Saturday, June 19, 2021

Wax proves key to protecting crops from drought and frost





This should be tried on for crop protection late in the season.  After all, it also protects against insects as well.

It is also a path forward for improving frost resistence for plant breeders.

Of course the best trick is to establish adjacent water ditches able to produce the necessary micro climate for row crops.  That is how they protected potatoes at 12,000 feet.

Wax proves key to protecting crops from drought and frost

June 16, 2021 – for immediate release

SASKATOON – A team of researchers used the Canadian Light Source (CLS) at the University of Saskatchewan (USask) to show that cuticular wax—a waxy layer that covers exterior surfaces of plants, much like human skin—provides a barrier against low temperatures and dehydration.

While numerous studies have established the role of cuticular wax in impacting drought resistance, few studies have examined its role in plant frost resistance and even fewer have examined both, said Dr. Karen Tanino with the College of Agriculture and Bioresource at USask. Her team’s findings were published recently in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

The ultimate goal of the research is to provide plant breeders with information that enables them to more efficiently select superior genetic lines and develop more climate-resistant crops, said Tanino.

“People often think that under global warming, we no longer have to be wary of low-temperature stress,” she said.

“Actually, it brings on more problems with frost because as spring is getting earlier, plants begin to grow earlier but the night temperatures are still cold so plants can still freeze. Similarly, the fall season may get extended, but there is still a risk of frost. The climate is getting to be more unpredictable and more extreme.”

The scientists studied the impacts of drought and cold temperature stress on the plant Arabidopsis, which is in the same family of plants such as canola and mustard. Arabidopsis has been the plant of choice for molecular biology research because its small genome—the full DNA makeup—has been mapped, and different mutants of the plant are available.

Tanino’s team studied the low temperatures and drought stress performance of an Arabidopsis variant with less cuticular wax, one that overproduces the wax, and a third wild variety.

“The plant with less wax actually froze earlier than the wild type or the one that had more wax. Results were also similar in terms of water loss,” she said. “It reinforced our thinking that these particular components in the cuticular layer are important not just to one stress but to multiple stresses.”

Cuticular waxes are a mixture of very long-chain, water-repelling fatty acids. The longer the chain, the more water-repellent the wax, thus less water can adhere to a plant’s leaves, stems, flowers and other surfaces to freeze, she said.

The researchers used the Mid-IR beamline at the CLS to study Arabidopsis leaves to the depth of two microns (two millionths of a meter), which provided information on the quantity and quality of the surface wax.

A plant freezes from the outside in, Tanino explained. Once water freezes on the outer surfaces, it quickly propagates inside the plant, where frozen cells then die. She argues that the best way to keep plants from freezing is by selecting waxy varieties. Breeding strong water-repellent qualities into cultivars will repel water from adhering to the surface.

“There are enzymes and biochemical pathways that upregulate this wax biosynthesis. So, if breeders and molecular geneticists can identify the target and then select from tens of thousands of potential pathways, they may be able to develop more climate adaptive plants a lot sooner in a lab than by exposing them to whatever stress exists in the fields,” Tanino said. More waxy types also did not appear to have reduced yield.

Research funding was from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, and the Saskatchewan Wheat Development Commission.

Bioreactors chip away at nitrogen pollution








This is huge.  We have discussed the need for woodlot grooming from the very beginning.  This naturally produces tons of woodchips.  These can then be easily used to make paths in the woodlot as  a default disposal,


More recent work showed us that a simple horizonal drum with a one third opening can be easily used to convert wood chips in particular to biochar.  This is eassily quenched and mixed with earth or even sand and processed through a rotory screen in order to break it all down..  This can use a lot of hte available feed stock.


Now we discover that field drainage can be fed into a capture tank loaded with wood chips in order to grab the nitrogen fertyilizer that is running off.  Obviously a bit tricky to impliment but it does mean that we do not have to abandon nitrogen fertizer completely to the river system.


Bioreactors chip away at nitrogen pollution



June 16, 2021 - Bioreactors are underground trenches filled with woodchips. They have been gaining traction as a tool to remove nitrogen from the water in agricultural settings.

The water draining from fields is channeled into the bioreactors. Natural microbes living on the woodchips remove the nitrogen compounds in the water as it flows through.

Because it is the bacteria that do this water-cleaning process, it's called a biological process, hence the name bioreactor.

The water exiting the bioreactors has much less nitrogen, making it healthier for the environment.

In a new study, researchers tested parameters that could help estimate the working lifespan of these bioreactors. The research was published in Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment, a publication of the American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America.

“Our goal is to give farmers and other stakeholders a better understanding of how long these systems will last when they are used in the field,” says Abby Schaefer, lead author of the study.

The study spanned two years. The researchers tested nine bioreactors. By the end of that time, all the bioreactors were still effectively removing nitrogen from the water.

Removing nitrogen from the drainage water in agricultural settings is crucial because nitrogen can be a double-edged sword.

Crops need nitrogen to grow and produce food. But too much nitrogen in the wrong place can cause problems.

Excess nitrogen can contaminate groundwater and waterways. In these aquatic environments, too much nitrogen can fuel harmful algal blooms.

The algae quickly use up all the oxygen in water bodies. This can lead to dead zones, which are areas with too little oxygen to support life.

Woodchip bioreactors are one way to reduce the amount of nitrogen entering waterways. The bioreactors have several advantages over other denitrifying techniques.

Bioreactors can consistently reduce 30-50% of nitrogen compounds from water. “Some bioreactors can achieve even higher reductions,” adds Schaefer.

“Bioreactors require very little land to be taken out of crop production,” says Schaefer. “Plus, they require very little maintenance.”

The bioreactors also do not impact the effectiveness of farm tile drainage systems. This means water in fields can still be drained to help prevent flooding.

One challenge with woodchip bioreactors is the settling and breakdown of the woodchips. This affects how efficiently the bioreactors work.

The researchers found that the woodchips closer to the entryway of the bioreactors settled and broke down faster than woodchips further inside.

That’s an important finding. Woodchips near the bioreactor inlets can be replenished without having to excavate the entire bioreactor.

Additionally, the researchers determined that the first three-quarters of the bioreactors was where most of the nitrogen compounds were removed from water.

That means replacing the woodchips near the entry point of a bioreactor could prolong the lifespan.

The team also studied the amount of time any given drop of water spends within the bioreactor. This measurement is called the hydraulic retention time.

“Hydraulic retention time is one of the main criteria for designing denitrifying bioreactors,” says Schaefer. “We wanted to understand the impact the retention time has on all facets of bioreactor performance.”

The researchers tested three different hydraulic retention times: 2 hours, 8 hours, and 16 hours. Most changes seen in the bioreactors over time were similar for the different retention times tested.

However, woodchips decomposed faster when the hydraulic retention time was 2 hours. But those bioreactors still removed nitrogen compounds from water effectively.

Schaefer and colleagues are now aiming to have a better understanding of how the bioreactors work over even longer periods of time.

Abby Schaefer is a researcher and engineer at Iowa State University. This work was supported by the Iowa Nutrient Research Center.

Photo Caption: Concrete linings are partially filled with woodchips during installation and monitoring wells are visible.




American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Crop Science Society of America: Collectively, these Societies represent more than 12,000 individual members around the world. Members are researchers and professionals in the areas of growing our world’s food supply while protecting our environment. Together we work toward solutions to advance scientific knowledge in the areas of agronomy, crop science, and soil science.

‘Hundreds’ of Whistleblowers Say Military Forcing ‘Anti-American Indoctrination’ on Them: Sen. Cotton




This cannot stand of course.  The direct cinsequence of introducing racism at this level is that it leads direcftly to the emergence of a defensive counter movement amoung each separate identifiable faux racial grouping.  This after decades of going the other way.

Again i do think htat all this as part of the general disclosure taking place..

In the end, all marxists and their running dogs will be stripped of position and become agricultural laborers for a decade or two.



Sen. Tom Cotton (R-Ark.) speaks during a hearing to examine United States Special Operations Command and United States Cyber Command in review of the Defense Authorization Request for fiscal year 2022 and the Future Years Defense Program, on Capitol Hill in Washington on March 25, 2021. (Andrew Harnik-Pool/Getty Images)



‘Hundreds’ of Whistleblowers Say Military Forcing ‘Anti-American Indoctrination’ on Them: Sen. Cotton


June 10, 2021 Updated: June 10, 2021



https://www.theepochtimes.com/mkt_morningbrief/hundreds-of-whistleblowers-say-military-forcing-anti-american-indoctrination-on-them-sen-cotton_3853770.html?




Sen. Tom Cotton (R-Ark.) told Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin on June 10 that “hundreds” of military whistleblowers have reported being forced to receive “anti-American indoctrination” training, including critical race theory (CRT).

In a Senate hearing with Austin, Cotton claimed that within the military, there’s “plummeting morale, growing mistrust between races and sexes where none existed just six months ago and unexpected retirements and separations based on these trainings alone.”

One whistleblower, Cotton alleged, said that military history training was replaced with training about police brutality, “systemic racism,” and “white privilege.” Another said that his unit had to read “White Fragility” by feminist author and critical theory proponent Robin DiAngelo, according to the senator.

In May, the Space Force confirmed it relieved Lt. Col. Matthew Lohmeier, a former instructor and fighter pilot, as commander of the 11th Space Warning Squadron. While it didn’t specifically name the reason why Lohmeier was terminated, the Space Force cited comments made by Lohmeier during a podcast in which he denounced CRT and warned about the spread of Marxism within the Space Force’s ranks.

CRT, which draws heavily upon Marxist critical theory and postmodernist writers, denounces U.S. and Western culture as oppressive, and often claims American culture and institutions are promoting “systemic racism” or “white supremacy.” Some critics have said the ideology’s proponents apply the Marxist tactic of “class struggle” to drive people along the lines of gender, race, and ethnicity, rather than between the “proletariat” and “bourgeoisie.”


Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin speaks during a briefing at the Pentagon in Washington on May 6, 2021. (Susan Walsh/AP Photo)

In the hearing, Austin told Cotton that some training is designed to make sure that the armed forces are “welcoming to everyone who can qualify and who is fit to serve.”

“We ought to look like the America we support and defend, and senior leadership should look like what’s in the ranks,” Austin said.

But Cotton suggested that claims the military is attempting to foster diversity with such training are incorrect.

“[It’s] about a very specific kind of anti-American indoctrination that is seeping into some parts of our military, based on the whistleblower complaints we have received,” he said.

“The military for decades has been one of the institutions in society where you are most likely to get ahead based on your own performance, your own merit, irrespective of the color of your skin, where you came from, who your parents were.”

Austin agreed with Cotton’s sentiment.

“I absolutely agree with that. I am an example of that,” he said.

Austin went on to state that the military needs to be “a bit better,” be “absolutely inclusive,” and promote “equity.” The terms “inclusive” and “equity” have been used in social justice circles for years.

Austin then argued that by doing so, it’ll be the “most effective and lethal fighting force in the world.”

Bill Gates’ Vaccine Experiment with Indian Tribal Girls in 2009





There is a narritive out there that Gates and his wife were seized and lynched in 2013.  since then we have watched a faux Gates strut the world stage.  I do give that tale some credence simply because his promotion of vaccines is certainly scripted and represent no particular subtlety.


It is following a plan and it is not changing to respond to incresing disclosure.

The disaster in India is on the record and we sit in the developed world pretending it does not exist.  It is dangerous to dump foreign substances into the blood stream and many times so if they are biologicals.  It is at best crazy and must suffer decades of lab testing in order to master the induced pathways.


Bill Gates’ Vaccine Experiment with Indian Tribal Girls in 2009


Global Research, June 14, 2021


All Global Research articles can be read in 51 languages by activating the “Translate Website” drop down menu on the top banner of our home page (Desktop version).


Selected quotations from Transcript

Indian tribal girls were used as guinea pigs.

With 1.3 billion people, India is a good base for pharmaceutical companies to make a killing and also kill a lot of people in the process.

The manipulation of people by the media.

It is so terrifying what they are doing.

“We are taking things that are genetically modified organisms and injecting them into little kids arms…”, says Bill Gates

Over 490 000 children in India developed paralysis as a result of the Gates supported vaccine.

There was a parliamentary inquiry, and the Gates Foundation was excluded from India.

And Now they are back, doing their own tricks again.

Friday, June 18, 2021

A Real 'Magic Garden' in Kentucky



This is not the first report that i have seen but those others come from the past.  I have always dismissed the whole meme as impossible.  Yet the last fifteen years have also discoved thousands of real reports that conform to various memes and some of those memes are about real intelligence bedise our own

Notice here that they have apparently made outright peace with the humans while also augmenting the gardens in a remarkable manner.  We have seen this before with sasquatch, so it is likely that a legitimate fairy folk would do as much.

We can see serious future cooperation betywenn such creatures, even more so that with sasquatch.  We are by inclination, gardeners of the first order.  working directly with a fairy folk should produce increased quality and production.  Human like helpers getting about like a humming bird has potential.

I also think that they do need to operate in close company with humanity for best effect.  We do the heavy lifting in managing the wild wood.  Our nascent tech will expand the human range to cover the whole Earth.  




A Real 'Magic Garden' in Kentucky


Monday, June 14, 2021

https://www.phantomsandmonsters.com/2021/06/a-real-magic-garden-in-kentucky.html?

A woman relates her experience in a 'magic garden' located in the Daniel Boone National Forest. She explains her encounters with fairies and other magical beings.

The following account was recently forwarded to me:

"Many years ago, I was dating a guy that was really into camping and hiking (as am I). We spent a lot of time camping in primitive sites, which I prefer to car camping.

He wanted to take me to visit his dear friends that lived in Kentucky. They have 150 acres in the Daniel Boone National Forest. The couple, I'll call them Dan and Gina, had an off-grid cabin that Dan had built. There was a cleared out space for the home site, and Gina grew all of their veggies and fruit. The main property was bordered/divided by a very clear creek that flowed down from a cave further up the property. It was so clear you could safely drink from it.


Gina's gardens were magical. (I'm including the only pic I have from that time.) After a very long drive to get there, my boyfriend and I got out, I met Dan and Gina, and she gave me a tour of the gardens.



Everything was lush, there were bees and butterflies and hummingbirds everywhere, and the place just felt 'sacred.' They were true stewards of this land.

As Gina was showing me a line of crops right near the tree line, I was distracted by a huge insect flying around me on my right side. I kept seeing it in my peripheral view, darting toward me and then away. I'm not afraid of bees, but this one was really persistent and seemed large.

I turned to look and my mouth fell open in shock. There, hovering at my shoulder, was a tiny little man. He had inky black hair, pointed ears, and his clothing looked almost like it was made of deep green leaves. His wings went really fast, and sounded like a hummingbird's.

I had to blink a few times, because I was sure it was drive fatigue. And then, he put his hands up near his ears, wiggled his fingers, and blew a raspberry at me, flying off.


I turned to look at Gina. I had just met her and didn't want her to think that I was a nut. She saw my face and she giggled. Then she said, in the sweetest Kentucky accent:

"Did you see one of our fairies? They must like you. You'll get to see the fairy lights tonight, and the rings tomorrow morning."

I was still kind of in a state of disbelief. Despite all the weird stuff I'd seen in my life, I had never seen fairies or gnomes or any other similar magical folk.

That night, we sat on the front porch, surrounded by trellises full of perfumed flowers, listening to the sounds of the forest. I remember Gina tapping my arm and pointing out to the far end of the cleared yard. There were tiny lights in the grass. Not like fireflies. These held a steady glow and moved up into the air, then down. Then up, and repeated. This went on for at least an hour. We watched in silence. It felt like we were in a magic bubble.

That night, my boyfriend and I camped outside in a tent. I slept deeply and woke early, before anyone else. I tiptoed outside, walking barefoot in the grass. I remember the feeling of dew on my feet. And as I walked around, I saw three different circles in the grass. Perfect imprints, where the grass was flattened down in a circle.


The rest of my visit included a lot of incredible experiences, including getting to know Dan and Gina and enjoying being in an off-grid paradise. We hiked up to the cave, and wandered toward its deep back, where there were many petroglyphs left by tribes a long time ago. Dan told us that if you went at night, you could hear drumming and chanting in the caves, but we didn't go back. I felt like it was almost trespassing, as though hundreds of eyes were on us. I just had such a feeling of reverence while on that land.

Many years later, I think about them and wonder if they still live there, tending the land, protecting the magical folk." M

Wall Street Giants Want to Be Your Landlord




We are printing a lot of money.  financial products have been bought up.  So where do you place all your available cash and credit.  The best option is simply to dump it willy nilly into land as it becomes available.

We all have plenty of alternative choices but the problem is the supply.  Even gold ladies. This is an indication of way too much mony chasing scarce financial products.

Bill gates buying farm land my be no more than an effort to preserve.


 Wall Street Giants Want to Be Your Landlord - Data Shows Megabanks Are Buying up All the US Real Estate

https://news.bitcoin.com/wall-street-giants-want-to-be-your-landlord-data-shows-megabanks-are-buying-up-all-the-us-real-estate/

Homebuyers in the United States have found difficulties acquiring single-family homes after the year-long business shutdowns and lockdowns that followed Covid-19. It seems there’s a new wave of homebuyers in the U.S. real estate market, with buyers stemming from hedge funds, pension funds, clearinghouses, and financial services companies. The weight of real estate property under the U.S. banking system’s wings today has analysts and economists very concerned about the next financial crisis.

Wall Street Bankers Are Buying up All the Single Family Homes in the US, New Breed of Buyers Pay 20 Percent Above Asking

While the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have told American citizens the nation’s economy is hunky-dory, investigators looking at statistics know something is not right. The public is well aware that the U.S. central bank increased its monetary supply more in 2020 than any year prior in the country’s history.

Following the infamous ‘Black Thursday’ on March 12, 2020, people might assume U.S. megabanks are carrying mountains of USD. Be that as it may, what’s really going down is the Federal Reserve and the American banking cartel currently sits on top of massive heaps of mortgages, land titles, and an itch for single-family homes.

Something is up in the land of U.S. real estate, as data and a number of opinion editorials show that the Federal Reserve and U.S. mega-banks are seemingly manipulating the market. Mainstream media has been reporting on the real estate market going haywire with demand, but experts on social media are digging further. A constitutionalist commentator on Twitter dubbed “Culturalhusbandry” has been discussing the subject alongside journalist Tim Pool from the Youtube channel Timcast IRL.


“I just got denied a loan for a small single-family home,” Pool said to his 815K Twitter followers on Thursday. “I kinda think the market is rigged right now. It makes absolutely no sense. My credit is extremely high, my income is also very high. But they said my credit was too low which is absolutely not true. What’s creepy is that all this talk about firms buying up houses on the spot in cash. I’m fortunate enough that I don’t need a loan to buy a house so I can just walk past them. But what about any other working-class person?” Pool asked his followers.


The host of Timcast IRL further added:


What if Blackrock is quietly bailing out banks. Tons of mortgages unpaid over covid lockdown and they are covering up bad loans.

Wall Street Wants to be Your Landlord — the ‘Great Reset’ Agenda

The real estate market has people worried that the banking cartel may try to pull another financial disaster as they did back in FDR’s day and during the financial crisis of 2008.


Some have been speculating that the real estate bubble in 2020 and into 2021, is the start of the global elite’s “Great Reset” agenda. While many think the Great Reset is merely a conspiracy theory, the U.S. property market indicates the likeliness of a possible future where: “You’ll own nothing, and you’ll be happy.” The constitutionalist commentator Culturalhusbandry believes this is the case.


“Blackrock is buying every single-family house they can find, paying 20-50% above asking price and outbidding normal home buyers,” Culturalhusbandry tweeted. “Why are corporations, pension funds, and property investment groups buying entire neighborhoods out from under the middle class? Let’s take a look. Homes are popping up on MLS and going under contract within a few hours. Blackrock, among others, are buying up thousands of new homes and entire neighborhoods,” the Twitter account with 33,000 followers said.

Culturalhusbandry doesn’t just speculate on Twitter about the reality of this massive buying as the commentator has shared a myriad of sources showing that mega banks are buying up all the U.S. real estate. The Twitter account shared reports stemming from the Wall Street Journal, Propertyreporter, New York Post, Atlantic, American Economic Liberties Project, and Barron’s which all explain that Wall Street wants to be “your new landlord.” Culturalhusbandry further said:


The Great Reset is real. It is happening. This will be the greatest transfer of wealth, and greatest consolidation of power in the history of mankind.


Estimates show the U.S. Federal Reserve’s 2020 M1 increase eclipsed two centuries of USD creation. It is also estimated that 24 to 30% of all USD was created in 2020 and Q1 2021. Moreover, the central bank’s M1 chart posted on the Fed’s website was discontinued. In recent times, inflation has gripped the American economy and the U.S. dollar has been very weak.


Investigative reports and data now show that the M1 expansion found its way into the U.S. real estate market and the banking cartel has captured a lot of property during the last year. Despite a few reverse repos, mortgage-backed securities (MBS) are being held tight by the Federal Reserve. In fact, as of June 2, 2021, the U.S. central bank owns 21% of all the mortgage bonds in America. Stats show the Fed purchased more than $100 billion per month in MBS from lenders and mega banks.


“The Fed has been aggressively buying MBS (mortgage-backed securities). Another clear example of how artificially pumping liquidity in an assets creates bubbles and issues down the line. This is not healthy,” the macroeconomic and commodities strategist Gianluca said at the end of May. The Federal Reserve’s own statistical data shows the American central bank owns around $2.273 trillion in MBS.

Well before Covid-19 made headlines in the U.S., central banks worldwide invoked massive monetary easing policy changes. Alongside this, well before Covid-19, the Federal Reserve and Wall Street banks were buying up retail and commercial properties in the form of mortgage-backed securities. Financial columnist Joy Wiltermuth from Marketwatch, reported on the Fed’s MBS purchases back in November 2019 when the bank was buying around $30 billion a month in MBS.


Wiltermuth stated that “the Fed’s goal is to eventually shed its MBS holdings,” but instead of shedding MBS, the central bank tripled its real estate buying. “What if Banks are becoming insolvent due to a year of mortgages not getting paid,” Tim Pool asked his Twitter followers the next day. “Someone will have to bail them out,” the journalist added.


What do you think about working-class homebuyers competing against the Fed and Blackrock in the U.S. housing market? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Breakthrough in Understanding How Effective Tissue Regeneration Works




This is important of course.  Do take note.

Tissue regen has been always a problem because of scaring..

Discovering a new method is useful and may avoid the scaring problem



Breakthrough in Understanding How Effective Tissue Regeneration Works


June 13, 2021 by Brian Wang


https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2021/06/breakthrough-in-understanding-how-effective-tissue-regeneration-works.html?

A researcher has discovered an alternative signaling pathway that is compatible with regeneration of tissues. This could ultimately lead to regenerative medicine therapies for humans. This could help us to create therapies that improve clinical outcomes in diseases in which scarring plays a major role in the pathology, including heart, kidney, liver, and lung disease.

The signaling response of a class of proteins called toll-like receptors (TLRs), which allow macrophages to recognize a threat such an infection or a tissue injury and induce a pro-inflammatory response, were “unexpectedly divergent” in response to injury in the axolotl and the mouse. The finding offers an intriguing window into the mechanisms governing regeneration in the axolotl.


Abstract
Background

Efficient wound healing or pathogen clearance both rely on balanced inflammatory responses. Inflammation is essential for effective innate immune-cell recruitment; however, excessive inflammation will result in local tissue destruction, pathogen egress, and ineffective pathogen clearance. Sterile and nonsterile inflammation operate with competing functional priorities but share common receptors and overlapping signal transduction pathways. In regenerative organisms such as the salamander, whole limbs can be replaced after amputation while exposed to a nonsterile environment. In mammals, exposure to sterile-injury Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPS) alters innate immune-cell responsiveness to secondary Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) exposure.

Results

Using new phospho-flow cytometry techniques to measure signaling in individual cell subsets we compared mouse to salamander inflammation. These studies demonstrated evolutionarily conserved responses to PAMP ligands through toll-like receptors (TLRs) but identified key differences in response to DAMP ligands. Co-exposure of macrophages to DAMPs/PAMPs suppressed MAPK signaling in mammals, but not salamanders, which activate sustained MAPK stimulation in the presence of endogenous DAMPS.

Conclusions

These results reveal an alternative signal transduction network compatible with regeneration that may ultimately lead to the promotion of enhanced tissue repair in mammals.

SOURCES – Development Dynamics

Written by Brian Wang, Nextbigfuture.com

How To Set Up A Low Tech Mushroom Farm




In case you have not noticed. mushrooms are invading our food space.  This is long overdue.  It will naturally become a huge part of the food industry.  It took a long time simply because the art of production has been difficult to master, but that is behind us and it is now been implimented globally.

Until recently we all grew up with button mushrooms and shitaki were an obscure mushroom only seen in oreintal dishes.  Now we have a wide selection all succumbing to a butter based saute at least.

Mushrooms happen to be an excellent sub for meat and this alone will expand its natural market.  I prefer portobello for making up a hamburger.


How To Set Up A Low Tech Mushroom Farm


https://grocycle.com/how-to-set-up-a-low-tech-mushroom-farm/

Here’s a quick run down of what we’ll cover in this article:
Why Mushrooms are a great crop to grow
Why they’re perfect for small-scale local food production
How many mushrooms can be grown in a small unused space
Why low-tech mushroom farming is the easiest method
Some ideas for generating income from mushrooms

Ok, if that sounds like something you want to learn more about, let’s get stuck in!:



You can also download this article as a free ebook


Small Scale Food Growing
Article Contents: show

Imagine being able to grow lots of high-value local food, in an easy and reliable way.

You don’t need access to land, and chances are that no one else in your area is already doing it.

You could make a part time income from it, or run it as a community food project.

Sounds impossible?

Then chances are you already know a bit about growing food on a small scale.

You probably already know that growing food can be a hard way to earn money and that it’s labour intensive.

Not just that – you probably also know that you need to grow a lot of produce, have good growing skills AND access to land.



But do you also know that you can grow a lot of high-value mushrooms in un-used spaces, and that it can be quite quick to learn?

If not, let me tell you a bit about it, and why I’m such a fan of growing them. I’ll also point you in the direction of how to get started if it interests you.

Learning how to grow mushrooms is more straightforward than you might think, read my complete guide of How To Grow Mushrooms.


Example of small scale mushroom growing
10m2
Growing Space
12 hrs
Of Work
10Kg
Mushrooms grown


Note: this is just an example of one small scale setup’s weekly metrics.

You can obviously grow on a bigger or smaller scale than this too.

Grow Fast, Grow Anywhere


Oysters mushrooms, ready to harvest just 7 days after starting to grow out of the bag

Gourmet mushroom varieties like Oyster and Shiitake fetch a high price and are actually relatively simple to grow.

When I set out learning how to grow them back in 2008 with just a book to learn from, it took around a year for me to get reliable results, but I’ve since taught many people who have learnt in a matter of hours.

The way they’re grown under easily controlled conditions makes them very reliable and consistent once you’ve got the hang of it.

And wow, do they grow fast!

Oysters (the easiest variety to learn) can grow in just 3-4 weeks from start to finish – and you can grow a crop like this every week of the year.

You can also grow a lot in a small space, but more about that in a minute.

Take a look inside our low tech mushroom farm in this short video tour of our growing set up:


Local Mushrooms Rule!

The thing about small-scale local mushroom growing is that your mushrooms will be so much better than what’s likely to already be available in your local area.

Mushrooms are normally grown in huge factory-like farms and travel long distances to reach the end consumer.

And being the fresh and fragile things that they are, they don’t travel well.

If you take a tray of beautiful freshly harvested mushrooms to the best restaurants, farmers markets and food outlets in your local area, you’re likely to see them snapped up pretty fast.


3 different varieties of Oyster mushrooms being trimmed ready for sale
How To Start Your Own Mini Mushroom Farm In 5 Steps

I’d love to see more small scale mushrooms farmers out there bringing top quality mushrooms to their local area.

But I’m aware it can feel a bit overwhelming with lots to learn.

To help, I’ve written an overview of the 5 main steps you’d need to take and some useful tips to get started:
1) Find some space

Most indoor spaces can be adapted for use, but maybe the best way to approach this is by asking what kind of space do mushrooms need to grow?


The 3 Main Stages Of The Mushroom Growing Cycle

There are 3 main stages to the growing process, each requiring a different space:
Stage 1: Mixing & Inoculation – where the substrate ingredients & mushroom spawn are mixed and bagged (more on this process in a minute)
Stage 2: Incubation – where the grow bags are left in a warm dark space for the spawn to grow throughout the bag
Stage 3: Fruiting – where the colonised bag is exposed to fresh air, humidity and a little light which causes the mushrooms to ‘fruit’.





Stages 1 & 2 can be done in lots of different spaces and just require some basic equipment such as a compost tumbler, workbench, shelving and a few conditions like being able to clean easily and, in the case of the incubation space, to be easily kept at around 20-24C.

Out of the different stages, stage 3 is the trickiest to create, but certainly possible for most people to create for less than $1000.

I’ve built a few different fruiting room designs over the years, but our most recent one is the cheapest and simplest, built inside a hydroponics grow tent like this one.


Our cheapest and simplest fruiting room being built.

That grow room only took 2 days to set up and cost under $1500 (the shelves were a 3rd of the cost – it could be cheaper with existing or lower cost shelving).

The size of the space you need depends on lots of factors like how many mushrooms you’re aiming to grow, how you build your fruiting room and what options you have available to you.


As a guide though, if you optimised everything well, you’d be able to grow up to 50kg of mushrooms a week in a space of around 30m2, and this includes all of the 3 spaces mentioned above.

You may not want to grow this many if you’re working on your own though, as it’s a lot of work.

As a guideline, it’ll take you around 10-15 hours/week to grow 10kg mushrooms on a regular weekly cycle.

The essentials are really just access to water and electric, and being able to add a simple ducting installation bringing air in and out of the growing space.


There are loads of unused spaces out there, and often you can get them for low rent or even free.

We were given free use of a 125m2 space in an office building right in the middle of a city centre, which is where the UK’s first Urban Mushroom farm is based.

You could also use spare space in garages, basements, barns, shipping containers – someone we know is even looking at setting up in an old disused toilet block!

No kidding, she’s thinking that the disabled room would make a perfect mixing room, the gents a great incubation room, and the ladies an ideal spot for the mushrooms to fruit – pure genius!
2) Decide on your design

Once you’ve got an idea of where you might base your mini mushroom farm, you can start to imagine what your farm might look like – it’s time for a design.

There are so many different ways of designing your setup depending on the space you have and your budget, but I’ll show you some examples to help give you the general idea.
Mixing & Inoculation


Our mixing & inoculation room. Nice and simple – just a compost tumbler and workbench (we don’t even use the Hepa air filters these days)

The mixing and incubation rooms are simple and can be created easily in lots of different types of spaces.

Above, is our mixing room at GroCycle Urban Mushroom Farm. The key aspects are just a mixing vessel for the substrate, a workbench and the ability to clean the area down easily.
Incubation


The first incubation room I built, inside a shipping container

Yep, just shelving in an insulated room! This works well for smaller bags, as are often used for Shiitake or small scale Oyster production.

You can also use hanging rails instead, like the image below, if you’re growing Oyster mushrooms in bigger column bags:


Oyster mushroom mycelium growing on coffee grounds in 12Kg hanging column bags

Depending on where you’re based you may need a heating or cooling system in place to keep the temperature around 20 – 24C, so having an insulated space will keep energy usage to a minimum.
Fruiting

There are so many different ways to go about creating your fruiting room – here’s a few ways it can be done:
DIY wood frame with plastic sheeting


Wooden stud frame with plastic sheeting, Blanc de Gris Mushroom Farm in Montreal
Walk in fridge unit


Insulated fridge panel room – providing a well insulated and sealed space, GroCycle Urban Mushroom Farm
Shipping container


Ex-refridgeration shipping containers converted into growing rooms, LifeCykel – a project in Australia that we helped to get set up
Hydroponics tent


Our most recent fruiting room – The Mini Mushroom Farm, built inside a hydroponics tent

There’s ups and down to each of these options, and it’s difficult for me to say which one would be best for you, as it depends on your space and budget.

If you join our free email course (below) you’ll get to learn more about why we think the hydroponics tent is a great option for most people just getting started.
3)Build your farm

Once you’ve decided on your design, it’s time to roll up your sleeves and build it.

There’s a lot of detail for this stage – way too much to cover in any useful way in this article – but it’s totally do-able for most people, regardless of your skills.

Eric (who I run GroCycle with), and I are pretty basic at DIY, yet we built this little 5m2 fruiting room quickly and easily in a couple of days.

Check out this short timelapse showing the first afternoon we spent on it:


When we built our bigger Urban Mushroom Farm setup, we did some of the work ourselves and simply asked a friend who was a builder/carpenter to help with the rest.

The point is, if you want to do it, you can make it happen. It’s not rocket science, and it can also be done on a budget to begin with and improved over time if you’re short of funds.
4)Start Growing (The Low Tech Way)

Let’s imagine for a moment that you’ve now created the spaces for your mini mushroom farm and are ready to get growing.


There are different ways of going about growing mushrooms, but I believe that the best way when growing on a small scale is the “Low-Tech” way.






Low-tech mushroom growing is a method we’ve been working on over the last few years which doesn’t require the large, expensive and energy-intensive equipment normally used in commercial mushroom growing.

Normally the substrate ingredients (often straw or sawdust) are heated to high temperatures in order to pasteurise them and kill off any competitor organisms.

Low-tech methods bypass this step or find low energy ways to achieve the same outcome.

For example we grow Oyster mushrooms on coffee grounds (already pasteurised from the brewing process), sawdust pellets (already pasteurised from the heat created during their production), or straw (easily pasteurised by soaking in a high pH cold water bath).


Waste coffee grounds – a plentiful (and already pasteurised) resource

Other features of the low-tech approach involve using fast growing, aggressive strains, and by using higher spawn rates than are normally used in large mushroom farms.

If you are looking for a low-tech ways of growing mushrooms, read my guides:

To give you an idea of how simple it can be, here’s a free video teaching you how to grow mushrooms on coffee grounds on a very small scale:


HOW TO GROW OYSTER MUSHROOMS ON COFFEE GROUNDS

Summary Instructions

Clean work surface & mixing container
Weigh out all materials before mixing
Mix thoroughly, breaking up and pucks of coffee as you go
Fill grow bags & seal
Incubate in warm (20-24C) dark space for 2-3 weeks
Cut holes & place bags in autumn-like conditions (humid, fresh air)
Harvest mushrooms 1-2 weeks later.

Example mix shown in this video:
3kg fresh coffee grounds
600g pasteurised straw
300g Oyster mushroom spawn



Oyster mushrooms are by far the easiest to get started with, and can be grown reliably with high yields using low-tech methods.

For more info on growing Oyster mushrooms, check out our in-depth step by step guide to growing Oyster mushrooms here.

Over the last couple of years we’ve been trialing other varieties using the low-tech approach as well.

Most other gourmet varieties so far have produced mixed results, but through lots of experiments we’re now having reliable and good success with Shiitake mushrooms – one of the most highly prized gourmet varieties.


Shiitake mushrooms – grown using simple low-tech methods

I’m sure with more experimentation other varieties will be mastered soon as well.


The point here is that compared to traditional growing methods, this low-tech way of growing is much easier and cheaper for people to set-up and run successfully.

It’s also easier to learn. When I first started growing mushrooms I had to learn detailed laboratory techniques in order to get consistent results.

Now you can learn the basics in a few hours and be successfully growing right from the start.
5) Harvesting & Selling Your mushrooms

Now picture your first bags have colonised well and after 2-3 weeks you put them in your new fruiting room.

You watch tiny mushroom pins appear and then grow, doubling in size every day, until they are magnificent mushrooms and ready for you to harvest.


You hear a crisp sound as you twist them off the bag……



You place them in a tray, alongside other perfectly formed mushrooms, and start thinking about who will get to enjoy them at their best.


Where To Sell Your Mushrooms

Here’s a few ideas of where you could sell them:
Your local farmers market: farmers markets have become massive in recent years as people seek out high quality produce from small artisan producers. Take your mushrooms along and you’ll find plenty of interest.
The best restaurants in your area: good chefs instantly recognise the high quality and taste of fresh mushrooms & are happy to pay for them – especially if they can advertise you as a local supplier on their menu.
Your local veg box CSA scheme: having a diverse selection of locally grown crops really helps generates interest. Adding mushrooms will excite box customers & keep them happy through the leaner months.
Nearby health or wholefoods stores: people who appreciate fresh & local food tend to either get a veg box or they shop for it at specialist food stores. Local mushrooms go down great in these stores too.


Oyster mushrooms, cooked within hours of harvest – coming to a restaurant near you?