway

In Norway in 834 CE, two women were buried in the large Oseberg Viking ship, loaded with silk textiles, including more than 110 silk samite pieces cut into narrow, decorative strips. Most of the Oseberg silk strips are of Central Asian origin and they were probably several generations old when they were buried. The old Norse sagas speak of exquisite fabrics that were perhaps samites, even calling them guðvefr, literally ‘God-woven’.

These samite strips could have come to Scandinavia via close contact with the Rus communities settled along the Russian rivers, who could negotiate favourable conditions of trade with Byzantium. We know from historical sources that if a Rus merchant lost a slave in Greek territory, he would be entitled to compensation in the form of two pieces of silk. However, Byzantia also set a maximum purchase allowance for the Rus, and the maximum price for silk was 50 bezants. These silks that the Rus were trading in Byzantium, and then again with the Scandinavians, came from the Syrian cities of Antioch, Aleppo and Damascus.

Most early medieval silks in Europe are Byzantine, not Chinese. The Scandinavians also exported fur products to Asia that fuelled luxury consumption in Byzantium and eastwards, including coats, but also trimmings for hats and boots, and hems for kaftans and collars. The combination of fur and silk remained popular in prestige clothing to the Renaissance kings of Europe, and still exists in royal ermine robes.

Under the Muslim dynasties of the Umayyads (661-750), the Abbasids (750-1258), the Ilkhanids (1256-1335) and the Mamluks (1250-1517), diplomatic clothing gifts evolved into robes of honour. In Arabic, these are called khilʿa or tashrīf, and they are precious garments that a ruler would bestow upon his elites. They would then wear them to show loyalty. Silk gift-giving worked in both directions, it seems, and a caliph might receive hundreds of garments from one of his subjects.

A huge textile industry, private as well as royal, flourished in Baghdad in the 9th to 10th centuries, employing at least 4,000 people in silk and cotton manufacturing alone. Precious dyes, such as kermes from Armenia, offered opportunities for exclusive designs of bright-red fabric. Early Islamic scholars praise Central Asia not only for its silk but also for its wool, linen, fur and especially fine cotton. The 10th century also saw the spread of Islam, and the advance of trade networks lead to a renaissance in West African weaving and textile production.

The Rules and Regulations of the Abbasid Court state that, in the year 977 CE, the wealthy Adud al-Dawla sent the caliph gifts of 500 garments in a full range of qualities, from the finest to the coarsest – an excellent example of ‘silken diplomacy’. The Abbasid dynasty invested in palace textile workshops producing sophisticated patterns and techniques, such as the renowned tirāz. Originally a Persian loan-word, the term tirāz eventually became used for exquisite decorated or embroidered fabrics with in-woven inscriptions of the name of the ruler or praising Allah.

The silk tapestry roundel unites symbolic and aesthetic concepts from both the Islamic and Chinese realms

The purpose of tirāz textiles, at least to begin with, may have been a form of tax or tribute that was paid by provinces in Central Asia to honour new rulers when they took power. The term also came to be the name for a workshop where such exquisite fabrics with inscriptions were produced. The author Ibn Khaldūn, who wrote in the 14th century, dedicated a whole chapter to tirāz textiles in his book Muqaddimah:
Royal garments are embroidered with such a tirāz, in order to increase the prestige of the ruler or the person of lower rank who wears such a garment, or in order to increase the prestige of those whom the ruler distinguishes by bestowing upon them his own garment …

A 14th-century silk and metal-thread slit tapestry roundel. At its centre, an elegant ruler is seated on his throne, clad in a blue and gold robe or kaftan girded by a golden belt. He has a beard and a Persian-style crown, and is flanked by two seated noblemen, both wearing kaftans; on the right side is a Mongol prince or general, under whose foot is a blue tortoise, a typical Chinese symbol of longevity and endurance. Behind the throned ruler stand two guards wearing the same helmet-like hats. The medallion is decorated with an outer band of good wishes woven in Arabic golden letters, and inner bands of animals and imaginary creatures. Photo by Pernille Klemp, courtesy of David’s Collection, Copenhagen/Wikimedia Commons

The Abbasid rule ended in 1258 when Baghdad was conquered by the Mongols under the command of Hulegu, a grandson of Chinggis Khan. Hulegu took the title of Il-Khan to signal that he was subordinate to the Great Mongol Khans of China. One of his successors is portrayed in a silk tapestry roundel, uniting symbolic and aesthetic concepts from both the Islamic and Chinese realms (see image above). The depicted figures – Mongols, Persians and Arabs – manifest the union of ethnic and political groups in an idealised image of the Pax Mongolica. The technical features of this tapestry, made using a gold thread with a cotton core, suggest it may have been made in a cotton-growing region yet woven by Chinese weavers. The Mongols are famous for many things; it is less well known that they were great patrons of arts, crafts and textiles. The Ilkhanid dynasty ruled for some generations until it collapsed around 1335.

European imports of silks from China and Central Asia rose steadily in the Middle Ages. In 1099, after the capture of Jerusalem by the knights of the First Crusade, they increased again. The creation of Christian states in the Holy Land opened new trade routes, which facilitated the rise of the Italian city-states. The westward expansion of the Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan and his successors also helped augment the power of these Italian trading centres. Great quantities of raw silk coming into Italy helped stimulate creative and technological progress in Europe, generating new techniques and patterns as well as new technologies. The lampas or woven fabrics especially fuelled innovation in patterning and the introduction of the treadle loom in medieval Europe.

While China was an important source of silk and other goods, South Asia had long been part of exchange networks linking the Indian Ocean world with the Gulf, Africa, Europe, and South-East and East Asia. Economic and political shocks from the 14th century led to surging prices for silk in European markets. The value of silk thread per ounce approached the price of gold.

In the early 15th century, the Chinese white mulberry (Morus alba) began to be successfully cultivated in Europe, in particular in Lombardy in Italy. We should not think of European silk cultivation and silk weaving only as a short business venture or a mere adjunct to Chinese or Asian dominance. Italy remained a leading global producer over several centuries, first of silk fabrics and then of silk threads, maintaining its position as the world’s second largest exporter of silk threads after China into the 1930s. To this day, Italian capacity and expertise in silk production survives.

The most famous legend tells of two monks who smuggled silkworm eggs to Europe

New silk institutions also emerged. In Valencia in Spain, between 1482 and 1533, the ‘Silk Exchange’ was erected to regulate and promote the city’s trade. It served as a financial centre, a courthouse for arbitration to solve commercial conflicts, and a prison for defaulting silk merchants.

The Hall of Columns in the Lonja de la Seda or ‘Silk Exchange’ in Valencia, built 1482-1533. A UNESCO World Heritage Site of cultural significance, its impressive pillars are shaped like z-spun threads. Photo Trevor Huxham/Flickr

Many legends arose around silk, primarily because of its value, with the technology of sericulture and silk production jealously guarded in China for millennia. Perhaps the most famous legend tells of two monks who smuggled silkworm eggs to Europe, thus breaking the production monopoly and revealing how silk was made.

In the second half of the 17th century, Paris became the centre of European textile production, design and technique. This included the emergence of a luxury shopping environment of boutiques and fashion houses. Fashion magazines such as Le Mercure galant reported on style and new trends from the royal court. The largest Parisian fashion houses, such as the Gaultier family business, supplied the wardrobes of the royal family and the nobility, and held shares in the French East India Company. King Louis XIV and his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert invested in fashion and textile production as an important innovative sector to showcase France’s greatness.

Illegal imports of foreign textiles and luxury copies posed a challenge for French trade and domestic production. French consumers had a large desire for foreign textiles, and colourful, cheap fabrics flooded the market. Illicit products from Asia arrived via trading posts in the Philippines and Mexico, putting pressure on European fabrics and fashionable goods in terms of price and quality. King Louis XIV of France and his grandson, Philip V of Spain, sent Jean de Monségur, an industrial and commercial spy, on a mission to Mexico City to collect intelligence on the legal and illegal trade between India, China and Europe. His detailed intelligence report addressed the trade in textiles, clothing and fashion. With great concern, he wrote:
[T]he Chinese have got hold of our patterns and designs, which they have utilised well and can today produce quality goods, although not everything that comes from over there can match the European standard … The times are over when one could assume that the Chinese are clumsy, without talent or trade talent, or that their goods are not in demand.

Monségur also noted that Chinese silks were highly competitive because of their lower prices. In Mexico, even commoners wore Chinese silk clothing.

When the victorious Mongols conquered new land, they selected artisans, especially weavers, and saved their lives because they were crucial to the expanding empire’s needs and ambitions. These skilled craftspeople were then ordered to settle where the empire needed them, hence the large-scale forced movements of textile workers within the Mongol Empire.

Beginning in the 15th century, the colonisation of the Americas brought about the largest forced textile labour movement in history. It forcibly displaced some 13 million people, transporting them from West Africa to the Caribbean and North America. Coerced labour was central in the establishment and development of a textile industry heavily dependent on cotton and indigo. Even today, cotton harvesting is very labour intensive: every year from September to October, millions of workers pick cotton in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, India, the United States and China. Cotton pledges have been signed by textile and fashion companies committed to banning forced labour in the cotton harvests, yet the massive need for labour and the low price of cotton are obstacles to these efforts.

‘Christmas greetings from the Danish West Indies’: postcard from the cotton plantation Bettys Hope on the island of Saint Croix, a Danish colony until 1917 and today part of the US Virgin Islands. Courtesy of the Royal Danish Library, Copenhagen

Some 60 per cent of the 40 million people employed by the garment industry today are in the Asia-Pacific region. Working conditions and pay levels are often poor, in part because of the pressure to lower production costs. Implications for the health and safety of workers are often terrible: for example, when the poorly constructed Rana Plaza complex in Bangladesh collapsed in 2013, more than 1,100 garment workers lost their lives.

Everyone knows that clothing can symbolise power, legacy, glory, as well as ethnic or national identity and aspirations. In male power-dressing, we observe over time how clothing emphasises the ruler’s head, shoulders and torso, and a belt highlights bodily strength. Jewellery, weapons and other royal insignia serve as garnish. The choice of simple clothes, preferred by many Left-wing leaders, also projects meanings – and the source of their power.

The last emir of Bukhara, Alim Khan (1880-1944), dressed in a deep-blue silk robe. Photo by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons

Among the elite in many parts of Eurasia, Western dress practices became symbolic of a progressive mindset. In the late 17th century, Peter the Great imposed Western clothing on the civil administration of Russia. In Meiji-era Japan, the ruler and his family adopted full Western attire. The Japanese emperor would wear the sebiro, the Japanese term for ‘suit’ derived from Savile Row, the London street that was home to the finest gentlemen’s tailors.

Emperor Meiji in 1873, dressed in Western military parade uniform and with an admiral’s hat. Photo by Uchida Kuichi (内田九一) (1844-75). Albumen silver print from glass negative with applied colour. Courtesy of The Met Museum, New York

In the early 20th century, clothing became so accessible and cheap that rulers could demand that their subjects dress in a certain way and adapt their clothing to the ruler’s politics. They wanted the general population to mirror the rulers’ values, political beliefs and ambitions. For example, in 1925, the Greek dictator Theodoros Pangalos imposed a law stipulating that women’s dresses should not rise more than 30 cm from the ground. The same year, Ataturk’s Hat Law was passed in Turkey, another historical example of clothing regulations being used as a political instrument to orient, redress or change the mentality of an entire society. Wearing a Western hat and abandoning the traditional Ottoman and Islamic headgear of the turban and fez became a political act of adherence to the Kemalist republic. Men’s headgear became a potent symbol of ideology, and the ‘wrong’ hat was penalised with fines and, occasionally, even with capital punishment.

At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Winston Churchill wears a civilian double-breasted wool coat, Franklin D Roosevelt, a civilian suit under a cape with tresses and a fur collar, and Stalin, a double-breasted Soviet uniform whose design mirrors both earlier Tsarist and 20th-century European uniforms. A Persian carpet from western Iran forms a connection between them all. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia

In the 20th century, military uniform design and cut followed those of the country’s allies and ambitions. We can see this in the military uniforms used across Eurasia during the Cold War, with a ‘communist’ style in countries allied with the Soviet Union or China, versus the ‘capitalist’ NATO styles used by the West’s allies.

Throughout the world, rulers have tried to control people by regulating their clothing

It is notable that textile metaphors gained currency to represent both the reign of the Cold War, with its ‘Iron Curtain’, and the period’s historic end in 1989, with the ‘Velvet Revolution’ in Czechoslovakia. The expressions play on both the softness of fabric (velvet) and its capacity to cover and conceal (curtain). In popular culture, it was denim and blue jeans that caught the imagination of young people in the East, as symbols of youth and of political and moral freedom. The name ‘denim’ comes from the French city of Nîmes in Occitanie, a major producer of blue dye from woad (Isatis tinctoria) and synonymous with workers’ blue cotton cloth. The word ‘jeans’ connects to the French name of Gênes and the Italian city of Genova, from where such coarse fabrics were exported.

Throughout history, and throughout the world, rulers have tried to control people by regulating their clothing. Regulations can be prescriptive or proscriptive, and carry gendered and social meanings and ramifications. Dress codes – from the military to school uniforms – indicate political and social alignment, to visually express unity, loyalty and adherence. Meanwhile, bans, prohibitions or censure of the dress practices of certain individuals or groups aim to exclude. When the Chinese emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, took the throne in 1368, he banned the former regime’s style of clothing, branding it ‘barbaric’, and ordered a return to the clothing style of the Han dynasty.

Clothing regulations can be social or legal, and across Eurasia many have attempted to regulate how people dress to enforce an ideal, or to protect national production from foreign imports. Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptus, meaning ‘expense’) could regulate both manufacturing and trade, as well as national moral economies that would influence consumption patterns and values. They represented social, gendered and racial hierarchies, and expressed them visually. Many regulated the use of jewellery and the practices surrounding feasts or funerals. The main objective was always directed at dress practices, with greater significance given to fabrics, fibres, weave and decoration than to cuts and tailoring. In Lima, Peru – in Spanish colonial America – sumptuary laws stipulated that women of African or mixed African and European descent were prohibited from wearing woollen cloth, silks or lace – though forbidden luxury fabrics often simply reappeared as cheaper copies, and trade labels were faked.

Fabric merchant in Samarkand, photographed between 1905 and 1915 by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. The merchant’s goods include striped silks, printed cotton, wool fabrics, and carpets. He wears a white turban and a silk kaftan adorned with Chinese-inspired floral motifs. Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress

As globalisation intensified, it brought about technological breakthroughs in transport, communication and trade, through which dress has become more standardised, with many rich and diverse clothing cultures of the world diminished. Fortunately, the early 20th-century photographers Albert Kahn and Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii captured the clothing of many glorious local traditions of Central Asia. Today, we can see some of these local costumes only in tourist shows and museums.

Not surprisingly, we know much more about the textiles and clothing of the elite than about the attire of ordinary people on the Silk Roads. Archaeology can help. The Chehrābād tunic belonged to a salt-mine worker, perhaps trapped and killed when the mine collapsed around 400 CE. It was woven of monochrome cotton cut and sewn into a knee-length tunic with long sleeves. Perhaps the tailor knew the body size of the worker or about his hard toil in the salt mines, since gussets were inserted in the armpit areas and at the hips to provide him with greater freedom of movement. Weaving mistakes occur in many places, as if woven in a hurry, or maybe because this was, after all, a work outfit.

The history of textile production has always been linked to cheap labour. Shepherding, sericulture, and cotton and flax cultivation require many hands, time, constant tending, efficiency, and standardised tools and techniques. The mechanisation of the clothing industry and of textile production therefore produced dramatic change. Richard Arkwright’s inventions in the 18th century were put into industrial-scale production when the English entrepreneur introduced the spinning frame, adapted it to use waterpower, and patented a rotary carding engine. Arkwright’s achievement was to combine power, machinery, semi-skilled labour and a new raw material, cotton, to create mass-produced yarn.

European ladies wore fashionable, soft pashmina shawls with Iranian and Central Asian paisley patterns

The French city of Lyon took advantage of geographical advantages that helped it become the centre of a silk ‘tiger economy’. The hill of Croix-Rousse housed factories, with every street filled with the clamorous sounds of mechanical looms. With its 30,000 canuts (the nickname for Lyon’s silk workers), this industrious district turned Lyon into a major hub for textile production, especially silk-weaving, providing garments for the royal court and the nobility of Europe.

In the social world of the rising 18th- and 19th-century Western bourgeoisie, we find many products of the Silk Roads, both in textiles and designs. Ladies wore fashionable, soft pashmina shawls with Iranian and Central Asian paisley patterns – a style that had travelled from representing the bonds between Britain and its empire in Asia. Young and fashionable women in European royal families would inspire others to wear these colourful soft shawls as a new accessory. One of the most iconic ‘influencers’ was Empress Joséphine of France who integrated pashmina fabrics and paisley patterns into her wardrobe.

Portrait of Empress Joséphine (c1808-9) by Antoine-Jean Gros. Courtesy of the Musée Masséna, Nice/Wikipedia

Women of the Spanish Empire would wear the mantón de Manila, also known as the Spanish shawl, which takes its name from Manila in the Philippines, from where it was traded eastwards over the Pacific into the Spanish Empire of the Americas. Originally, it was a silk garment adorned with embroidery, and woven in Southern China, which was traded from the late 16th century via Manila and the Spanish-American colonies, then further into Europe via Spain.

Russian girls in a rural area 500 km north of Moscow, photographed by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii in 1909. Industrially woven, colourful printed fabrics were accessible even in remote villages, and likely used, re-used, sewn and mended. At this time, dyes were chemically bonded and developed from the industrial competition between Germany, France and the UK in the race to patent new synthetic dyes. Courtesy of the Library of Congress

In An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith wrote that trade was not only mutually beneficial to trade partners but to society as a whole. To illustrate his argument, he explored the competitive advantages of cloth compared with wheat. Textile production was to Smith a sign of economic dynamism. It was only following the French Revolution that clothing regulations were abolished and the nation’s citizens could dress as they wished: ‘Everyone is free to wear whatever clothing and accessories of his sex that he finds pleasing.’ However, the very same decree stipulated the obligation to visibly wear the cocarde knot of red, white and blue ribbons, emblematic of the French Revolution. It was implicitly asserted that clothing should be gender-appropriate and respect earlier dress regulations.

Two Germans with particular textile histories would revolutionise the political landscape of the 19th century. Friedrich Engels was the scion of the family behind the cotton company Baumwollspinnerei Ermen & Engels in western Germany, and he settled in the English city of Manchester, a leading centre for global cotton trade and manufacture. Karl Marx was greatly influenced by his close friend Engels and by the textile industry in particular. In Das Kapital (1867), Marx illustrated his arguments about the working classes by referring to the Lumpenproletariat – or the ‘proletariat of rags’ – and by using the example of an overcoat as an allegory for the measure of labour, resources, technology and the uneven rewards of capitalism.

‘Drilling and training for the revolution, spinning and weaving for the people’: Chinese poster, 1974. Courtesy of the Landsberger Collection/

In the 20th century, political transformations and new economic conditions and ideologies have negatively impacted artisanal weaving and other kinds of traditional crafts globally. Much intangible textile craft culture has been lost; new technologies have made handicrafts obsolete or very expensive; urbanisation has standardised fashion; and people no longer want to carry out what is seen as tedious textile work.

The word ‘text’ comes from Latin texere (‘to weave’), and a text – morphologically and etymologically – indicates a woven entity. We can therefore say that history starts not with writing but with clothing. Before history, there was nudity, at least in the Abrahamic tradition; clothing thus marks the beginning of history and society. The representation of nudity as part of a wild and pre-civilised life mirrors the European colonial perspective of the naked human as ‘wild’.

Across the world today, there are two main ways to dress: gendered into male and female, and stylistically into clothing tailored to fit the body, or draped/wrapped around it like the Roman toga or the Indian sari. Fitted clothing dominates globally, especially after the Second World War, with blue jeans and T-shirts now ubiquitous across all continents.

Today, a T-shirt on sale in any shop around the world is the result of a finely meshed web of global collaboration, trade and politics. From cotton fields in Texas or Turkmenistan, to spinning mills in China, garment factories in Southeast Asia, printers in the West, and second-hand clothing markets in Africa, a T-shirt travels thousands of kilometres around the world in its lifetime. On average, a Swede purchases nine T-shirts annually, and even if they are made to last 25 to 30 washes, consumers tend to discard them before. Greenpeace found that Europeans and North Americans, on average, hold on to their clothes for only three years. Some garments last only for one season, either because they fall out of fashion, or because the quality of the fabric, tailoring and stitching is so poor that the clothes simply fall apart.

This is the impact of fast fashion that has taken hold since the beginning of the 21st century: for millennia, clothing had always been expensive, worth repairing and maintaining, and made to last. Along with the acceleration of consumption came falling prices and an ever-narrowing margin for profit. The fast-fashion business model requires seamless global trade, inexpensive long-distance transportation, cheap flexible labour and plentiful natural resources. That equation is changing in a world that is warming and where trade barriers are coming up. The future of fabrics, textiles and clothing is bound up in the great themes of the present – and the future.