Monday, July 22, 2024

Diamond could be the super semiconductor the US power grid needs



The transition from silicon to carbon is well underway.  We are actually mastering it all.

this was predictable with the discovery of graphene and improving synthesizing tech.  We will get there.

now do recall that ufos are manufactured with all this along with amorphous metal to generate hte frequencies needed to drive dark matter out.  just saying.

Also modern battery tech is also fully entering the whole power grid just because it produces a massive jump in efficiency.  Store power on demand in your neighborhood.  no further line loss.

Diamond could be the super semiconductor the US power grid needs

The hidden semiconductor abilities of diamonds could help power grids and electric vehicles manage far greater amounts of electricity more efficiently



16 July 2024



Diamond has excellent semiconductor properties

Richard Kail/Science Photo Library

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2439812-diamond-could-be-the-super-semiconductor-the-us-power-grid-needs/

As the US power grid struggles with a historic rise in electricity demand, diamond semiconductors could greatly improve the energy efficiency of AI data centres and electric vehicles, as well as smaller consumer electronics. That is why the US government is betting millions of dollars on developing new power electronics technologies based on diamond.

People use power electronics, devices that convert electricity between the voltage and current required by the power grid and the levels used in an electronic gadget, every time they charge their phones, tablets or laptops. Power electronics also convert stored battery energy into usable power for EV motors and ensure that commercial solar and wind power can be transported efficiently to distant customers.



But the silicon semiconductors used in modern power electronics cannot handle the mounting pressure being placed on the US electrical grid. In order to supply the growing electricity demand from factories and data centres, and to support more electric vehicles and heat pumps as part of US decarbonisation goals, the grid must transmit more power at a higher voltage level than it currently does. A new generation of power electronics is required to quickly and efficiently manage this surge.

“Those devices have to be capable of handling larger currents and voltages,” says Olga Spahn, program director at the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). The agency expects that by 2030, about 80 per cent of all electric power in the US will pass through power electronics devices. “That is why we are interested in ultra-wide bandgap materials, and diamond is one of those,” she says.

ARPA-E has dedicated $42 million through the ULTRAFAST programme to improving the performance limits of silicon semiconductors, along with those of wide and ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor materials. Wide and ultra-wide bandgap materials are categories of semiconductors that can withstand much higher temperatures, voltages and frequencies than silicon. As a result, power electronics based on these materials could be more energy efficient and handle significantly higher power levels than silicon ones.


Wide bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide and gallium nitride are gaining popularity, and devices based on ultra-wide bandgap semiconductors – such as diamond, aluminium gallium nitride and aluminium nitride – have also been in development. Diamond could deliver the greatest benefits of them all.

“Diamond has fundamentally the best properties of any semiconductor material that we have,” says Lars Voss at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. He describes diamond as one of a few out of a “whole zoo of potential material options” that is under serious consideration for future power electronics.




How incredibly simple tech can supercharge the race to net zero




Diamond devices could be far smaller than their silicon counterparts while having three orders of magnitude lower on-resistance – meaning greatly reduced energy loss – and handling far more power, says Can Bayram at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Such diamond devices could also operate at temperatures beyond 700°C (1292°F) and dissipate heat more effectively than other semiconductors, whereas silicon devices typically cannot function beyond 200°C (392°F).

Another key benefit is that diamond as a material can be made in a lab, whereas other semiconductor materials may incorporate rarer mined elements such as gallium. “Diamonds are just carbon, a light and simple element,” says Bayram.

Bayram is currently developing a diamond semiconductor switching device through projects funded by the ARPA-E programme. The diamond-based device is an updated version of a “photoconductive” semiconductor switch – it is triggered by ultraviolet light instead of electrical signals. This design decision avoids the need for control circuitry that may produce electromagnetic interference.

Similarly, Voss and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory team are developing a diamond transistor device that could support more than 6 kilovolts of power – double that of commercial semiconductors – when arranged in a series of several transistors. Their ARPA-E-funded project is also using light to control the device.





A transistor switch made from synthetic diamond

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory



But diamond semiconductors still face major developmental hurdles. For example, a typical method of altering a material to make it a better semiconductor involves introducing other chemical elements. But it is still challenging to alter diamond’s properties in this way due to its extremely rigid crystalline structure.

To make this type of semiconductor cost-effective, companies will also need to produce diamond in large wafer sizes suitable for manufacturing many devices at once. Silicon devices, for example, are commonly made from 30-centimetre silicon wafers. But 10-centimetre diamond wafers only became commercially viable last year in the US and Europe, says Bayram.

“I am hopeful that we will see diamond semiconductor solutions in the grid around 2035 with increased effort, and at the latest by 2050,” he says.

Austin Private Wealth Shorted 12 Mil Shares of Trump Stock (Before 7/13)




Let me say something. this was a large trade and it had to be set up well ahead of time.  It was triggered the day before the event. and this fund would naturally tap any such inside knowledge.

understand we had positioning trading ahead of 9/11.  that is why my subconscious was on high alert the day before.  Again, just saying.

Things must be disparate when they risked showing their own hands.

All speculation of course and none of your business.


Austin Private Wealth Shorted 12 Mil Shares of Trump Stock (Before 7/13)



18 JULY 2024


Many of us woke to the conspiracy theory-worthy news that someone bet big against the future of Donald Trump ‘days’ before some kid tried to blow his head off.



BREAKING UPDATE

https://t.co/AQzDgKlgxb— legislation (@legislationpage) July 18, 2024


My natural reaction was that this was way too obvious a move but not beyond the pale, so I looked for more details.

https://granitegrok.com/national/2024/07/austin-private-wealth-shotrted-12-mil-shares-of-trump-stock-before-7-13

So, on July 12th, a day before the assassination attempt, Austin Private Wealth reported a short position nominally equivalent to 12 million shares. It is huge: it represents approximately one-seventh of Trump’s ownership in the same company, or 16% of all available stock float not held by major insiders.

Is that a big deal? For my nonfinancial readers, here is a little introduction to puts. Austin Private Wealth’s position is in put options. Puts are financial instruments whose holder receives a payment if the underlying stock falls below the agreed price (the strike price) by a certain date. In such a case, the put option holder receives the difference. The more the stock falls, the more the put holder gains.



Chudov adds that the bets against Trump were likely filed weeks before, the reporting date having nothing to do with the actual date or dates the position was made. In other words, it didn’t happen on 7/12, the day before the Crooks family offspring took his shot(s), which deflates the shock but not the conspiracy.


Few, if any, elite globalist factions would shed a tear if Mr. Trump shuffled off his mortal coil or had it shuffled for him. The desire to see this as supporting evidence of any other theory revolving around the strange circumstances of 7-13-24 is strong, but the Deep State has a lot of irons in the fire, known and not. And while an assassination attempt is likely not surprising to any of our readers, any of those plans within plans could(may or will) have tanked DJT stock. There are likely other shoes to drop.

We must also remember that if we think the government is filled with idiots, we can’t have it both ways. They can’t both be bumbling fools and Moriarty. But we can agree that the government attracts people inclined to abuse power with a predisposition to abuse it to keep what they’ve got and profit from it.

I leave you to debate the particulars.

Why midlife is the perfect time to take control of your future health



It is fortunate that the enemy is unable to correctly determine the intent of GOD.

Yet this is how the other side was able to tell me that i would see my 100 th birthday.  And plausibly my 300 th birthday as well because of our advancing  science.  just saying.

and because i know this, if it does not work out that way, just who is going to care?

So yes, the take home today is to live your life as if you will reach 100. do those healthy things.  You will walk on stage it you do, just like George Burns and Bob hope.

Why midlife is the perfect time to take control of your future health

The lifestyle choices you make in middle age play a particularly important role in how your brain ages



17 July 2024

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg26335000-100-why-midlife-is-the-perfect-time-to-take-control-of-your-future-health/

Next year, I will be celebrating the big 4-0. It seems a little absurd. I feel barely any older than I did when I enjoyed my 20th birthday. I have hardly recovered from the ups and downs of adolescence, and now I am apparently staring down the barrel of midlife.

I have tried denial, but there is no escaping the truth. It is generally accepted that middle age begins at 40 and ends in our early 60s. And while the most visible signs might be the crinkled skin around my eyes and mouth, the latest research suggests that my brain will also undergo a series of important changes in this period. They include the accelerating shrinkage of certain brain regions, loss of connectivity across the brain and damage to neurons owing to inflammation – all of which appear to contribute to later cognitive decline.


You might think this would heighten my existential anxiety. But there is room for optimism, because it has also become clear that midlife offers a vital window of opportunity to preserve our brain’s health.

The upshot is that by making specific lifestyle changes in your 40s and beyond – some of which go beyond the obvious – you can reap immediate benefits to your memory and concentration. What’s more, with some persistence, you can boost your chances of maintaining a sharp and sprightly mind well into old age, while significantly reducing your risk of dementia. “It really isn’t too late to make a difference,” says Sebastian Dohm-Hansen at University College Cork in Ireland.

It is only within the past few years that researchers have started to take a meaningful interest in the transition between young adulthood and later life. “Middle age has been sort of sidelined a bit by the scientific community,” says Dohm-Hansen, who recently co-authored a paper that summarises the state-of-the-art research on the middle-aged brain.

The lack of interest was partly the product of practical challenges: if you want to understand a phenomenon like cognitive decline, it is far easier to detect the differences between people when the symptoms are already well-established. “You are going to see the clearest signals when measuring people who have 70 years of cumulative risk,” says Maxwell Elliott, a neuroscientist at Harvard University.

By this age, however, many of the changes may be irreversible, prompting researchers like Elliott and Dohm-Hansen to take a closer look at earlier life stages. “What you want to study is a period of life where there’s a lot of accelerating change, and that also presents an opportunity for intervention,” says Dohm-Hansen. “Increasingly, the field is starting to appreciate that this may be middle age.”

What happens at middle age?

Their research requires us to rethink a key assumption about ageing. In the past, it seemed natural to see age-related decline as a linear process. According to this model, most of our cognitive abilities reach their peak in our 20s and 30s, then steadily fall with time, so that the rate of change would be the same in our 50s as it was in our 20s.

When scientists tracked people’s brains over time, however, they found that many of the alterations happen in fits and starts – and middle age seems to mark a turning point.

Consider episodic memory, our capacity to remember the details of individual life events, which starts to decline increasingly rapidly over middle age. Of particular interest is an ability known as pattern separation, which prevents similar recollections from becoming confused. If you need to remember where you parked your car, for instance, you have to be able to differentiate today’s memory of driving into the car park from yesterday’s. For many people, that task becomes far more challenging as they enter their 50s and 60s.





Fitness in middle age seems to make a particular difference to dementia risk

Richard Gray



Such memory problems can be traced to changes in a brain region known as the hippocampus, which tends to slim down more rapidly in middle age, according to Dohm-Hansen. This area is known to be involved in the encoding of new information. According to one hypothesis, the brain starts to lose its ability to form new neurons during midlife, which makes it harder to build the distinct neural networks needed to differentiate the details of one memory from another.

Age-related scattiness may also come from changes to the brain’s connectivity, both structural and functional. The structural changes include the thinning of the brain’s white matter, long-distance axons coated in an insulting sheaf that carry signals from one region to another. “Some of these actually appear to peak in your early 40s, after which there is an ever-faster decrease in volume,” says Dohm-Hansen.

The functional connectivity concerns the ways that the brain organises its processing – which regions work together at which time. In younger adulthood, the processing appears to be more modular: we have very distinct networks that work on specific jobs. In much the same way that a clear partition of responsibilities can enhance the performance of a sports team, this is thought to improve efficiency. Once again, in middle age, we start to see significant changes occurring. At this time, the brain’s tight organisation starts to loosen up, with less segregation of the different networks. The magnitude of that change is strongly associated with your overall cognitive abilities and memory of everyday events, says Dohm-Hansen.




We may finally know how cognitive reserve protects against Alzheimer's




Like other forms of ageing, we each face an individual trajectory that may be markedly different from another person’s. Some of this variation may be hardwired in our DNA. People who carry a particular version of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene are considerably more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease, for example. Research by Teal Eich at the University of Southern California and her colleagues shows that the effects of this gene are invisible until middle age, after which the consequences for episodic memory become increasingly pronounced.

Our genes don’t seal our fates, however, with emerging evidence showing that the brain’s path through middle age is intimately linked to our overall health – which can be modified by lifestyle factors.

This tight coupling between body and mind was evident in one of Elliott’s studies, published in 2021. Working with a global team of scientists, he examined the records of 1037 people born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1972 and March 1973. The researchers chose 19 separate “biomarkers” that each indicate different elements of health as we get older, such as body mass index (BMI), hip-to-waist ratio, cholesterol, lung function, blood pressure, tooth decay and levels of an inflammatory molecule called C-reactive protein. “We wanted to measure ageing of the entire biological system,” says Elliott.

Pace of Aging

From these individual measurements, the researchers could calculate a single score representing the wear and tear on the participants’ organs – what they called a Pace of Aging (POA) score. These differed substantially from person to person, and they generally reflected outward signs of ageing. An individual’s POA seemed to correspond with other subjective judgements of their physical appearance, for example: the higher the score, the older they looked for their age.

Could the POA scores also reflect the speed of people’s neural decline? To find out, Elliott’s team examined brain scans and tests of cognitive performance. The results revealed a tight link between the body and the brain, particularly in middle age. At around 45, participants with higher POA scores showed faster deterioration of the hippocampus and greater loss of white matter, for instance. They also showed a larger drop in general intelligence. “People who are ageing faster, on average, lost a few IQ points,” says Elliott. “They were already losing a little bit of cognitive ability that might set the stage for things like dementia in old age.”

The precise mechanisms are still under investigation, but there are lots of potential routes through which these bodily biomarkers could influence the brain’s health. Obesity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, for example, individually and collectively increase the chance that the brain’s blood vessels become blocked or damaged, causing fluid to leak into the surrounding tissue, where it can harm neurons and their white matter – irreversible damage that begins in middle age.





Irreversible damage to brain cells can begin in middle age

JUAN GAERTNER/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/Alamy



Then there is inflammation. This is one of our body’s vital weapons against infection, but only when it is used sparingly. Unfortunately, the immune system can sometimes go awry, pumping out inflammatory molecules when there is no immediate threat. Over time, this wreaks havoc in the brain, killing its cells and breaking their links, and it is thought to contribute to the build-up of protein plaques in Alzheimer’s. “There’s evidence that some of these inflammatory processes accelerate during the midlife period,” says Dohm-Hansen.

The upshot is clear: if I want to start cultivating healthy habits, I had better start now, before the damage begins to accumulate. “From everything we know about the brain, it seems it’s pretty hard to get back something that has been lost,” says Elliott. “But you can prevent things from getting lost in the first place.” And middle age may be an especially important time to take action, regardless of the lifestyle choices you have made previously.
Healthy habits

That was the conclusion of the Lancet Commission on Dementia Prevalence, Intervention and Care, which examined the impact of various risk factors across the lifespan. It found that a few take on particular importance in middle age. For instance, while it is always advisable to manage our weight and control our alcohol consumption, the commission concluded that these behaviours have a particularly significant effect on our later dementia risk once we have reached our 40s. In other words, middle age is the prime time to cut down on the beers and burgers if we wish to preserve our minds later in life.

We might also get our ears tested. Following a conversation is a considerable mental workout and hearing loss can discourage us from engaging with others, depriving us of this cognitive exercise. “The easiest way to stimulate your brain is to just chat, and that makes your brain more resilient,” says Gill Livingston, a professor of psychiatry of older people at University College London, who led the Lancet commission.

Danilo Bzdok at McGill University, Canada, who has studied the effects of our relationships on our brain structure and function, has similar advice. “I would argue that the most complicated processes that most people’s brains compute on a daily basis is keeping track of and thinking about constantly changing social dynamics.” This may help explain why loneliness is associated with an increased risk of dementia – but it is by no means the only reason. Social isolation can be a potent form of stress that triggers inflammation, for instance, resulting in poorer overall health. Many people find their social circles dwindling in midlife, so this might be a prime time to look for ways of connecting with your community.





Middle age is the prime time to cut down on alcohol to preserve your mind in later life

Martin Parr/Magnum Photos



Last, but not least, we should watch our daily step count. It is now well known that exercise improves circulation and reduces inflammation in both the body and brain. It also triggers the release of brain-derived growth factor, a protein that helps maintain the health of our neurons and their links. As a consequence, maintaining a decent level of physical activity during middle and old age appears to slow the neural damage that typically accumulates with each passing year.

“Physical activity is very, very associated with a decreased risk of dementia in short and long-term follow-ups at all ages,” says Livingston. “But fitness at midlife seems to make a particular difference.”

This is good news for me. I have a BMI of 21 (in the “healthy” range) and – thanks to the flexibility of my working schedule – manage to walk or run more than 10 kilometres a day. I could try to increase that activity, but Dohm-Hansen warns that excessive exercise regimes may do more harm than good. “If you do too much of it, intense exercise can increase inflammation quite dramatically,” he says. Maintaining moderate exercise is more than enough – and far more achievable for most people.

Public health campaigns have already improved middle-aged health and fitness in many different countries and this may be why we are seeing a noticeable difference in people’s mental acuity. Although the total number of people getting dementia is rising with the increasing life expectancy of the world’s population, the relative proportion of people developing the condition within each age group is shrinking – a ray of light that is often obscured in the popular discourse.




How to keep your brain healthy: The 7 things you should do every day




“This is associated with greater education, decreased cigarette smoking and decreased hypertension,” says Livingston. The benefits for younger generations are substantial, with one analysis of data from the US and Europe concluding that the risk of developing dementia is falling by 13 per cent with each decade that passes. Livingston hopes that more targeted interventions will continue to build on these improvements. “It looks like there’s an absolutely enormous possibility of decreasing dementia,” she says.

Speaking to these scientists has certainly left me feeling a little more sanguine about the big 4-0. This change in mindset may itself improve my prognosis. As New Scientist recently explored, various studies show that people with rosier views of ageing tend to enjoy better health and a reduced risk of dementia in the years ahead. It may be that the positive attitudes encourage us to remain more active and reduce the sense of vulnerability that might set in as we get older, so we feel less stressed, all of which should enhance our mental and physical well-being. Whatever the reason, I am trying to see my 40s, 50s and 60s as a time of immense opportunity.

“When talking about middle age and its relevance to cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease, it does kind of sound a bit doom and gloom,” says Dohm-Hansen. “But it’s important to note that it’s part of the natural life course. The brain can start to leverage its compensatory mechanisms, and there’s plenty of room for intervention.”

Anti-aging drug extends life up to 25%, staves off frailty and disease




This is not the restoration of a youthful prime circa age 32, but an elimination of age related weakening that hinders us during our last third of life.

We all want to do this because it means actually been able to be both fit and be able to work again as well.  there is nothing wrong with hammering nails when ninety, so long as you are hale and healthy.  Real slow recovery sets in after forty, so this matters.

That is what ends most athletic careers folks.

Still up for a days work matters to all of us even at 100.

Anti-aging drug extends life up to 25%, staves off frailty and disease

July 18, 2024

Scientists are on the cusp of treatments to help us live longer and healthier



For the first time, scientists have demonstrated how a specific protein increases in our organs as we get older and actively promotes the aging process. By blocking this activity, it could not only help us live longer, but slow the physical decline that is, right now, an inevitable part of aging.


Researchers at Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore have previously undertaken three different studies to examine interleukin-11 (IL-11) protein expression and its role in heart and kidney, liver and lung health. The lattermost research has led to an experimental anti-IL-11 therapy that's currently in clinical trials to treat fibrotic lung disease.


Building on this work, the team identified IL-11's role in the aging process, with its increased production leading to fat accumulating in the liver and abdomen, as well as reduced muscle mass and strength. By blocking this protein expression, these hallmarks of aging could be drastically reduced.

"This project started back in 2017 when a collaborator of ours sent us some tissue samples for another project," explained first author Anissa Widjaja, an assistant professor at Duke-NUS. "Out of curiosity, I ran some experiments to check for IL-11 levels. From the readings, we could clearly see that the levels of IL-11 increased with age and that's when we got really excited."


In a preclinical mouse model, the researchers found that deleting this protein provided protection against age-related decline, frailty and disease. Deleting the IL-11 gene in mice extended the lives of the animals by an average of 24.9%. When mice were given an anti-IL-11 therapeutic at 75 weeks of age (the equivalent of around 55 human years) until death, the average lifespan of male mice was increased by 22.5% and 25% in female mice.

The mice didn't just live longer, they were shielded from key signs of aging. Anti-IL-11 therapy boosted metabolism, with the animals producing calorie-burning brown fat, not problematic stores of white fat, blocked the loss of muscle mass and strength, and protected against multimorbidity and cardiometabolic diseases.

"Despite average life expectancy increasing markedly over recent decades, there's a notable disparity between years lived and years of healthy living, free of disease," said Professor Thomas Coffman, Dean of Duke-NUS. "This discovery could be transformative, enabling older adults to prolong healthy aging, reducing frailty and risk of falls while improving cardiometabolic health."


Cancer is a leading cause of death in old mice, and autopsies in this study showed that inhibiting IL-11 expression significantly reduced this disease. (Clinical trials of an anti-IL 11 drug in combination with immunotherapy for cancer is in the pipeline.)

The therapy also benefited cell health across the board, reducing the rate of telomere shortening – which occurs every time a cell divides – and keeping the powerhouse mitochondria functioning efficiently. With an anti-IL-11 therapy already in the early phases of testing for fibrotic lung disease, the researchers have been pleased with its safety profile.

"Our aim is that one day, anti-IL-11 therapy will be used as widely as possible, so that people the world over can lead healthier lives for longer," said senior author Stuart Cook, Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at the SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical Center. "However, this is not easy, as approval pathways for drugs to treat aging are not well-defined, and raising funds to do clinical trials in this area is very challenging."

However, this may be one of the most promising treatments yet, as scientists continue their search for anti-aging's holy grail. It's estimated that slowing down the aging process in a way that increases life expectancy by a single year would be valued at US$38 trillion.

Saturday, July 20, 2024

Ancient giant armadillo bones reveal oldest human existence in America




Humanity arrived in the Americas around 20,000 years ago because they already used kayaks and their like and the sea level was at least 300 feet lower.  This meant that the entire Aleutians provided an ice dam and also a land bridge as well as local waters for movement.

So of course they came.  They also could have come even sooner using any form of floatation system.  Archeology tells us though that robust sea going natives existed over 20,000 years ago.

So here they are harvesting the big game.  and we know that they did that anyway.

Ancient giant armadillo bones reveal oldest human existence in America


July 17, 2024


A 3D rendering of how hunter-gatherers would have processed the meat from these large armored mammals

https://newatlas.com/biology/megafauna-humans-south-america/?

When scientists recently dug up fossilized bones of a species of megafauna by a riverbank in Argentina, they found something even more fascinating than the remnants of this glyptodont. On those bones they found the type of cut marks not inflicted by other animals but by stone tools, in the process of primitive butchering. This would put human presence in the area at 21,000 years ago – some 5,000 years before people were thought to have settled in the Americas, according to most estimates.


Megafauna hunted by humans

The discovery by the Reconquista River, in Merlo, Buenos Aires, made by a team of scientists from the Natural Sciences Museum of the National University of La Plata (UNLP) in 2016, also provides a new understanding of how humans interacted with these huge animals, whose populations dwindled until they finally went extinct around 10,000 years ago.


“The marks found show a very particular distribution pattern, characteristic of cuts made by human action, which are also observed in different parts of the tail of this specimen, which allowed us to establish that it was humans who used it as part of their diet," said Mariano Del Papa, a Doctor in Natural Sciences at UNLP.

The bones showed the tell-tale scars of stone-tool impacts, telling researchers they were inflicted by humans, not by the teeth of another animal
UNLP

When the well-preserved bones – a large plate from the pelvic girdle, caudal vertebrae and caudal tube – were arranged in the way they would have been found in a complete skeleton, the scientists found that the cut marks in the fossils were not consistent with the teeth of other animals, but followed the cutting patterns made by hunter-gatherers when removing meat from a carcass.


"Once the specimen was recovered from the site, the sediments containing the specimen were cleaned," said Del Papa. "This stage was documented in detail, recording the position of the anatomical units and the distribution of the sediments. These first results allowed us to realize that once the butchering tasks were carried out by the hunters, the remains underwent a rapid natural burial process, allowing an exceptional state of conservation for the study of the cut marks.”

Sediment testing from the dig site dated the bones to be around 21,000 years old
UNLP

Del Papa, with fellow researchers Martín de Los Reyes and Miguel Delgado Burbano, conducted radiocarbon dating of the bones and the riverside sediment they were encased in. They also performed a chemical analysis of that same soil, as well as 3D scans and quantitative analysis of the cuts.

"To determine the age of the animal, they relied on studies commonly used to define the age of stratigraphic and radiometric rocks," said de Los Reyes. "The glyptodont was found in the oldest layer or stratum, that is, at the base of the riverside ravines. Comparing it with previous geological studies in the area, the discovery was placed within the last glacial maximum of the Pleistocene, some 20,000 years before the present."

A reconstruction of a glyptodont, from what we have discovered so far

What they found was that this Neosclerocalyptus species – a two-tonne, heavily armored grass-eating armadillo – was hunted and butchered by humans some 5,000 years earlier than science believed that people had arrived in this part of the world.

"The paradigm of the settlement of the continent suggests that humans entered America about 16,000 years ago, but it turns out that in recent years much older evidence has begun to appear in Brazil, Canada, the United States and Mexico, among other places," said Delgado, a professor at the Faculty of Natural Sciences at UNLP. "There is a traditional view that says that these findings are anomalies, that it is not known exactly how they occurred, but there is a growing number of very serious studies published in the most prestigious scientific journals, which place the first entry between 20 and 30 thousand years ago."

Bilderberg Expert Advises Trump: He Must Destroy the Intelligence Apparatus




The threat of war is real but not actionable in reality.  Again we have unnatural rule by the dead dumb and stupid.  Sadly the DEEP STATE has drunk the cool - aid and is tracking suicide.

It can be fixed, but it is also true that our natural enemies must also be banded to instill real fear among them all.


The rich cannot recruit an army  to ever serve their stupidity.  to do it right, they would quickly bankrupt the works.


Bilderberg Expert Advises Trump: He Must Destroy the Intelligence Apparatus

https://mail.yahoo.com/d/folders/1/messages/AGuSk3F7zHEQZpmBEAxYKPzEMT8

Daniel Estulin joins Alex Jones live to reveal the war raging between the US intelligence Deep State and President Trump. Daniel offers his analysis, as a 24-year Russian military counterintelligence veteran.

From his point of view, recent events in the US appear to be propelling the world toward the "Multipolar World Order" championed by Vladimir Putin.

The alternative being offered by the One Word Order Atlanticists is genocide and "You will eat zee bugs."

The debt that has been deliberately run up by the US Government is not repayable, therefore, the continued existence of the United States, as we know it hangs in the balance. The Liberal Banking Elite (aka Atlanticists) need to trigger a force majeur in order to legally write-off that debt.

Enter World War III and a concomitant civil war in the US that splits the country in two – or three or four – or however many necessary to then impose the CBDC enslavement system controlled by the same Atlanticists via the Bank for International Settlements.

Daniel explains that there are two models before us: The Global Financiers, who are willing to destroy the United States, in order to survive vs Donald Trump (aka MAGA), who wants to save America.

Daniel asks, "What does Make America Great Again mean? It means the survival of the United States at the expense of these Global Liberal Banking Financiers. And this is exactly what Trump and this part of the Globalist Establishment Wing behind him [are trying to do]; you're trying to avoid the destruction of the United States.

"But the people who own the world money; the Rockefellers, the Rothschilds, they're Globalists. They're not American Citizens. You and I have talked about this, before. They may have American passports, but that's only because that's where the money is.

"They're Globalists, and they're willing to destroy the United States. Now, why – a lot of people don't understand – why would someone like David Rockefeller, who allegedly makes all his money in America – would want to destroy the United States? Because, they already own almost everything on Planet Earth that interests them. And...what they own no longer brings them an increase in their wealth, it only increases the cost, because there's nowhere else to expand. Because we've reached the "Limits to Growth" within a current economic model, which is Bretton Woods."

In other words, Daniel says the only way the Atlanticist Elite can continue to increase their wealth is by impoverishing – or eliminating and stealing the resources of – those beneath them on the social ladder.

In order for Globalist minions to survive and succeed, they must be in complete lockstep with the Liberal Banking Cartel's goals to collapse and dismantle the United States and to asset-strip everything (such as our National Parks).

This is the Treason being committed daily by people like Alejandro Mayorkas and countless other minions of the Biden administration, including members of the CIA-controlled mainstream media.


Daniel says the Western intelligence agencies are the main instruments driving this Atlanticist financial international policy, which is why Trump advocates for the abolition of the CIA, FBI, etc. – and needless to say, they're not going to forgive him for it.

Daniel says the 2024 Elections are essentially a race between a faction in the United States Establishment committed to maintaining a One World global empire, at the cost of destroying the United States and a faction committed to a robust, re-industrialized, more self-sufficient United States of America that, by definition would be part of a Multipolar World Order.

Daniel continues, "And the question before us is whether the United States administration can re-engineer the Federal Budget to a positive return on investment? If it does not succeed – again, if it does not succeed – we're entering a long, harsh financial squeeze. Worse, if tinkering with the US Constitution occurs and/or piratization takes over, I think we're looking at some serious trouble, ahead."

The everyday people of America are being crushed by the same Globalists who have been immiserating countries like Russia for centuries. This is why the Globalists fear any alliance between our peoples and why they attempt to smear Westerners who refuse to dehumanize Russians as "Russian Agents" and as "Putin's Puppet".

Daniel goes on to say that the US needs to have a civil war, in order to resolve the conflicts between the Woke Left, who have been brainwashed to hate America vs the more conservative Patriots, who want to save their country. I disagree with him that a civil war is necessary to accomplish this.

Should Trump manage to get back into the White House, there will be mass lay-offs of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of US Government bureaucrats but before that can happen, we may see the Deep State assassinate Biden, since he is no longer of use to them – and the false flag that they use may, indeed become the flashpoint that triggers the civil war that Daniel thinks that we "need".

The Odds That Aliens Exist Just Got Worse




The odds of life emerging on a planet surface anywhere is zero.  We have a lot of other reasons that those listed here.  Not least been that the whole surface of the Earth has been terraformed top to bottom to allow life to exist and thrive.


Now imagine the Moon acting as a gravity machine and coming down to lift half the earths crust of the mantle to form the Pacific Ocean around several billions of years ago.  BIG problem solved.  then going to a maintained standby orbit able to drive tidal action forever..


what is not zero is the production of planetary crusts under Cloud Cosmology that captures water on the inner surface to provide a safe life incubation zone powered by an inner physical sun.  This describes even the Suns and all large planets.  With this model, alien life exists profusely everywhere.

Essentially Newtonian based Cosmology naturally excludes life while my Cloud Cosmology promotes it.

The Odds That Aliens Exist Just Got Worse

How geology resolves the Fermi paradox.

BY MARCIA BJORNERUD
July 17, 2024

https://nautil.us/the-odds-that-aliens-exist-just-got-worse-716615/

The question of whether humanity is alone in the cosmos creates strange bedfellows. It attracts astronomers and abduction conspiracy theorists, pseudoarchaeology enthusiasts and physicists. And loads of science-fiction writers, of course, who have conjured extraterrestrials from Klaatu to Doctor Who. Douglas Adams imagined a galaxy so full of life that its interstellar travelers needed a Hitchhiker’s Guide.

Given the diversity of voices that have weighed in on the possibility that other civilizations may be out there, it is surprising that few geoscientists—people who study the one planet known to host life—have weighed in on the cosmic conundrum. Physicist Enrico Fermi’s famous question, “Where is everybody?” has long lacked a geological perspective.


Basic amenities we take for granted on Earth—continents, oceans, and plate tectonics—are cosmically rare.

That’s what Earth scientists Robert Stern and Taras Gerya offer in a recent paper published in Scientific Reports. Earlier speculations about extraterrestrial civilizations were based primarily on astronomical and technological considerations like the number of planetary systems in the galaxy and how long it might take an intelligent species to discover and begin using radio waves. That left little attention for the specific attributes of potential host planets—other than the presence or absence of water.

Stern is a geologist at the University of Texas at Dallas who studies the evolution of the continental crust, and Gerya is a geophysicist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology who models Earth’s internal processes. Their conclusion may disappoint extraterrestrial enthusiasts: The likelihood that other technologically sophisticated societies exist is smaller than previously thought, because basic amenities we take for granted on Earth—continents, oceans, and plate tectonics—are cosmically rare.

How can we estimate the number of alien civilizations that might exist? In the early 1960s, the radio astronomer Frank Drake conceived of an equation that many researchers still use to gauge how prevalent advanced extraterrestrial societies might be. Although the term “equation” suggests a certain level of precision, the Drake formulation is really no more than a crude, back-of-the-envelope guess at how many planets might conceivably host complex life—and have some possibility of communicating with us. Drake was optimistic about the possibility of interstellar communication: He later worked with Carl Sagan in developing the “Golden Record,” a gold-plated disc with information about Earth and human cultures that was launched in 1977 on a deep space journey aboard the Voyager I and II spacecrafts.

In the original equation, the estimated number of civilizations is a simple product of seven factors, or probabilities, multiplied together. Scientists have a fairly good handle on the first three of these for the Milky Way. There’s the rate of star formation in our galaxy; the fraction of those that have planets (probably most, given the burgeoning census of known exoplanets); and the average number of potentially habitable planets around such stars (based on how many would be sitting in the star’s “habitable zone,” the sweet spot where water can remain liquid).

The other four factors in the Drake equation grow successively more speculative. These are: the fraction of potentially habitable planets on which life likely has emerged (a variable that’s completely unconstrained, since only one case—ours—is known); the fraction of those planets on which intelligent life has developed (a criterion that often elicits dark humor about whether human life qualifies); the fraction of that fraction that have sent signals into deep space (again, just one known example, out-going calls only); and the length of time those civilizations have been sending such signals (to be determined).


Plate tectonics should be included as a criterion for planetary habitability.

The plus or minus values on the final product resulting from this formula are gigantic, and the “solution” to the Drake equation has been determined to be between 1,000 and 100,000,000 advanced civilizations in our galaxy (not 42, as Douglas Adams fans might have expected). While the size of this range is quite absurd, even the lower-end estimate of 1,000 suggests that we should have heard from someone by now. The fact that we haven’t encountered anyone is known as the “Fermi paradox.”

Bringing a geologic perspective to the problem, Stern and Gerya propose to resolve the paradox by adding two more factors to the already unwieldy Drake equation: the fraction of habitable planets with distinct continents and oceans; and the fraction of those planets with a plate tectonic system that has operated for at least 500 million years. The values of these terms are very small, they argue, because the development of distinct landmasses and water bodies, and the tectonic habit of crustal recycling—characteristics of Earth that we take for granted—are unlikely outcomes in the evolution of rocky planets.

With these new factors, the number of advanced civilizations in our galaxy that might communicate with us falls to … almost zero.

This seems plausible, given the grand sweep of Earth history: Although life had emerged and diversified by at least 3.5 billion years ago, it remained mainly unicellular until about 560 million years ago, when macroscopic marine organisms first appeared. It took another 100 million years before plants and animals began to move onto land, and a further 450 million for tool-making humans to show up. And we’ve only been transmitting signals for about 50 years.

Stern and Gerya assert that while “life must evolve in the sea, advanced communicative civilizations must evolve on dry land.” This is because landscapes are more varied than seascapes, and therefore foster more evolutionary innovation, giving rise to creatures with more sophisticated sensory organs. This generalization may be true, but like so many other astrobiological hypotheses, it is limited by the fact that we have only one planetary example.

There could be other paths to technologically advanced life. The enormous diversity of marine organisms here on Earth, both in the fossil record and the modern oceans, is a reminder that there has been plenty of evolutionary experimentation in the seas over time. Plus, some recent origin-of-life theories suggest that the first living cells popped up in land-based hot springs, not marine environments. Still, we are faced with our own facts: that the existence of distinct continents and oceans on Earth has engendered great biodiversity and that the one species to develop advanced technology is a landlubber.


The number of advanced civilizations in our galaxy falls to … almost zero.

Most geologists will agree with Stern’s and Gerya’s argument that plate tectonics should be included as a criterion for long-term planetary habitability. Earth’s tectonic system allows the planet’s atmosphere and hydrosphere to remain in communication with its interior, in a remarkable, self-perpetuating cycle. Subducted ocean crust—seafloor that slips down into Earth’s interior—carries water back into the mantle, and at shallow depths, this water lowers the melting temperature of mantle rock, giving rise to unusual magmas that create the continental crust—what we surface dwellers live on—which is rich in rare elements, like phosphorus, that are critical to life.

At greater depths, subducted water acts to decrease the viscosity of the mantle, allowing it to churn, or convect, more vigorously—which in turn drives plate motion. When the Earth’s mantle exports heat via convection, it encourages the liquid iron outer core to convect as well, and this generates Earth’s protective magnetic field, which shields the surface environment from harmful cosmic radiation. Without plate tectonics, continents would quickly be eroded to sea level. But tectonic collisions continuously rejuvenate Earth’s topography, providing rivers with more energy to transport nutrient-rich sediments to shallow marine environments. In other words, plate tectonics is entangled with all the phenomena that support life on Earth.

A plate tectonic system like Earth’s requires a very specific thermal combination of a cool, crisp outer shell, broken into movable pieces, and a warm, gooey underlying mantle capable of flowing in the solid state. Exactly when Earth achieved this balance is unknown. Since Venus and Mars show no evidence of subduction, it is unlikely that the early Earth had a full-fledged plate tectonic system from the start.

Stern and Gerya are well known in the geological community for arguing for a comparatively late start to Earth’s plate tectonics—at the end of the Proterozoic Eon about 550 million years ago. In their view, diagnostic “plate tectonic indicators,” such as evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction, do not appear in the geologic record before that time, and they posit that until then Earth had a Mars-like “single-lid” tectonic system. They use their new paper to further advance this less common viewpoint, arguing that the emergence of multicellular life at that time was triggered by the beginning of modern-style tectonics, which would have accelerated delivery of critical nutrients like phosphorus to the oceans, leading to phytoplankton blooms that sequestered carbon and increased atmospheric oxygen levels.

But the mainstream consensus among geologists is that Earth had adopted its modern plate tectonic habits by at least 2.5 billion years ago—much earlier than Stern and Gerya contend. Starting around this time, ancient mountain belts (which survive as eroded remnants) began to have the same internal “architecture” as more recent ranges like the Rockies and Alps, and some of these belts preserve high-pressure metamorphic rocks diagnostic of subduction.

Regardless of when our planet’s plates fractured and began moving, Stern’s and Gerya’s paper makes a compelling case that planets anything like Earth are exceedingly scarce in the cosmos. That message should give pause to anyone who imagines that we might “terraform” another planet in a matter of a few human generations.

Does it really matter that the probability of receiving a communiqué from deep space has just become a little slimmer? It might turn out to be a good thing if it causes us to look down with new reverence at the beautiful, bountiful, mysterious planet right under our feet. 

Though popular, nationalizations ruin economies





The fundamental problem with nationalization is that it naturally cuts middle management lose to create a business withing the core business while also avoiding contracting out.  Self interest dominates throughout and this naturally destroys the social contract the private company relied on.

We see hybrid solutions which arise because the enterprise is needed, but has a long lead time, such as Dams or power plants.  Fair enough as well when population growth needs to be policy.

They all should by a hybrid ,just to provide political cover for when it all becomes obsolete.  The real profit is stage left.


Though popular, nationalizations ruin economies



In a world full of hatred for the free market, the people calling for the nationalization of industry aren’t scarce. Despite their political popularity, nationalizations are terrible for economies and represent a stepping stone on the path to destitution and collapse. In exchange for the temporary gain achieved by expropriating the property of others, countries sacrifice the confidence of doing business in their nation.

Nationalization stems from the error that the government or state has the right to take property with or without compensation from private actors for reasons it deems sufficient. A prominent example from India is that of Air India. Initially founded in 1932 as Tata Airlines, the airline was privately funded and operated its routes to earn profit from its ventures. Despite early challenges, the airline benefitted from the first-mover advantage in the Indian market and was a promising business. Unfortunately, in 1953, India nationalized all airlines including Tata Air and set back the Indian aviation industry for a long time.

They did so under the pretense of ensuring that India would continue to have good airlines. The effect was the opposite as Air India was never as competitive as it should have been. The airline’s struggles were exposed for everyone to see after 1994 when India allowed private airlines again. The government kept propping up Air India for years with the rationale that the government would provide stability in the airline market as opposed to the volatile private industry. Years of constant losses funded by burdened taxpayers finally became too much for the government, and they privatized the airline in 2021. Had the state not intervened, the airline may have been significantly more competitive in the airline market, producing profit rather than losses.

Bureaucrats of the state are almost never more qualified to run a business than the entrepreneurs who choose to risk money on and put time and effort into their enterprises. Yet, that has rarely prevented the state from claiming functioning businesses simply because they wanted them and had the means to capture them forcibly. Countries that set a precedent for violating property rights in this way signal that they are an unstable environment for business.

Despite Venezuela’s popularity in political discourse, they still represent a prime example of how the economy of a country gets progressively worse as the state keeps on nationalizing businesses. The Venezuelan government nationalized steel, agriculture, banking and oil on their way to obliterating any chance of prosperity in their nation. The same was true of Vietnam after the socialists collectivized farming, leading to disaster again. Only after significant deregulation and with several market reforms did Vietnam manage to claw its way back toward economic growth.

Despite the history of how nationalizations tend to lead to a degradation of business conditions in a nation, many who oppose the free market rest an alternative case for nationalization on the belief that societies can collectively own something and that the state must step in to ensure that they are not exploited by outsiders. This is particularly the case for natural resources such as oil, diamonds or gold found in less wealthy countries.

This is a case of misrepresenting how property is originally appropriated. The land on which resources are found is either previously owned by someone or it is not. In the case that it is already owned, the company that wishes to operate on the land must buy or lease it from its original owner. If it is not previously owned, the company can appropriate the land by operating on it. In either scenario, there is no collective ownership of the resources simply because they are found in a certain geographic area or within the confines of a state.

From a moral standpoint, nationalizations are evil as they violate property rights. Even if morality is to be discounted or ignored, nationalizations are still ineffective and even counterproductive at creating prosperity. It is voluntary actions, not coerced actions, that ultimately lead to prosperity.