Saturday, October 30, 2021

How did the Roman aqueducts not have dirty, bug-infested water in them?

I knew that there was a reason for all that vinegar ration hande to roman soldiers.  It purified local drinking water.  We use iodine to do the same.

It was common household practise everywhere.  Today we all have salt at home.

All this is a practical response to generally a pretty problematic water supply and not enough for badly infected water.  Yet good enough for most.

How did the Roman aqueducts not have dirty, bug-infested water in them?

B.S. in Civil Engineering & Highway Engineering, Universidad La Gran Colombia (Graduated 1984)Updated Jul 20

Pick me, pick me!

Unlike other answers I know what I am talking about… ;)

Actually, I know how to build a modern aqueduct and I also know that Romans (and everybody for centuries) did have bug-infested water that probably would make sick any of the modern, soft people (me included) that you find around today, if we drank water straight from Roman fountains.

Romans (and people in rural parts without modern aqueducts) knew that aqueduct water cannot be drink “raw” without treatment because amoebas can kill you, even if water has no fecal matter and seems not turbid and is actually running water.

Your grandparents and great-grandparents did not have the luxury of clean water direct from faucets and filtered water from refrigerators that you have today, so the Romans did what people have done for centuries.

In short, they added alcohol, acetic acid or myrrh to the water after boiling it (when boiling was possible, which rarely was).

Actually, boiling was used but not to clean the water but to concentrate the sugar of the must in such a way that a good Roman wine, made of concentrated must full of fructose, could kick your ass in minutes.

You did NOT use such concentrated wine to get drunk at the orgy, task for what you had other less intense wines, but you carried it around or bought the concentrate to add to water at the nearest “taberna vinaria” (like Moe’s but with wine) in hopes of not kicking the bucket, figuratively speaking, ha, ha, by drinking the filthy water you encountered on your (kind of filthy) travels.

That is why beer and wine were invented and how civilization started in Memphis in Egypt, 6000 years ago or more and, as Hannah Madden points out in the comments, is also one of the reasons why tea was used as a medicinal beverage in China and more recently in Europe since 1610, give or take.

However, is not like if our ancestors were a collection of drunkards and beer and wine lovers.

Well, maybe some people in the Pabon family were actual drunkards, specially when you take in account that Pabón is an eminently gypsy last name and we, Roma, have a festive attitude and the occasional black sheep uncle, but I digress.

Is only that is very hard to become civilized while diarrhea (excuse my English) is killing you and your will to live.

We all know that you don’t make clean water by converting it into running water (as other answers state) but by killing germs, as Pasteur informed us.

Besides, what could be better than cleaning the water and getting feisty our Roman great-great-great-grandmothersaurius at the same time ?

Pompeii image of a wine tavern, to the right of the house entrance, version by Luigi Bazzani, included grandma at the door getting some flowers after water was treated to make it healthy. Tavern were the name for those spaces to left and right of the main door that were rented for different things, not only for selling wine

If you want to read a bit more, continue.

Roman water was treated but not like today, when you can drink water because it has chlorine added at the source but by adding vinegar or wine after collecting the water from the aqueduct.

Vinegar added water was common, even for poor people and it was called posca.Posca - Wikipedia
Ancient Roman drink Posca was an Ancient Roman drink, made by mixing vinegar , water, salt and perhaps herbs. It was the soldiers, the lower classes, and the slaves who drank posca, a drink despised by the upper class [ citation needed ] . The widespread use of posca is attested by numerous mentions by ancient sources ranging from the natural histories of Pliny the Elder to the comedies of Plautus . When on campaign, generals and emperors could show their solidarity with common soldiers by drinking posca, as did Cato the Elder (as recorded by Plutarch ) and the emperor Hadrian , who according to the Historia Augusta "actually led a soldier’s life…and, after the example of Scipio Aemilianus , Metellus , and his own adoptive father Trajan , cheerfully ate out of doors such camp-fare as bacon, cheese and vinegar." A decree of AD 360 ordered that lower ranks of the army should drink posca and wine on alternate days. [1] Girolamo Cardano , in his Encomium Neronis of 1562, attributed the superiority of the Roman armies to only three factors: the great quantities of levies, their sturdiness and ability to carry heavy weights due to training, and good foods such as salted pork, cheese, and the use of posca as a drink. [2] Etymology [ edit ] The word posca is derived from either the Latin potor ("to drink") or from the Greek epoxos ("very sharp"). [3] As the Greeks lacked a word for posca , sources written in Greek, such as Plutarch and the Gospels, use the word οξος ( oxos , "vinegar") in its place (translated as acetum in the Vulgate Bible). The word eventually migrated into Greek from about the 6th century AD onwards as the Byzantine army continued the Roman tradition of drinking what they termed phouska . Posca was composed of watered-down wine vinegar, but at times it could have included other herbs to improve the taste. For example, the Byzantine writers Aëtius of Amida and Paul of Aegina , from the 6th and 7th centuries, recorded a posca recipe used for laxative purposes that included cumin , fennel seed, celery seed, anise , thyme , and salt. [4] The Natural History by Pliny the Elder recounts a posca that was mixed with myrrh or gall. Myrrh was used in ancient times for general pleasure and as an analgesic . [5] See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] ^ Dalby, Andrew. "Posca" entry in Food in the Ancient World from A to Z , p. 270. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-23259-7 ^ Cardano, Girolamo. Emperor Nero: Son of Promise, Child of Hope (translated by Angelo Paratico) pp.185-6, Gingko Edizioni, Verona, 2019. ISBN 978-1689118538 ^ Roth, Jonathan. The Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 B.C.-A.D. 235) , pp. 37-38. BRILL, 1999. ISBN 90-04-11271-5 ^ Dalby, Andrew. Tastes of Byzantium: The Cuisine of a Legendary Empire , page 90. I.B. Tauris, 2010. ^ Pliny the Elder [-79 CE], trans. John Bostock and Henry Thomas Riley, "Wines Drunk by the Ancient Romans", The Natural History [c. 77 CE], book 14, ch. 15. London: H.G. Bohn, 1855. 253, available online at bo

Myrrh was also added as an antiseptic.

Both methods produced a bitter water.

Myrrh means “bitter” and posca means, literally, “potable”.

Myrrh tincture. Myrrh was one of the gifts the Wise Men gave to baby Jesus.

A third alternative is to add “young wine” made from must (crushed grapes).

The first possibility (posca water or water with vinegar) was relatively cheap while myrrh and wine were for richer people.

Boiling water (like in teas and infusions) were not practical for city dwellers, because wood, as myrrh and wine, were relatively expensive.

You can read about Roman methods to make potable water in the ancient sources, directly.

Pliny’s Natural History, Chapter 15, written in the year 77 CE, mentions myrrh and barley added to wine

Posca was drunk by people with less money, notice that barley and water makes what we call nowadays “beer”.

Pliny mentions what he calls “artificial wines” that do not include grapes but things like boiled must, millet plus must, palm wine and others, up to 66 varieties.

This is “must” used to make “young wine” even today.

In white must, mentioned by Pliny, you take the grape skin away or use white grapes

When you use must to make Roman or Greek wine which, incidentally, is unfiltered, because filtering is a fancy thing we do today but Romans usually did not, you get a thick beverage with seeds and grape skins, brown or purple.

Romans boiled must in bronze cauldrons.

Cooked wine or vino cotto boiling in a cauldron

I quote the Wikipedia article on grape syrup used by Greeks and Romans:

“One of the earliest mentions of grape syrup comes from the fifth-century BC Greek physician Hippocrates, who refers to hépsēma (ἕψημα), the Greek name for the condiment.

The fifth-century BC Athenian playwright Aristophanes also makes a reference to it, as does Roman-era Greek physician Galen.

Grape syrup was known by different names in Ancient Roman cuisine depending on the boiling procedure.

Defrutum, carenum, and sapa were reductions of must.

They were made by boiling down grape juice or must in large kettles until it had been reduced to two-thirds of the original volume, carenum; half the original volume, defrutum; or one-third, sapa. Roman general Pliny the Elder states that grape syrup was also referred to as siraion (Greek: "σίραιον")”

The main culinary use of defrutum was to help preserve and sweeten wine”.

Grape syrup - Wikipedia
Eight flavor syrup dispenser including grape syrup Jallab syrup made from carob, dates, grape molasses and rose water; used to make jallab tea Churchkhela , a snack made from nuts (walnuts or hazelnuts, usually) dipped in grape syrup Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice. It is thick and sweet because of its high ratio of sugar to water. Grape syrup is made by boiling grapes, removing their skins, squeezing them through a sieve to extract the juice, and adding sugar. Like other fruit syrups , a common use of grape syrup is as a topping to sweet cakes, such as pancakes or waffles . Names and etymology [ edit ] The ancient Greek name for grape syrup is siraios (σιραίος), in the general category of hepsema (ἕψημα), which translates to 'boiled'. [1] The Greek name was used in Crete and, in modern times, in Cyprus . [2] Petimezi is the name for a type of Mediterranean grape syrup. The word comes from the Turkish pekmez , which usually refers to grape syrup, but is also used to refer to mulberry and other fruit syrups. [3] [4] Vincotto (not to be confused with vino cotto ) is the southern Italian term for grape syrup. It is made only from cooked wine grape must (mosto cotto), with no fermentation involved. There is no alcohol or vinegar content, and no additives, preservatives or sweeteners are added. It is both a condiment and ingredient used in either sweet or savory dishes. History [ edit ] Greco-Roman [ edit ] One of the earliest mentions of grape syrup comes from the fifth-century BC Greek physician Hippocrates , who refers to hépsēma (ἕψημα), the Greek name for the condiment. [5] The fifth-century BC Athenian playwright Aristophanes also makes a reference to it, as does Roman-era Greek physician Galen . [5] Grape syrup was known by different names in Ancient Roman cuisine depending on the boiling procedure. Defrutum , carenum , and sapa were reductions of must . They were made by boiling down grape juice or must in large kettles until it had been reduced to two-thirds of the original volume, carenum ; half the original volume, defrutum ; or one-third, sapa . The Greek name for this variant of grape syrup was siraion (Greek: "σίραιον"). [6] The main culinary use of defrutum was to help preserve and sweeten wine , but it was also added to fruit and meat dishes as a sweetening and souring agent and even given to food animals such as ducks and suckling pigs to improve the taste of their flesh. Defrutum was mixed with garum to make the popular condiment oenogarum. Quince and melon were preserved in defrutum and honey through the winter, and some Roman women used defrutum or sapa as a cosmetic . Defrutum was often used as a food preservative in provisions for Roman troops. [7] There is some confusion as the amount of reduction for sapa and defrutum. As James Grout explains in its Encyclopedia Romana , [8] authors informed different reductions, as follows: "The elder Cato, Columella, and Pliny all describe how unfermented grape

Notice that wine is mentioned not by “wine connoisseurs” but by physicians like Galen and Hippocrates, which recommend watered wine not because of its taste but because it was healthier to drink water mixed with wine as a method to make water potable.

Sapa, made of boiled must, still being sold for the wise chef, is the “soul of the grape”

I have heard people nowadays theorizing about Romans and Greeks mixing this wine, made from concentrated juices like sapa, with water to make it less alcoholic (and that may be true) because young wine made with must has a stronger taste and is more alcoholic than modern wine.

(Note: I thank Pedro Rocha for making me notice that the concentration in cauldrons was not of alcohol but of sugars.

That sugary concentrate or sapa created stronger wines than the ones we make today by meekly using only the filtered grape juice with no concentration of sugar.)

However, Roman and Greek watered wine, even if stronger than modern wine, is also less bitter than vinegar added posca, although posca gave you potable water at a cheaper price, while both beverages are way, way, way healthier than raw water from the aqueduct.

Once you get a water that has 5 percent or more alcohol, like modern beer or watered modern wine, such water lasts a few days being potable, like modern chlorinated water, even without refrigeration.

Pliny also mentions palm wine made of the Palmyra palm when desert conditions do not allow you to grow grapes to make wine or vinegar.

I have drank different palm wines and pineapple wines common among peasants in Colombia, like the one in the following image.

They are slightly alcoholic and you can drink them without getting sick from “bug ridden” fermented water.

My Spaniard guts, not used at all to these concoctions when I arrived to Latin America, can attest this is potable water, that resist to be stored in hot conditions without becoming bug-ridden but becoming alcoholic during three or four days before it cannot be used

Palm wine

Pineapple “guarapo”, marvelously healthy and tasty, notice you can do it by boiling the pineapple rinds (as shown in the jug to the right), tastes differently from pineapple juice. You can conserve it in the refrigerator, but if you do not have one, guarapo ferments nicely if left at air temperature

Sugarcane guarapo being made in Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador

Guarapo is a quechua word and tepache is the nahuatl word (thanks to Alden Luna for the comment about that) for the same fermented water that can be drank without killing you like Roman watered wine.

In that marvelous book that is “Food in the ancient world, by Andrew Dalby, we found this:

Food in the Ancient World from A to Z
Food in the Ancient World from A to Z By Andrew Dalby, Professor Andrew Dalby

Notice that Dalby mentions the “health benefits” stated by Oribasius in his “Medical Collections” that you get by adding herbs and spices to wine or water so you get a fermented, slightly bitter beverage.

What all those wines have in common is that they are antiseptic, because must from grapes as well as alcoholic beverages from fruits, firstly, include alcohol, which is a mild antiseptic, and secondly, include acetic acid when fermented as is done today with traditional balsamic vinegar.

Bottle of Modena’s traditional aceto balsamico, still being made in Emilia-Romagna after 2000 years at least.

Vinegar was the basis of the Roman “posca” mentioned in the life of Trajan, an emperor that shared the simple life of his soldiers.

Posca was even mandatory in the Marian rules that transformed the Roman army, rules that mention specifically that legionaries had to be given wine one day and posca the following day.

Posca and myrrh was even given to Jesus on the Calvary:

“They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink”. —Matthew 27:34

“And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not”. — Mark 15:23 —

So, that was the trick: you added alcohol or acetic acid, diluted, even for kids.

I still remember being raised in Spain drinking wine with water (for the kids) and pure wine for the adults.

We did it because it was fun and because of traditions that believed watered wine to be healthy.

So, if you ever travel to more southern latitudes and are afraid of the water, now you know what to do: drink only tequila, aguardiente and cerveza and be healthy.

Leave the raw water for the horses, they are used to it.

What Works to Retain Staff: Purdue Study Finds Commonalities in Indiana Manufacturers with Low Turnover

It is all about creating a sustainable community.  It is not hard in Indiana where you already have a sustainable community in which the majority want to remain.  Just make it work for hte employee and family.

Everyone needs a fair paycheck but htey also need real friends and planned community activities.

This is much harder within the inner city.  Thus recruiting there must think in terms of changing out the community in a place where folks are visibly exploited and thrown aside.

Fair paychecks there would turn the place upside down.

What Works to Retain Staff: Purdue Study Finds Commonalities in Indiana Manufacturers with Low Turnover

Oct. 28, 2021

The average turnover is 40% a year, but 5% of companies have rates at or below 15%.

For the past three years, DCMME (Dauch Center for the Management of Manufacturing Enterprises) at Purdue University have been surveying human resources managers at manufacturing companies in the 10-county area around Purdue. The majority of those surveys—over 100—have included actual site visits.

Eighty-three percent of more than 100 surveyed companies, in the 10-county area, reported staff turnover as their leading concern. The most common figure for staff turnover is 40% per year, with most in shop-floor, hourly paid jobs.

In great contrast to the many, about 5% of the companies have turnover rates at or below 15%, without paying more than other companies local to them (except for one company).

Managers often cite pay as the leading reason for employee-leaving. It is not. The costs of staff turnover at 40% levels is not just financial. Indirect costs are significant in high staff turnover environments; working staff are disrupted and disappointed, with possible effects on morale, safety and quality. Without quantifying these “costs,” we cannot adequately fix them.

According to our research, people who have been in a job for some time stay due largely to inertia. New hires, by definition, do not yet have inertia, but in the 10-county area, up to nine out of 10 new hires are leaving within the first 90 days, and sometimes on their first day.

Reasons for Quitting

Earlier research showed that many leavers go because of the relationship with their immediate manager/supervisor. At the beginning of our study, only three companies had considered promoting supervisors on the basis of relationship skills rather than predominantly technical skills. More recently there is a small trend toward putting relationship-skills as critical to supervisor appointments. It is still the case, however, that most 10-County area companies promote on technical excellence and not relationship skills. One of the larger companies told us:

“85% of supervisors are promoted from within but lack management skills”

Of the companies surveyed, only three already have, or are, changing to promoting supervisors on a primary basis of people skills instead of technical skills. More-enlightened companies, like Nucor, put the human social-intelligence skills as a first test for the job; if the individual fails this test, they will not be hired.

So, what are the successful 5% of 10-county companies doing differently?

Here are a few examples of intervention-areas that impact greatly on staff retention.

Several 10-County area companies have identified coaching skills as a way to improve the competencies of supervisors. Coaching-skills include facilitation language, asking questions, listening well and using the language used by the worker. To create a general culture change, any initiative will include managers at all levels.

The physical work environment matters. If you would not want to bring your family to your workplace, why would you be happy there? We found massive variations, from work-place safety, order, cleanliness, bathrooms, rest areas and eating areas; workplaces where you could eat off the floor to those that are dark and hazardous; disorganized and filthy due to neglect.

A 2019 European study claims that autonomy is a key component of workplace happiness and productivity. Autonomy happens when workers can choose or change the order in which they perform tasks, their speed of work or working methods. The level of autonomy needs to be close to the desired needs of individuals, not a blanket approach.

Multi-tasking offers flexibility and levels of autonomy for workers when they are organized in teams; it also helps supervisors to plan for productive output when there are challenges, due to increased production needs or because of the absence of skilled workers.

Finally, one 10-county company has offered every worker in their company a career plan, engaging individually with every single worker, at all levels. This company enjoyed zero staff turnover.
Other Initiatives that Work Locally to Encourage Staying in the Job
Flexible work practices
Carrot-and-stick motivators – use more carrot and less stick
Shift overlaps and regular team sharing
Engineers walking the floor every day and seeking out concerns
Idea scheme (gift card & quarterly prizes)
Pay-for-skill program.

In one year, pay has increased in two out of three companies in our poll of 10-county companies, for both new starters and existing staff. Many workers want better lives for themselves and for their families. For example, when and where they work and having a say in new work policies (that affect them).

Here are things that other companies are doing that have met with success:
Wellness Day/Week plant closure
Mandated work-breaks
Wellness personal budgets (for gym etc.)
Care-giving financial-help initiative
Paid Time Off initiative
Paid ‘Relief Days’ (up to 5 days off per year for unexpected domestic/family situations)
Vaccinated-only environment (where state-legal)
Flexible work schemes including remote/hybrid work, where feasible
Benefit packages.

The pandemic may have stimulated demands for paid sick leave. In 2021, 74% of smaller companies (with <100 people) received this. In larger companies (with >500 people), this figure rises to 88%.

People with families are concerned about their safety. The Delta strain of SARS-CoV-2 is reported (CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky) as 83% of US new infections in May 2021. If we address staff fears for both employees and their families, we should expect an improvement in retention.

Not all staff want training and advancement, but the more developmentally ambitious do. If we fail to offer a pathway for learning, attainment and more money, they may go somewhere else. Some 10-county companies have onboarding and pre-work training. Others offer access to computers and band-width at work (or at home). These pathways enable work choices to be planned closer to their individual needs and contentment.

A people-valuing culture is polite, listens, does not blame. People-valuing is adult and nurturing and calls-out non-conformance to the work-culture’s expected behaviors. Your author (AIM) helped companies including the largest mining company in the world (Glencore-Xstrata) to include behavioral-norms for Personal Development Reviews (in one of five Divisions) and these are used for promotion, pay and bonuses.

Prospective employees should have clear expectations about what it is like in your work culture, to avoid a mismatch between expectations and experience. A number of 10-county companies have produced short videos featuring shop-floor staff to more closely align expectation and experience.

Where expectations are not met, a lot of new hires are just walking out. Surely the companies could do more to repeatedly let them know that there is an open-door policy to speak confidentially with a friendly HR person?

Our manufacturing HR executives underpin the belief that the keys to reducing staff turn-over are several and no longer simply about paying more money.

World Shills Reccomend Urgent Actions for Survival of Civilization

If you enjoy doublespeak, here you go.  It all boils down to licensing coercion to pursue fraudulent convenient objectives.

Theur argument never changes, even when the facts go south.  After all, clmate change flatlined literally thirtyy years ago and has been patched with data manipulation.  The global economy has steadily lifted the majority out of subsistence poverty.

These are not a group of world scientists but paid shills who help rig the data.

I do find it all offensive that vthese people are allowed any airtime while their legiti8mate peers are deeply suppressed

Sources: Stable Planet Alliance and Scientists Warning Europe


For immediate release

Media Contacts (US):
Prof Phoebe Barnard Stephen Kent
+1 360 914 2307 +1 914 589 5988

Media Contact (UK):

Edmund Gemmell

+44 20 8123 7517


[MOUNT VERNON, Washington -- Oct. 28, 2021] – The nonprofits Stable Planet Alliance (Stable Planet) and Scientists Warning Europe (SWE) today announced the launch of the “World Scientists’ Warning into Action” paper, a solutions-oriented follow-up to the “World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency” paper published in 2019.

The new paper goes beyond the reach of traditional scientific papers, and even existing “scientists’ warnings” in that it not only warns of impending climate harms, but articulates what we need to do to avoid them. It recommends specific, urgent, large-scale transformative actions and solutions to the multi-faceted planetary overshoot emergencies faced by humanity.

Addressed to leaders around the world at multiple scales, from householders and community leaders to heads of state and the UN Secretary-General, the paper is a collaboration of top world scientists, economists, and other specialists, identifying a framework for action to protect the planet and society for future generations.

"This paper shows the main ways that we can bend the needle on the climate and biodiversity crises, by systemic reforms at different levels,” said co-lead author, Professor Phoebe Barnard of the University of Washington and Stable Planet Alliance. “Six areas were originally identified for urgent action in the World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency paper in 2019 – Energy, Atmospheric Pollutants, Nature, Food Systems, Population Stabilization, and the Economy. Not all are equally amenable to action by individuals or households. In this new paper, we look at six scales of action, from individual and household levels through communities, cities, districts, nations and global levels. And while much of the solution to our planetary overshoot needs systemic change, individual households can play strong roles in several of these areas, including nature, food systems and population stabilization.”

The paper will be circulated at the upcoming COP26 UN climate summit in Glasgow, accompanied by a film currently in production by director-producer Jonathan Clay, known for the 2021 Netflix film “Breaking Boundaries: The Science of our Planet” with Sir David Attenborough and Prof Johan Rockström.

Scientists Warning Europe, of which several of “World Scientists’ Warming Into Action” authors are board members and scientific advisors, is supporting the paper and the upcoming film by working to obtain endorsements by the end of COP26 from scientists (including social and political scientists), economists, legal and policy experts, and other influencers around the world.

“This film and this paper will be telling the leaders and officials at COP26 what we need them to do in order to save us, and to save our planet.” says Managing Director of Scientists Warning Europe, British lawyer and local politician Edmund Gemmell. “They offer essential guidance for a wiser, more sustainable civilization which steps away from its extractive economies and destructive social structures and mindsets.”

The paper recommends time-sensitive actions in the next decade and before 2050 to world leaders and communities. “But there is an extremely steep hill to climb,” says co-lead author, Professor Emeritus William Moomaw of Tufts University, puts it. “Because we have delayed this essential action for decades, we have now dramatically reduced the comfort and timeframe within which we can make changes.”

Barnard and co-authors Professor Gina Ziervogel of the University of Cape Town and Dr Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud of Nigeria’s National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency not the structural impediments of governance which need reform, to enable transformative change on short timescales. But, they point out, time is now so short that we cannot wait for reforms to be complete before we act, and must enable temporary measures for planning, policymaking and management while this is done.

The “World Scientists’ Warning Into Action” makes such recommendations, and focuses on the moral imperatives of fast action. In language highly unusual for a scientific paper, it concludes:

“Our challenges are less technical than social – taking the necessary actions quickly enough, in all nations and governance regimes – particularly democratic ones - while maintaining adequate social, economic and political stability to steer the ship of humanity safely into a wiser, more sustainable world order. This will require unprecedented global collaboration, social learning, and public awareness and pressure. This will profoundly challenge us all, and our systems of planning, cooperation and governance. Over the next decade, we have a stark choice: to demonstrate the very best of our natures as Homo sapiens - cooperative, innovative, wise, and ethical, to learn from mistakes and create better societies - or to go down with both a bang of conflict and a whimper of bickering, entitlement and self-interest. That choice is ours. The actions or inactions of individual leaders in government, communities and businesses in this decade will be remembered darkly, or hopefully kindly. Everything we know and love is at stake.”

# # #

NOTE TO EDITORS AND PRODUCERS: Sources quoted in this release and other experts connected to the Scientists Warning Into Action, including some who are at the COP26 UN Climate Summit in Glasgow, are available for comment and interviews on request. A summary of the paper is posted here. The full version of the paper is available here. For more information, or to arrange interviews, please reach out to the media contacts listed above.

About the Stable Planet Alliance

The Stable Planet Alliance is a new nonprofit global coalition of respected organizations collaborating to ‘bend the curve on population and hyperconsumption,’ Its members work through bottom-up public narrative shifts and top-down public policy shifts to stabilize both population and consumption in collaborative, planetary- and women’s-justice-centered ways. For more information visit

About Scientists Warning Europe

Scientists Warning Europe’s mission is to protect the future of our planet, our children, and other creatures that share our world, through presenting and promoting science endorsed solutions which will lead to a just transition for our world to a sustainable and equitable future. It represents scientists who warn the world about the rapidly increasing dangers of climate change and destruction of the biosphere - specifically those scientists who issued and endorsed the 1992, 2017 and 2019 warnings to the world. Its mission is to bring about a great change in humanity’s stewardship of the Earth in order to prevent irretrievable mutilation of our global home.

Related Links:


Emergency Rooms across America being filled with post-vaccine patients suffering serious illness

We cannot even prove this is true.  If it is even partly true it will still be awful.  If it is fully true then we will see an unfolding genocide.  

This means that the rush to vaccinate children is an attempt to outrun the bad news that will soon be impossible to obscure.

Do you understand that millions will die locked in their homes   with no help coming?  That will be thge real pandemic caused by hte Vaccine.

FDA endorses murderous vaccine ATROCITIES against children … Emergency Rooms across America being filled with post-vaccine patients suffering serious illness

Wednesday, October 27, 2021 by: Mike Adams

(Natural News) In a 17-0 decision, an FDA committee has codified medical atrocities against innocent children across America by voting to approve “emergency use” of covid vaccines in children aged 5 – 11.

Importantly, there is no medical need for children aged 5 – 11 to take covid vaccines at all, given that their mortality rate from covid infections is nearly zero.

Because of the near-zero mortality rate, there is no “benefit” that can be offered by the vaccines. Only risks. And these vaccines are incredibly risky, having already killed an estimated 250,000 Americans so far (and counting). Source: Dr. Zev Zelenko.

This means the FDA panel members, by approving this deadly vaccines for children, are carrying out medical genocide against innocent children on a scale never even imagined by Third Reich medical experiments doctor Josef Mengele.

The White House now plans to assault 28 million children with vaccine violence, and the mass slaughter of innocents is being carried out like clockwork. The only question remains: Will the slaughter of innocent children finally be enough to awaken America to the genocidal evil of Big Pharma and its captured regulators like the FDA?

Find more answers in today’s Situation Update podcast below…
NPR admits emergency rooms across America are “swamped” with organ failures and serious illness… it looks like a wave of vaccine injuries

As we’ve documented numerous times, covid vaccines destroy the innate immune system. This is part of their functional design, for if they didn’t suppress immunity, the vaccine’s mRNA strands would be attacked and destroyed by the immune system before they could infect human cells and take over the protein synthesis of ribosomes.

Current estimates show that people who have taken mRNA-based covid vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer) lose about 5% of their innate immune function each week. After about 20 weeks, they are characterized as “AIDS patients” who have little to no functioning immunity against in-the-wild pathogens such as common colds and flu viruses.

Beyond merely theoretical, this phenomenon is now being confirmed by the swamping of US hospital emergency rooms with post-vaccine patients who are exhibiting extreme levels of sickness against common health insults. “ERs are now swamped with seriously ill patients — but many don’t even have COVID,” reported yesterday. Running out of ER rooms, patients are being treated in reclining chairs placed in hallways. From the NPR story: (emphasis added)

Months of treatment delays have exacerbated chronic conditions and worsened symptoms. Doctors and nurses say the severity of illness ranges widely and includes abdominal pain, respiratory problems, blood clots, heart conditions and suicide attempts, among others.

A separate section of the hospital was turned into an overflow unit. Stretchers stack up in halls. The hospital has even brought in a row of brown reclining chairs, lined up against a wall, for patients who aren’t sick enough for a stretcher but are too sick to stay in the main waiting room.

There is no privacy, as Alejoz Perrientoz just learned. He came to the ER this particular morning because his arm has been tingling and painful for over a week now. He can no longer hold a cup of coffee. A nurse gave him a full physical exam in the brown recliner, which made him self-conscious about having his shirt lifted up in front of strangers. “I felt a little uncomfortable,” he whispers. “But I have no choice, you know? I’m in the hallway. There’s no rooms.”

[Notice that the tingling arm is a typical consequence stemming from vaccine injury and blood clots…]

“We are hearing from members in every part of the country,” says Dr. Lisa Moreno, president of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM). “The Midwest, the South, the Northeast, the West … they are seeing this exact same phenomenon.”

NPR, of course, utterly fails to link any of this with vaccines, even when patients are being diagnosed with blood clots, heart conditions, breathing difficulty and the tingling of extremities. These are all vaccine side effects, yet no one in the media will dare report that truth.

The upshot is that emergency rooms are being overrun with vaccine injured patients… and it’s not even November yet. Imagine what the scene looks like in mid-January.

This is one of those “we told ya so” moments, it seems, when the vaccine zealots realize they’re already dead because they foolishly believed a depopulation weapon system was a beneficial vaccine. Without question, millions of vaccinated Americans will be dead or health compromised before Spring. What we’re seeing now is just the leading edge of the health care catastrophe yet to be fully realized.

Find more details in today’s Situation Update podcast here:

Friday, October 29, 2021

Maintaining stem cell stickiness could be the key to battling baldness

This is an important new insight.  It explains the biological progress and implies treatment directions.

would augment oli production make any difference?

We are no longer running blind and strong hair restoration is a long sought research target.  Many dollars should flow into this.

Maintaining stem cell stickiness could be the key to battling baldness

October 26, 2021

Scientists have discovered a previously unknown mechanism by which stem cells can influence hair loss

The role stem cells play in hair loss is one scientists continue to investigate from all kinds of angles, and a new study has uncovered a previously unknown mechanism by which they influence follicle health. The discovery demonstrates how these cells can lose their adhesiveness and become dislodged from hair follicles in aging mice, and also identified genes that could be key to reversing the process.

The study was carried out by scientists at Northwestern University and used live mice as a model for balding in aging humans. The team's experiments involved labeling hair follicle cells, including stem cells, with green fluorescent proteins, which enabled the scientists to observe their activity during aging using a long wavelength laser.

By watching the same hair follicles over many days, they were able to see the entire degradation process play out, which revealed some interesting insights in terms of cellular activity. As hair follicles go through the natural cycle of life and death, a large population of stem cells are thought to remain permanently lodged within them to keep producing hair follicle cells, but the team's investigation showed that some were in fact escaping.

According to the scientists, this is the result of the stem cells losing the adhesiveness that holds them in place, enabling them to escape from their home, called the bulge, and into the dermis, the layer of skin beneath the epidermis. Here, the conditions aren't so hospitable for the wandering stem cells, so most of them don't survive.

“The result is fewer and fewer stem cells in the hair follicle to produce hair,” says lead author Rui Yi. “This results in thinning hair and ultimately baldness during aging.”

To delve into the reasons behind this phenomenon, the scientists analyzed the gene expression levels within the follicle stem cells in young and older mice, and found levels were lower in the older specimens. They were then able to pinpoint a pair of genes, called FOXC1 and NFATC1, that appeared integral to the process.

Knocking out these genes in the mouse models brought about some interesting results, with rapid hair loss beginning at four months of age, and the mice becoming completely bald within 12 to 16 months. Using live imaging, the team was able to actually capture the individual stem cells escaping.

“We believe this stem cell escape mechanism has never been reported before, because nobody could track the aging process in live animals,” Yi says.

Hair follicles were already known to miniaturize as part of the aging process, which scientists have suspected was the result of cells simply dying or not being able to divide as well as we grow older. This novel escape mechanism adds to this body of knowledge around aging and hair loss, and as part of their ongoing research the scientists are now investigating how reinstating the FOXC1 and NFATC1 genes might be able to reverse the process.

“We discovered, at least in part, it is due to hair follicle stem cells migrating away from their niche,” Yi says. “Cell death also occurs during our observation. So, our discovery doesn’t dispute existing theories but provides a new mechanism.”

Canada Should Take the Lead in Global Critical Minerals Development: Panel

The fact is that Canada, australia and Russia have the masive geology able to anchor global resource requirements and in fact have been doing so.  We do hear of local hotspots elsewhere, but these three can swamp all attempts by others to dominate the market.

Strategic leveraging by China can be readily tanked by either Canada or Australia paying attention.

So long term, i do dismiss such posturing and have seen many past empire builders wash away.

Canada Should Take the Lead in Global Critical Minerals Development: Panel

By Andrew Chen

October 27, 2021 Updated: October 27, 2021


Canada should take the lead in processing rare earth minerals as its allies seek to spread their supply chains out in order to avoid over-reliance on exports from authoritarian countries like China, said a panel of experts.

While China holds the lion’s share in providing for the global market of critical minerals and rare earths, it does not share the same environmental and labour standards as the western world, noted experts at a virtual panel discussion hosted by Macdonald-Laurier Institute (MLI) on Oct. 22.

“China has the market on 80 percent of the processing of critical minerals and rare earths, so the whole world is beholden to China. Our supply chains are completely beholden to China,” said Maryscott Greenwood, CEO for the Canadian-American Business Council, in a pre-recorded video for the panel.

Greenwood said Canada has the expertise to mine in an environmentally responsible way, along with the manpower and infrastructure, to process and export critical minerals essential for the defence sector, electric vehicle batteries, solar panels and smartphones.

“What if Canada became the world headquarters of processing of these critical minerals and rare earths that you can dig up anywhere but what if they’re all sent to Canada to process?” Greenwood said, noting several provinces such as Alberta and Quebec have shown interest in developing processing facilities.

The panel discussion also featured experts including Dirk Naumann, the president and CEO of Torngat Metals, Heather Exner-Pirot, a MLI fellow who specializes in natural resources, and Dwayne Menezes, the founder and managing director of Polar Research and Policy Initiative. The moderator was Ken Coates, a Munk Senior Fellow at the MLI.
Critical Minerals’ Expanding Role

Naumann said critical minerals are “critical” for two main reasons, with the first being their economic importance.

“Aluminum, titanium, nickel, and definitely potash, are very important for our country and future expansions,” Naumann said. “Future demand in the markets can be supplied out of Canada and continue the wealth creation.”

The second reason is increased demand as Canada and its allies push for a green energy transition. Critical minerals are widely used in the production of batteries needed to power electric vehicles.

“The forecast for rare earth … for the next 10, 15 years, is all the car companies launch electric vehicles. And naturally, the battery, where we need lithium, nickel, cobalt, graphite, and so on, is they will grow in the same way,” Naumann said.

Exner-Pirot said that the demand for critical minerals is expected to increase by at least five-fold in the coming years due to the transition to low-carbon economies. The supply is further weighed down by global supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

“People haven’t figured out, or haven’t considered, the extent of the mining that we are going to need to get off of fossil fuels, and of course there are also environmental impacts of mining,” Exner-Pirot said.

“These kinds of factors have not been considered at a societal level to accept what is going to need to be the investment to get off of fossil fuels.”

Global demand for critical metals used for battery production will have grown exponentially by 2028, according to a 2020 report (pdf) from the Mining Association of Canada. The report estimates the demand for nickel to increase by over 1,200 percent, cobalt by roughly 260 percent, lithium by 575 percent, and graphite by 530 percent.
Security Concerns

Security concerns stemming from over-dependence on exports from China is another key reason for Canada to direct more attention to the processing of critical minerals, panelists said.

In response to The Epoch Times’ request for comment, Exner-Pirot said that it made sense from a security perspective to decrease dependence on China by developing raw materials and processing capacity in Canada and North America, even if it’s more expensive.

While energy security in North America has focused on oil and gas independence in the past, as countries shift towards renewable energy sources, security around rare-earth metals “will become much more important,” said Exner-Pirot said in an email.

“From a policy perspective, I think this means being more friendly to the domestic mining sector in terms of incentives and approvals, as well as developing social license for a significant ramp-up in mining activity,” she added.

Menezes highlighted the importance for Canada to collaborate and integrate with allied countries in developing a framework for securing critical mineral supplies.

“When we think about global supply chains the key emphasis must be on how do we integrate different capabilities among allied countries,” Menezes said.

“Not every stage and supply chain needs to be fulfilled domestically, it may happen to have capability in America that Canada can rely on, and vice versa,” he added.

Menezes said he welcomed further collaboration between the Five Eyes—the intelligence alliance between Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom—which needs to “pull together their resources, resource intelligence, technical capabilities [and] project finance.”

Before Definitions Were Changed, A Vaccine Meant A Dead Or Disabled Virus

I am still waiting to see legitimate science put out to explain what is obviously happening.  It is not going to happen.  I can read those papers children.  They do not exist.  Regardless the Jab was never a vaccine.

The background narritive is that this is all designed to slaughter the unwary and even beyond that.  The other side tells me we lose two billion.

Now it is possible that the source on the other side is not telling the truth.  I asked an obvious question.  Yet the answer is disturbing and matches the level. of Vaccine distributin.

Before Definitions Were Changed, A Vaccine Meant A Dead Or Disabled Virus

Israel is seeing a higher death rate than last year despite more fully vaxxed people. India has several provinces using ivermectin, z pack, aspirin combos with a tenth of the deaths and hospitalizations as other provinces that went full vaxx. Africa is virtually untouched in countries whose populations are on a regular dose of ivermectin (vaxxed parts like South Africa are experiencing outbreaks at US levels). Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador are having the same or better outcomes as the US with ivermectin, z pack, aspirin combos-despite Hispanics having more vulnerability due to greater ACE receptor concentrations. It goes on and on. The vaxx is an absurd gene therapy launched during a wave of panicked systemic institutionalized dishonesty.

How ridiculous is the vaxx? You are targeting the immune system to only one aspect of the virus and only in its current form-the spike protein. Before definitions were changed, a vaccine meant a dead or disabled virus. The difference being such vaccines trained the immune system on all aspects of the virus, inside and out. Why is the vaxx absurd? Because everyone in immunology knows corona viruses rapidly evolve. The vaxx was doomed to rapid obsolecence from the beginning. They all knew that.

Worse, now there are reports that the vaxx immune response actually retards the immune system from properly activating in response to Covid19. You may never get natural immunity if you get the vaxx. You’re on the vaxx booster treadmill for life.

It gets more absurd. The spike protein is an actual potentially deadly toxin. Old school vaccines would produce death only by accident – insufficiently deactivated viruses usually. This vaxx is provoking an immune response by deliberately initiating harm. Insane without a long track record of safety or at least a cancer like threat to justify it. Right now you are getting gene therapy induced chemotherapy for what is yes just a cold if you are under 50.

It gets still more ridiculous. The vaxx companies know adverse heart and clotting side effects are virtually guaranteed if the vaxx is injected into the blood stream directly. Yet they thought they could administer millions of doses safely by injecting “only” into muscle. The elderly do not have muscle density like adults in their prime. The chances the vaxx would enter the blood stream in the most vulnerable are absurdly high. And that’s not to mention the errors that are made administering the vaxx. Insanity. You could never get away with this stuff without absolute immunity from liability.

It gets still more insane. The vaxx repurposes ribosomes in your cells to produce spike proteins. A huge chunk of the cellular machinery is repurposed to create poison. The hope is that the cells will die or the ribosomes snap back to their previous production lines before this can get out of hand. But they have no long term studies and have no actual idea what will happen. The insanity of this is palpable on its face. Cancer. Some cells are cancerous. They don’t die. And even “benign” cancer cells might become not so nice. Cancerous cells might continue to produce toxins indefinitely. “Benign” cancer cells will do this quietly forever.

More insanity – because the vaxx is so unable to stop viral variants (being targeted to one aspect at one point in time) – the vaxxed serve as variant factories and if they suffer fewer symptoms, the vaxxed also end up becoming superspreaders of variants because they won’t know to self-isolate. That’s probably why cases are increasing in highly vaccinated countries.

All of this goes to prove that the worst kind of public policy is a centralized public policy that guarantees zero accountability. The worst kind of mentality is one that faithfully assumes the credibility of institutions that have been shown to lie over and over again, first out of “nobility” and later to cover up their willful and wanton misconduct.

Snap the hell out of it if you made it this far and you are still a vaxxer.