Tuesday, May 31, 2022

The Quest for Fusion Energy

At some point, you wonder if it is all hopeless. At least now we have an array of new smaller test beds to work from.

As I have said before, the fusion reactor of Focus fusion has an excellent chance of going to the stars not least because of a low fuel demand compared to a giga systems for household heating.

It is also our best chance of achieving all the implied scientific goals.

This item discusses the woes of big science in fusion.


The Quest for Fusion Energy


IN RECENT YEARS, a steady flow of press releases from nuclear fusion research projects has hailed breakthrough advances and new record yields. Despite the relentlessly optimistic tone of these announcements and the repeated claims that the prospects for commercialization have never looked brighter, the stark reality is that practical fusion-based electric power remains a distant prospect. It is likely unachievable anytime in the next half a century.

Even then, it may still remain beyond our grasp.

The most readily accessible nuclear fusion process combines the hydrogenic isotopes deuterium and tritium to release energy in the form of energetic neutrons and helium ions. There are two broad approaches toward achieving terrestrial fusion. In magnetic confinement fusion (MCF), magnetic fields are used to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a fully ionized gas or plasma that persists for seconds or longer. In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser or particle beams are used to compress and heat a tiny capsule of fusion fuel to generate a micro-explosion of a nanosecond duration.

The most advanced MCF device currently in operation is the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak located at the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy in the United Kingdom.1 Commissioned almost 40 years ago, JET is one of the world’s two largest tokamaks and the only MCF device presently equipped to use tritium fuel. The ICF approach is exemplified by the laser-induced micro-explosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) near Livermore, California.2 Completed in 2009 at a cost of around US$5 billion, NIF is the world’s most powerful laser-driven fusion facility.

This essay is concerned with scientific feasibility, a basic prerequisite that the reacting fusion medium must satisfy before it can be developed as the basis for a commercial fusion power reactor. A demonstration of scientific feasibility is usually taken as the achievement of fusion energy breakeven. This condition is met when the fusion energy produced during a pulse is equal to or greater than the energy applied from external sources to heat the plasma during that pulse.

During the last 12 months, a clear disparity in relative performance between MCF and ICF has emerged. This was evident from the results of the near-simultaneous deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments that took place at the NIF and JET facilities during 2021. These were the most important ICF and MCF experiments undertaken in the last quarter of a century. Taken together, the two sets of results have arguably the greatest significance for the development of the field since the T-3 tokamak results were presented in the summer of 1968 at an international fusion energy conference in the Soviet Union.3

This essay compares the backgrounds and outcomes of the recent D-T campaigns at the JET and NIF facilities, shows why inertial confinement has established a clear lead over magnetic confinement in attaining reactor-relevant fusion conditions, and examines the future directions of both approaches. While there is a strong argument that the scientific feasibility of ICF has been demonstrated in recent experiments, the status and prospects for MCF are far less favorable.

Scientific Feasibility and Ignition

THE FUSION ENERGY gain, Q, of a reacting plasma configuration is commonly described as the ratio of the fusion energy output released in a pulse, Ef, to the external heating energy deposited in the plasma during that pulse, Eh.

In MCF devices, the dominant heating energy is injected into the plasma by neutral particle beams and radio-frequency waves. In ICF devices with indirect drive, such as the NIF, a D-T fuel capsule is emplaced inside a tiny box, known as a hohlraum, from the German for “cavity.” The fuel capsule is then imploded and heated by x-rays generated when incident laser beams converge on the hohlraum’s interior surface. Here the definition of Eh has been a subject of debate. For the purposes of comparing MCF and ICF, Eh can be taken as the laser-generated x-ray energy incident on the fuel capsule. Around two-thirds of this energy is actually absorbed. For the NIF hohlraums, Eh amounts to around 20% of the total laser energy.

Scientific feasibility, or fusion energy breakeven, is most often described as the demonstration of Q = 1 or greater. Net electric power production requires a Q of at least 5.

Four-fifths of the output of the D-T reaction comprises neutrons that escape the reacting plasma. The remainder consists of helium ions, commonly termed alpha particles, which decelerate in the plasma and help to heat it. In quasi-steady MCF, a burning plasma is defined as one where the alpha-particle heating power is equal to or exceeds the external heating power. This condition is met when Q is 5 or greater.

Comparing powers is not meaningful for short-pulse ICF devices because the alpha-particles only begin to appear near the end of the x-ray-induced implosion. A burning plasma in ICF is one in which the total alpha-particle heating of the fuel is at least as large as the energy delivered to the fuel by the implosion.

In MCF, ignition occurs when the fusioning plasma is heated entirely by fusion alpha particles, which requires that the energy confinement time be twice that needed for Q = 5. In ICF, ignition has occurred when the core of the compressed fuel capsule continues to rise in temperature after the compression phase is complete, indicating that alpha heating exceeds radiative and kinetic energy losses during expansion cooling. Ignition may instigate a propagating thermonuclear burn into the surrounding fuel layers until the capsule disassembles.

A state close to ignition is required for the purposes of substantial net electricity production.
Magnetic Confinement Stagnation and Retreat

IN 1997, the JET project reported record results for its latest D-T campaign. These included a peak fusion output of 16 megawatts (MW) and a transient Q of 0.67. The maximum quasi-steady Q achieved was roughly 0.4.4 Each successive report from Culham and the JET project has made a point of mentioning that theirs is the only MCF facility equipped for tritium use. This exclusive status is not without disadvantages. In the absence of any equivalent facilities, independent verification becomes impossible. Indeed, more than two decades after they were announced, JET’s claimed record results still cannot be replicated elsewhere.

Even the JET project itself has been unable to reproduce these results. The records for peak power and Q achieved in 1997 have never been matched, let alone exceeded. This situation was unchanged after JET’s most recent experiments. Although no records were broken, the two campaigns that took place in 1997 and 2021 were still able to provide confirmation for D-T results obtained at an earlier tritium-fueled facility.5 Located near Princeton, New Jersey, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the only MCF facility besides JET that has been equipped to use tritium. A lengthy tritium campaign was carried out at the TFTR between 1993 and 1997 when the project was shuttered.

After JET’s record-breaking 1997 campaign, a series of performance upgrades were planned with the goal of eventually demonstrating Q = 1. Unexpected obstacles soon emerged. One of the upgrades involved replacing JET’s entire carbon plasma-facing wall—along with other materials in the divertor that exhausts outflowing particles and heat—using an array of beryllium tiles and tungsten plating. This configuration is similar to that being designed and fabricated for another much larger project in southeastern France. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility is a giant tokamak currently being constructed at Cadarache, near Aix-en-Provence.6 With three dozen countries involved in the project and an estimated cost exceeding 20 billion euros, the ITER consortium thought it important to simulate its operating environment as closely as possible using JET.

Contrary to expectations, the initial JET experiments using the upgraded reactor vessel and divertor system yielded poorer results than those achieved during the 1990s. As it turned out, the shortfall was mainly due to beryllium and tungsten ions invading the plasma. It was only after many years had been spent developing complex mitigation techniques that previous performance levels using deuterium could be achieved. These efforts involved elaborate manipulations of the plasma edge and outflowing plasmas, along with special heating and fueling strategies.

Most tokamak research during the last 25 years has focused on mitigating the interaction of the plasma with the surrounding solid surfaces and finding ways to remove particles and heat. Once the plasma instabilities that have plagued MCF devices are under control, attention will then turn to pacifying these environmental interactions. One source of tokamak instability that appears to be unavoidable is plasma disruption.7 This is a fairly common event that results in the entire plasma energy striking the wall, causing intense sputtering and melting with a huge influx of impurities for many subsequent discharges.

Preparing for tritium use in an MCF device is a complicated and time-consuming operation. After two decades of preparation, including the aforementioned upgrades, JET restarted tritium operations in late 2020. Essentially pure tritium plasmas with relatively low neutron yields were produced in the months that followed, until D-T operation began in August 2021.

That the latest JET results should be regarded as especially important will come as a surprise to most observers. Prior to a recent press conference, there had been little, if any, news from the project during the previous twelve months. By contrast, countless press releases were issued by other MCF projects during the same period, heralding record pulse lengths, breakthrough magnet designs, and enhanced heat removal as notable advances. On the topic of actual fusion production, the details provided were scarce, or entirely absent.

On February 9, 2022, the JET project finally held a major press conference to announce their latest results.8 The peak fusion power generated in 2021 was reported as 13MW transiently, while the maximum transient Q was about 0.4—compared with the record figures of 16MW and 0.67 achieved in 1997. The maximum quasi-steady Q value was 0.33, compared with 0.4 in 1997. In fact, JET’s latest results were not much of an improvement over the best achieved by the TFTR in the mid-1990s: 10.7MW of fusion power, a transient Q of 0.28, and a quasi-steady Q of 0.18.9

Among the 2021 results from JET, a maximum fusion yield per shot of 59 megajoules (MJ) was described as a major advancement. This result was more than double the best yield in 1997: 22MJ. The fact that 40% higher injected heating power was needed to achieve this result received less coverage. But even this apparently favorable result was not as it seemed.
Beam-Thermal versus Thermonuclear Fusion

IN PLASMAS HEATED by neutral particle beams, fusion is generated by beam ions reacting with the thermalized plasma ions, termed beam-thermal reactions, and by reactions among the thermalized ions. The latter process is known as thermonuclear fusion. For a purely beam-thermal system, the maximum theoretical Q is limited to less than 2.10 To stand any chance of producing Q > 5, the value required for net power output, thermonuclear fusion must predominate over beam-thermal reactions.

In the 2021 JET experiments, most pulses used a 50:50 D-T ratio for both the beams and thermal plasma. By contrast, the 59MJ shot extolled in the most recent press conference used 100% D beams and an overwhelmingly tritium thermal plasma.11 Although the full details have not yet been released, it appears that at least 75% of the fusion output resulted from D beam ions reacting with thermal tritium ions. No more than 25% of the fusion output, or 15MJ, came from thermonuclear reactions among the thermal deuterons and tritons.

The JET results from its 1997 D-T campaign were one of the most important justifications for proceeding with the ITER project. With a maximum thermonuclear Q around 0.20, the 2021 results give plenty of reason to be apprehensive about ITER’s performance, which is supposed to achieve Q ~ 10.
Inertial Confinement Advances

WHEN THE NIF first began operating in 2010, its fusion yield was an extremely low 2.5 kilojoule (kJ) per pulse. The Q was similarly underwhelming and no higher than had been achieved years previously by the OMEGA laser facility at the University of Rochester—a system that possessed only a tiny fraction of the laser energy available at NIF.12 There ensued a nearly decade-long development program that roughly coincided with the efforts at JET to reproduce its 1990s performance levels.

While tokamak R&D has been primarily focused on the interaction between the reacting plasma with its surroundings, laser-induced fuel compression R&D is centered on the design of the hohlraum and its interior fuel capsule. The main objective is to improve the spherical symmetry of the fuel capsule implosion. The vastly expanded implosion diagnostics available at NIF led to manufacturing improvements and innovations such as varying the size and shape of the hohlraum; modifying the size, shell materials, and thickness of the fuel capsule; minimizing micron-sized perturbations of the capsule surface; altering the membrane system that suspends the capsule within the hohlraum; and determining the optimal concentration of the helium gas used to fill the hohlraum. Experiments focused on the time waveforms of the 192 laser power pulses reduced nonuniformities in the beams and helped researchers microtune their wavelengths. This broad development program proved marvelously successful, generating a series of advances in NIF’s fusion yield and Q: 25kJ in 2014, 55kJ in 2017–18, and 170kJ in 2020­–21, with a maximum laser input of 1.9MJ.13

Between November 2020 and February 2021, the NIF produced a number of record shots at the 100kJ level. Four shots producing 98, 106, 160, and 171kJ generated a burning plasma. In each case, the alpha-particle heating of the D-T fuel exceeded the heating provided by the capsule implosion.14 While that process yielded Q-values of only between 0.25 and 0.45 by our definition, an MCF system would have to reach Q = 5 to achieve the same self-heating effect.

Supershot Surge

FURTHER SHOTS WITH a substantial yield were generated at NIF in the months that followed. But it was a shot generated on August 8, 2021, that convulsed the fusion world.15 The yield was 1.3MJ, eight times the previous record with Q > 3, corresponding to a fractional burnup of more than 1% of the total tritium charge. Most of the core D-T gas underwent fusion, and the fusion burn was on the threshold of propagating into the surrounding frozen D-T shell before expansion cooling killed the fusion reaction. This phenomenon was the beginning of the long-sought propagating burn.

The peak ion temperature of approximately 10 kilo-electron volts (kev) observed in this supershot was twice that of the previous record shots. The NIF project estimates that the alpha heating alone was at least twice that imparted by the implosion, corresponding roughly to Q = 10 in an MCF system.

While the supershot has not yet been replicated, four subsequent shots in 2021 produced yields of 200, 430, 460, and 700kJ—well above the most productive shots of the previous winter.16 Three of these shots comfortably demonstrated scientific feasibility, or Q > 1, when defined with respect to the total x-ray energy deposited on the fuel capsule, even if not entirely absorbed.

These high-performing shots suggest that the supershot will be eventually reproduced. This will likely occur when higher laser energy is available for the NIF. In common with the 1997 record results from JET, independent replication of the NIF results is problematic. High-intensity laser facilities almost as large as the NIF have been constructed in France, China, and Russia, but few results of any kind have been reported from those installations.

Comparative Tritium Demands

ON AVERAGE, TOKAMAK experiments use 1,000 times as much tritium per pulse as ICF experiments. This huge disparity is due to the large plasma volumes, pulse lengths of at least several confinement times, and inefficiency of fueling the core reacting region. A large tokamak such as JET requires at least 100 milligrams (mg) for each shot. Extensive plasma tune-ups must be done without tritium due to its high cost, radioactivity, and the excessive activation of structural materials by the D-T neutron output. Deuterium is generally used because it is the closest to a D-T mixture, and because the neutrons produced in D-D reactions provide unparalleled diagnostic benefits. Tritium can be introduced only after a multiyear campaign of optimizing plasma conditions in deuterium, as in JET’s campaign to recover from its wall conversion.

As part of the experiments, some tritium usually becomes embedded in the chamber structure and other components. A safety limit sets the maximum tritium use in any campaign. Many of the limited number of tokamak shots with tritium are effectively wasted, used only to load the plasma-facing walls with tritium to ensure the proper fuel mix in the plasma. Injected tritium must be recovered by processing the outgoing plasma and scouring the vessel walls.17 No MCF device other than TFTR and JET has even dared to use tritium because of its cost and safety issues.

By contrast, experimental ICF systems, such as the NIF, require less than ¼mg of tritium per shot. The tritium is preinstalled in the fuel pellet and can be abandoned after the shot. D-T neutron output is the best measure of performance; it also provides vital diagnostic information concerning plasma properties. The low fuel load per capsule makes it practical to use tritium on every shot, a procedure that is impractical in MCF. Using tritium ab initio, the NIF project circa 2010 found that fusion results were far worse than expected in comparison to computer simulations. The NIF took almost a decade of experimentation and hundreds of D-T shots, each with different parameters, before researchers were finally able to improve the fusion yield by almost three orders of magnitude.
Fantasies of Commercial Viability

EVEN IF PLASMA STABILITY issues can be resolved, MCF systems still possess an inherent weakness: the fusioning plasma must interact with its physical environment, commonly referred to as the plasma-facing walls. Over the last 25 years, tokamak researchers have succeeded in making plasma pulses progressively longer—with no attempt at fusion production. This accomplishment amounts to little more than a heat-removal and plumbing exercise that has no impact on scientific feasibility. Any claim that these incremental improvements contribute to commercial viability is dubious, at best.

The multi-minute discharges that have been reported in the last 12 months were mostly made using hydrogen or helium plasmas with no mention of fusion neutron production.18 It remains an open question whether fusion output would have been maintained during those pulses if deuterium were used. In JET’s shorter 59MJ pulse using D-T, the fusion output decreased by one-third over 5 seconds and would likely have fallen almost to zero if the pulse had been maintained for 20 seconds.

In tokamaks, physical size and magnetic field strength can be traded off, more or less, for comparable plasma performance. The most cost-effective tokamak is often thought to be as physically compact as possible, thereby requiring a much higher magnetic field. For this reason, superconducting magnetic coils are currently being developed with extremely high field strength. These will be piloted in the privately funded SPARC tokamak currently under development near Boston, Massachusetts.19 Although its diameter will be only around one-third the size of ITER, its promoters contend that SPARC will still obtain essentially the same level of fusion performance due to its magnetic field strength, which is planned to be at least twice that of ITER.

It is unclear whether extreme magnetic field strength can be utilized in a tight toroidal configuration. An isolated magnetic coil has been demonstrated to produce 20 tesla on a test stand,20 but there are daunting engineering challenges involved in stabilizing a torus where the inboard legs of the magnet coils are subjected to extraordinarily high electromechanical stresses and overturning moments. In any case, improving cost-effectiveness is surely a distraction for MCF research when there have been no advances in Q and fusion neutron power in recent decades and attaining thermonuclear fusion energy breakeven remains in doubt.

SPARC and ITER are the only future tritium-burning MCF facilities for which full funding is currently in hand. Both are scheduled to achieve their first plasmas in the mid-2020s, but these milestones will likely be delayed. Although computer simulations have indicated that both facilities will readily attain Q = 10, the development histories of MCF and ICF suggest otherwise. The predictions of computer models extrapolated to regimes that have not been entered experimentally should be treated with great caution.

Assuming that these new facilities are completed, both will face the same environmental problems that initially plagued JET and all other tokamak experiments. Unlike ICF experiments, any roadblocks that arise for MCF devices cannot be readily investigated and cured in D-T operation due to the forbidding amounts of tritium needed. SPARC and ITER will be ready for tritium use only after much experimentation using deuterium alone, a process that will likely drag on into the 2030s. The next challenge will be to achieve energy breakeven, Q = 1, with thermonuclear reactions alone. There is also no guarantee that either facility will subsequently achieve a burning plasma—a milestone already demonstrated by the NIF.
Alternative Fusion Concepts

FUSION PLASMA CONFIGURATIONS other than the tokamak, the closely related stellarator and laser-compressed pellets, are generally termed alternative fusion concepts.21 The promoters of these concepts, mainly private fusion startups, have claimed that the latest supercomputers will enable them to develop new devices much faster than their predecessors. Despite the availability of supercomputers, the vast majority of these projects are yet to produce any fusion neutrons at all. A half-dozen, at most, have produced only token amounts.22 A common refrain among all these endeavors is that fusion energy breakeven will be achieved by the mid-2020s and a commercial solution will be in place by the early 2030s. As I have explained in a pair of articles published by the American Physical Society, these claims cannot be taken seriously.23

The most promising tokamak alternatives are several magneto-inertial fusion, short-pulse, high-density plasma concepts that make use of a magnetic field, often internally generated, that slows the plasma’s disassembly. Numerous models of the venerable dense plasma focus systems first developed in the 1960s have produced up to 1 trillion neutrons per pulse in deuterium,24 but seem unable to reach higher levels. The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion imploding liner device at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has produced about 10 trillion neutrons per pulse, which is still 1,000 times smaller than the highest yields of tokamaks in deuterium operation.25

Potential Developments for Inertial Confinement

Efficient Sources of X-Rays

Any practical application for thermonuclear micro-explosions in power generation cannot use a NIF-like laser driver because its electrical efficiency is less than 1% and it can pulse only once or twice a day at the highest energy outputs. A consequential aspect of NIF operations is that fuel implosion is achieved not by laser photons, but by x-ray photons that could in principle be generated by other sources. Candidate fusion drivers include gaseous lasers,26 high-energy heavy-ion beams,27 light-ion beams, and relativistic electron beams. These energy sources can have electrical efficiencies amounting to several tens of percent and are capable of repetition rates up to 1 pulse per second. All can utilize hohlraums for conversion of the beam energy to x-rays with sufficient intensity to implode fusion fuel capsules. Thus their feasibility has been established to a limited extent by the 2021 NIF results.

Pulsed electric power can also be used as a suitable x-ray generator, without laser or particle beams. In the Z Facility at Sandia, for example, intense x-ray fluxes were produced from a cylindrical array of wires vaporized by a huge current pulse from a Marx generator and used to compress D-T fuel capsules.28

Obviating External Tritium Production

Almost all tritium available for civilian use is currently sourced from Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) fission reactors in Canada, where it is formed by neutron capture in the heavy-water (D2O) moderator, then extracted and stored. The current tritium inventory is about 30kg, but this figure will decrease drastically as reactors complete their useful life, the tritium decays, and many kilograms are consigned to ITER.29 Other CANDU reactors are found in South Korea, China, Romania, Pakistan, and Argentina, but tritium is only being extracted in South Korea. The cost of tritium is between US$30,000 and US$100,000 per gram.

A single fusion reactor producing 2 gigawatts of fusion power, converted to about 800MW of gross electrical power, would require around 100kg of tritium per year. Theoretically speaking, this enormous amount could be provided by breeding tritium in the reactor itself, whereby the fusion neutrons are absorbed in a lithium blanket surrounding the reacting plasma. But in practical terms, it will never be possible to replenish all the tritium burned and lost.30 For purely practical reasons, reactors must be fueled by deuterium alone. Igniting D-D reactions requires extremely high temperatures, density, and energy confinement time—conditions that are unlikely to be achieved in MCF systems with their synchrotron radiation loss and impurity influx.

Deuterium-based operation using tritium generated entirely within the fuel capsule appears to be feasible in advanced ICF systems with sufficiently large fusion drivers.31 The density-radius product of the compressed fuel capsule must be at least 10 times higher than for D-T,32 and the diameter of the precompression fuel pellet must be several times larger. Because of the much greater mass that must be imploded and heated, the driver energy must be as large as 100MJ, which is feasible with several of the drivers listed previously.

The capsule core and a thin inner shell would contain the usual 50:50 D-T mixture, which is ignited by compression to generate a propagating burn into the thick outer layers of the shell that contain only frozen deuterium. The much longer disassembly time of the larger capsule permits the temperature to rise high enough—50keV—that D-D fusion reactions can be ignited. These reactions produce high-energy tritons, protons, and helium-3 nuclides that maintain the plasma temperature, while subsequent reactions of those tritons and helium-3 with deuterons produce additional energetic alphas and protons that are vital to maintaining the temperature.33 Thus the reaction catalyst, tritium, is simultaneously generated and burned within the fuel capsule. While most of the tritium produced would react immediately, a tiny but sufficient amount will remain unburned for fueling the 50:50 D-T core of subsequent capsules.

Mitigation of Neutron Effects

The problems faced by MCF systems involving reactor structures made radioactive and physically weakened by neutron bombardment can be almost eliminated in ICF systems where the fusion fuel capsule must be enclosed in a one-meter-thick flowing liquid metal sphere or cylinder to accommodate the gigajoule-level impulse loading.34 This containment approach can take the form of liquid falls comprising jets of molten metal.35 The incoming fusion neutrons sustain the temperature of the circulating liquid metal, whose heat would be extracted to drive a turbine. Relatively few neutrons would strike the solid outer chamber.

If tritium must be produced externally to the reactant assembly, the molten falls must either be lithium, which presents a fire and explosion hazard, or a relatively inert material, such as lithium-lead or a molten salt. But when tritium fuel is produced entirely in the fuel capsule, as described previously, the flowing liquid wall can be an inert metal such as lead. The radioactive tritium inventory of such an ICF power plant would be a small fraction in comparison to that of an MCF power plant, thereby affording a strong safety advantage.


TWENTY-FIVE YEARS ago, MCF was thought to be on the verge of achieving fusion energy breakeven, Q = 1, perhaps even in the JET tokamak. At that time, ICF languished at Q < 0.01. This situation has now been reversed. ICF is performing at breakeven or better, and investigating burning plasmas. By contrast, MCF performance has not advanced in a quarter century.

The NIF can now produce shots yielding at least 100kJ, the equivalent of Q = 0.3. In 2021, NIF produced four shots with Q of at least 1.0. More than two decades after its first D-T campaign, the highest quasi-steady Q that JET can produce is Q ≈ ⅓. Indeed, JET still cannot achieve fusion neutron power or Q even a factor of two beyond the best results achieved by the TFTR between 1993 and 1995. Clearly, the scientific feasibility of MCF remains in question.

For typical pulses in JET and other existing large tokamaks, at least half the fusion production results from beam ions reacting with the plasma thermal ions, rather than the thermonuclear reactions that proposed future tokamak reactors will entirely depend on. The thermonuclear Q achieved by JET in 2021—that is, excluding beam-thermal reactions—was no more than 0.2. To conclusively demonstrate scientific feasibility, future large-scale MCF projects, such as ITER or SPARC, must determine whether Q can be increased by a factor of five with thermonuclear reactions alone. If this cannot be achieved, the Q of tokamaks must be seen as fundamentally limited, regardless of what any computer predictions might suggest. This limitation is partly due to the irreducible adverse interaction of the plasma with its physical environment—the plasma-facing components.

Even if thermonuclear Q = 1 can be demonstrated, there is no guarantee that a tokamak can achieve a burning plasma, Q = 5, much less the Q = 10 that some proponents treat as a foregone conclusion. The NIF has already demonstrated burning plasmas, and ITER’s attempt is more than a dozen years away, assuming the project remains on schedule.

Based on actual performance, ICF appears to be a far more likely candidate than MCF as the basis for a power plant. MCF may survive as little more than a low-Q neutron source with a dubious tritium supply. ICF also has substantial prospects for eliminating the tritium replenishment issues and adverse neutron effects on reactor structures that plague D-T operation and are unavoidable in MCF systems.36 Given sufficiently powerful drivers, ICF systems can generate tritium from D-D reactions in very large fuel capsules during the propagating burn. The need to accommodate the impact from repetitive gigajoule-sized blasts also necessitates thick liquid metal blankets to absorb the fusion neutrons, an arrangement that will mitigate, or even eliminate, adverse neutron effects on the outer reaction chamber.

The practical application of ICF requires the development of more efficient lasers or particle beams that can deliver at least 5MJ of short-pulse energy at high rates of repetition to the hohlraum containing the fuel capsule, and at least 100MJ to ignite the very large capsules that will obviate external tritium breeding. There are also many technological issues to address before thermonuclear plasmas can be used in electrical energy production,37 including the development and manufacture of inexpensive but highly sophisticated fuel capsules and molten metal falls for energy conversion.

The technological hurdles for implementing an ICF-based power system are so numerous and formidable that many decades will be required to resolve them—if they can indeed be overcome.

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A. Bernard, “Recent Developments in Plasma Focus Research,” Atomkernenergie 32, no. 1 (1978): 73–75.
J. R. Davies et al., “Laser-Driven Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion,” Physics of Plasmas 24 (2017):062701, doi:10.1063/1.4984779.
Stephen Obenschain et al., “High-Energy Krypton Fluoride Lasers for Inertial Fusion,” Applied Optics 54, no. 31 (2015): F103–22, doi:10.1364/AO.54.00F103.
R. O. Bangerter et al., “Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production,” Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology 6 (2013): 85–116, doi:10.1142/S1793626813300053.
M. Keith Matzen et al., “Pulsed-Power-Driven High Energy Density Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion Research,” Physics of Plasmas 12 (2005), doi:10.1063/1.1891746.
M. Coleman and M. Kovari, “Global Supply of Tritium for Fusion R&D,” International Atomic Energy Agency 27th Fusion Energy Conference, Report IAEA-CN-258/FIP/P3-25, Ahmedabad, India, October 22–27, 2018.
Jassby, “Fusion Reactors: Not What They’re Cracked Up to Be.”
Chan Choi, Thomas Blue, and George Miley, “Advanced-Fuel Pellet Approaches to Inertial Fusion,” Midwestern Energy Conference, Chicago, IL, United States of America, November 19–21, 1978; Friedwardt Winterberg, “Inertial Confinement Fusion Using Only Deuterium,” Journal of Fusion Energy 2 (1982): 377; and T. Shiba et al., “Burn Characteristics of D-T Ignited D-D and D-3He Fuel Pellets for Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactors,” Nuclear Fusion 28, no. 4 (1988): 699–705.
Shiba et al., “Burn Characteristics of D-T Ignited D-D and D-3He Fuel Pellets.”
The very first thermonuclear explosive—the Ivy Mike test in November 1952—was fueled only by deuterium, with tritium generated in situ by D-D reactions as proposed herein for ICF fuel capsules. See Wikipedia, “Ivy Mike.”
Jassby, “Fusion Reactors: Not What They’re Cracked Up to Be.”
National Research Council, “Chamber Technology,” in An Assessment of the Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2013), 106–17.
Jassby, “Fusion Reactors: Not What They’re Cracked Up to Be.”
National Research Council, “Chamber Technology.”

The Race to Explore the Ocean’s Twilight Zone

Well, they have started and this is still pretty shallow.  The real DEEP is simply dark.  It is also most of the ocean and is sustained by a steady rain of organic debrisdown to the bottom.

I do not imagine any of it is unexploited.  We really have not bheen looking too hard.

I do think that we may find a few giants down there as well such as the sea serpent and even ichysaurus.  All these creatures may come to surface, but not because they ever had to.  Thus never is an option.

TYhe mining aspect is a red herring for now.

The Race to Explore the Ocean’s Twilight Zone

As marine scientists strive to understand the mysteries of the deep, the miners are moving in.


May 26, 2022

When you go to the “deep end” of the ocean, I’d always been told, don’t fight the undertow or it’ll drag you down. You have to let it sweep you until you can float past it. That’s where you’ll find the best places to snorkel.

This was the Caribbean, where I grew up, and where I first ventured past where the waves begin to form, to that place we call the deep end. Outfitted with my bright blue flippers and a snorkel, I listened to the whisper and rhythm of everything around me. Through my foggy goggles, I could spot colorful parrot fish and schools of yellow French grunt, especially if I swam closer to the reefs.

Once I came across a creature so unexpected, so alien-like; the kind of thing I imagined you’d find only in the deep. It had to be a squid. Two of them, swaying gently underneath the surface, about 8 inches long, with perfectly round, almost cartoonishly googly eyes on either side of their narrow heads. They reminded me of other monocular animals, of birds that turn sideways to get a good look at you. I stretched out my hand. They didn’t reach for it—but they didn’t swim away, either. One or two minutes must have passed like this as the three of us levitated, frozen in this gesture, my breath deepening, the cold water currents rippling between us.

I came across a creature so unexpected, so alien-like; the kind of thing I imagined you’d find only in the deep.

I wasn’t sure why the squid were that close to the surface. Most squid, I would learn, live in the ocean column known as the mesopelagic, the “Twilight Zone.” It starts roughly 600 feet below the surface and goes down into darker waters, about 3,300 feet deep. In other words, it starts where there is a trace of light and extends to a depth where there is none.

The Twilight Zone is a world of wonders. It’s home to barbeled dragonfish, a gnarly looking creature whose teeth are embedded with nanocrystals. There’s the helmet jellyfish, which has no brain and no eyes but a sensory bulb that can tell it when it’s a good time to retreat down into the darkness. There’s the strawberry squid, a bright pink wonder with mismatched eyes; the small eye pointed down to look for beams of bioluminescence in the dark, the big eye facing above to identify the shadows of other animals closer to the surface. And then there’s the 46-feet long, 1,000-pound colossal squid that led Norwegian sailors to dream up the man-killing kraken that has inspired art, literature, and mythology. Fables documented by the 18th-century Norwegian missionary Hans Poulsen Egede insisted that if fishermen were ever so unlucky to catch a kraken or be caught by its tentacles, they’d be taken to the Twilight Zone, the ocean underworld that holds the hardest-to-uncover secrets and treasures, never to return.

Centuries on, the Twilight Zone remains as amorphous as it is sprawling and mysterious. Scientists, including those under the umbrella of the United Nations Ocean Decade Program, have only recently begun to uncover the secrets of its topography, ecology, and biogeochemical content, not to mention the organisms that live there. It’s an urgent mission.

CREATURES OF THE DEEP: The barbeled dragonfish, helmet jellyfish, and strawberry squid all make their homes in the ocean’s Twilight Zone. Photos courtesy of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

The Twilight Zone contains the largest and the least exploited fish stocks on the planet, and is the site of the largest migration on Earth. It also plays a major role in global biogeochemical cycles and the sequestration of carbon dioxide, and its floor is bedazzled by polymetallic encrusted rocks that have been forming over millions of years in some of the slowest geological processes that we know of. Just as cutting-edge research technology and submersibles are beginning to allow scientists to explore the sea beyond the reach of light, it’s the potential of these untapped treasures that is putting the Twilight Zone at risk of becoming a modern-day Wild West—the site of the next gold rush.

Some of the Twilight Zone’s riches may show up in parts of the Indian, South Atlantic, and Pacific oceans. But the rush is now on to a site 2.5 miles deep into the Pacific Ocean seafloor, the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, which lies between Hawaii and Mexico. Manganese nodules resembling dark gray amoebas as big as 4 inches wide were found there in 1875 by the crew of the British Naval ship-turned-sailing-laboratory HMS Challenger, the first oceanographic expedition of its kind, which dredged up samples of creatures from the ocean floor from around the world.

The HMS Challenger brought the samples to the Manchester Museum and London’s Natural History Museum, where they sat unexamined for years, until a team of British scientists decided to try to unpack the different components within the nodules. Manganese is typically found together with iron and has been used as an alloy with aluminum and copper; it is also the main component in battery cathodes, electronics, fertilizers, bricks, textiles, glass. Its uses seem endless. Who could have predicted that a race to supply manganese and other rare earth minerals needed to manufacture batteries for the next generation of electric cars could drive a new crop of researchers with ties to the mining industry out to the high seas?

The prospectors aren’t just mining companies: Banks and some governments are also positioning themselves for future resource extraction. In July 2021, the Central Pacific island country of Nauru announced a desire to begin deep sea mining for polymetallic nodules containing metals like manganese, cobalt, copper, and nickel. This triggered what’s known as a “two-year rule” in international law, a temporary hold on industrial-scale deep-sea mining, giving world scientists and policymakers until July 2023 to figure out what it would mean for the planet. Scientists need to assess what Twilight Zone mining could do to the under-researched organisms that live there, and how it would reverberate across local ecosystems, the wider ocean, and the rest of the planet.

“There are already companies and investors looking at this area as something to invest in, yet there are still many fundamental uncertainties in terms of what the impact [of deep-sea mining] will be,” says Adrian Martin of the United Kingdom’s National Oceanography Centre. Deep-sea mining, Martin says, is likely to generate unprecedented waste and disturb species’ natural cycles.

The Twilight Zone contains the largest and least exploited fish stocks on the planet, and is the site of the largest migration on Earth.

Martin is the principal investigator with the Joint Exploration of the Twilight Zone Ocean Network (JETZON), launched in 2020 as a response to a variety of factors—among them, the impacts of overfishing, climate change, and the looming deep-sea mining. A UN Ocean Decade Program, JETZON brings together Twilight Zone researchers from around the world. By 2030, they hope to gain “a deeper scientific understanding of how it functions, what supports the ecosystem, what are the main drivers, what are the main pressures on the Twilight Zone and how might they change over the coming century,” says Martin. But the two-year rule, which some scholars have described as a nuclear option, means JETZON is racing against time to learn as much as possible about the Twilight Zone before it’s too late for the oceans to maintain their ecological balance and for science to better understand what lies beneath.

Currently, there are 15 JETZON projects involving teams from 12 countries studying changing biodiversity in the Atlantic Ocean, more accurate measurements of fish biomass, and the ways life in the Twilight Zone is governed by the daily cycles of light and dark. Many of the research projects focus on the threats to this widespread ecosystem, which extend beyond deep-sea mining: illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing; transnational shipping; proposals for CO2 mitigation methods; ocean noise; and, of course, looming over all of it, global climate change.

Traditional ways of researching—and policing—may not be sufficient to manage the threats simply because they are too many and too powerful. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is one of the JETZON teams embarked on studies of the Twilight Zone. In an interview on the Woods Hole website, Heidi Sosik, a senior scientist at the institution, underscores the importance of the research. “As humans, we have a pretty solid track record of overexploiting natural resources, to the point where we cause damage that we never intended to cause,” Sosik says. “Oftentimes, it’s because we just don’t understand how a certain ecosystem works, or how interconnected it is with the rest of the planet.” She adds, “The more we learn, the more we realize that the Twilight Zone provides incredible services to the whole planet, and we want to protect that value so we can be better stewards of the oceans moving forward.”

Martin tells me he didn’t follow a typical trajectory to ocean science: He came to marine systems modeling by way of mathematics first and then cosmology, the study of the universe across time and space. “In an ideal world,” I ask Martin, “how would we as humans, corporations, and governments better engage with the Twilight Zone? What would be the ideal scenario to come out of all these discussions, all this research?” What if science and conservation won?

“I don’t think it’s a battle,” Martin says. He sounds even-keeled and pragmatic, carefully choosing his words. JETZON’s focus is on research, not on politics. But it has the potential of influencing policy making. “If we can get to a situation where the scientists are providing information, which is of direct use to the people managing the resources and making decisions on the policies, and the input from those scientists is being taken seriously in making those decisions, then that’s what we’re striving to achieve,” he says.

Still, the self-imposed deadlines for JETZON’s Twilight Zone research and the deep-sea mining moratoriums seem arbitrary; they are set to expire too soon. What happens after 2023? Or 2030? “I’ll be honest with you,” Martin says. “It would be nice to be able to make some sort of grand challenge that we want to tackle by the end of the decade.” It’s a challenge that can only be met by the cooperation of scientists and conservationists, industry leaders and lawmakers.

In Spanish, the word for “twilight” is crepúsculo—from the Latin crepusculum—the last light of the day. It’s also commonly called the zona claroscura, a place where clarity and darkness crossfade. As scientists bring us clarity about the twilight state of the ocean, darkness remains. I’m not an ocean scientist, a professional conservationist, industry leader, or policymaker. But I am a swimmer. And I have my own message. Swimming in the deep end has taught me, quite simply, to push forward without letting myself get dragged down. 

Lead collage created using images from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Cancer Cells Can Be Starved to Death, Here’s How

It is not simple but simply consuming the best possible diet is a good start.   For most this is too late and a radical change of eating habits is impossible for most. Again, I recall one chaps use of pure cabbage soup to solve everything.

that may well be good enough for most along with supplements perhaps.

The point is to displace starch and sugar outright..

Cancer Cells Can Be Starved to Death, Here’s How

MAY 20, 2022 

A cancer cell in the human body in a stock photo. (Shutterstock)


Just like how people survive on food, cancer cells survive on sugar.

Around one century ago, Otto Warburg, well-known German physiologist, discovered that cancer cells are addicted to sugar.

Normal cells depend on oxygen for their growth. Cancer cells, however, grow by devouring large amounts of glucose, even in an oxygen-rich environment. This phenomenon occurs in as many as 80 percent of cancers.

The metabolic way cancer cells use sugar as an energy source is called glycolytic metabolism. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect.

Cancer Cells Consume 100 Times More Sugar Than Normal Tissue Cells

The metabolism and growth rate of cancer cells are much faster than normal cells, and their consumption of sugar is also faster than we can imagine. It can be said that cancer cells are constantly thirsty for sugar.

In a 2014 paper published in BMC Biology, American scientists showed that many cancer cells specifically choose glucose as their food and consume glucose 50 to 100 times faster than normal tissues.

Cancer cells desperately absorb sugar and consume it rapidly in order to grow, multiply, and spread rapidly.

Sugar can produce carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, which to cells are like bricks, cement, and insulating materials with which to build homes. In addition, sugar also makes DNA and RNA for cells as their genetic blueprints.

Inspired by the Warburg effect, scientists have further developed a new way to diagnose cancer— positron emission tomography (PET).

It works by injecting the patient with a contrast agent (usually fluorinated deoxyglucose) and waiting an hour or so for the fluorinated deoxyglucose to enter the body’s metabolic system, at which point imaging scans are taken. When the glucose is concentrated in a certain area of the body, the image of that area will become brighter.

For example, when a patient is examined for pancreatic cancer, a normal pancreas does not light up on PET scans. However, when parts of the pancreas become brighter, it means that cancer is present.

A Diet High in Sugar Increases the Risk of Many Cancers

Cancer is not just one type of disease. It is a series of genetic or metabolic diseases caused by mitochondrial dysfunction of cells. Moreover, the organs or sites where cancer occurs are often places where the metabolism of the organisms is relatively vigorous.

Since cancer cells prefer glycolytic metabolism as their energy source, high consumption of sugar can lead to faster growth and spread of cancer. This explains why there is much epidemiological evidence that people with diabetes are more likely to develop cancer, especially breast, colon, prostate, liver, and pancreatic cancers.

A growing number of studies have found a direct correlation between sugar intake and increased cancer risk.

Researchers in the United States followed 3,184 Americans aged 26 to 84 from 1991 to 2013 and found that higher juice intake increased the risk of prostate cancer by 58 percent and higher sugary drink intake increased the risk of obesity-related cancers by 59 percent in subjects with over-central obesity.

A Swedish epidemiological cohort study of more than 60,000 women discovered that those consuming diets with high dietary glycemic index, high glycemic load and high carbohydrate intake were more likely to develop breast cancer. In addition, women in the group with the highest sugar intake (over 35 g of sucrose per day, plus consumption of sweet bread and cookies more than three times per week) were at significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer.

Several researchers in the United States jointly conducted a systematic evaluation of 37 prospective studies on sugar and cancer risk published in authoritative journals from 1990 to 2017. According to the results, high sugar intake may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and obesity. Among them, two studies on added sugars showed that high sugar intake increased the risk of cancer by 60 percent to 95 percent. Out of 15 studies on sugary foods and beverages, eight found that the higher the intake of sugary beverages, the higher the risk of cancer, with an increase of 23 percent to 200 precent.

Furthermore, consuming too much sugar also increases cancer mortality.

In a study published in the journal Clinical Nutrition, researchers followed 7,447 tested individuals over many years to examine the association between sugar intake and cancer incidence, cancer mortality and total mortality. They found that for every 5-gram increase per day in liquid sugar intake, the incidence of cancer increased by 8 percent. Furthermore, simple sugar intake from beverages and fruit juices was associated with increased risk of overall cancer mortality and all-cause mortality.
Beyond Cutting Sugars

You may wonder, since cancer cells love sugar, if we cut out carbohydrates and sugar completely, can we starve them to death?

Unfortunately, this is not the right way.

This is because our body’s functions are extremely sophisticated and complex. If we simply cut out sugar and carbohydrates, the body will quickly turn to other substances to maintain metabolism and survival. This is especially true of the cunning cancer cells. And those who have undergone specific cancer treatments need to consume adequate amounts of nutrients, including carbohydrates, to help their bodies recover further.

However, it is possible to block the cancer cells from eating sugar and consuming energy through specific treatments.

Dr. Sophia Lunt, associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Michigan State University, gave a Tedx Talk to introduce the public to a promising new direction in cancer therapy, which is to treat cancer by affecting the metabolism of cancer cells.

By blocking multiple genes involved in cancer cell metabolism, Dr. Lunt has attempted to cut off multiple pathways that support cancer cell growth and metabolism at the same time, to stop the growth of cancer cells. Happily, normal cells could continue to grow during this process.

However, the process is very complicated. During her talk, Dr. Lunt presented the audience with a labyrinth-like picture of the metabolic mechanism of cancer cells. She added that the diagram had already been simplified.

According to Dr. Lunt, it is necessary to identify the main metabolic pathways of cancer cells, then figure out the specific role of each metabolic pathway, and finally develop a personalized treatment based on the specific patient’s genes, diet, and living environment.

It can be said that controlling the metabolism of cancer cells is a promising emerging direction for cancer treatment in the future.

Dr. Lunt mentioned in her speech that there are many types of cancer, but they all have one thing in common: the need to eat. She would like cancer cells to be starved to death.

Sugar Restriction

Although we cannot completely cut out sugar and carbohydrates from our diet, we can prevent cancer by consuming sugar correctly.

Control the proportion of carbohydrates in the diet: Carbohydrates are a general term for monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (such as starch). After being consumed, starch is broken down into glucose.

Our body needs carbohydrates, but a diet high in sugar and carbohydrates is dangerous for both healthy people and cancer patients.

To reduce the incidence of cancer, we can use the “plate method” to control the proportion of carbohydrates in each meal.

With the plate method, a typical meal is represented by the amount of food on a plate. We should fill one quarter of the plate with carbohydrate foods, another quarter with protein, and the second half with vegetables (as low on the glycemic index as possible). In the middle of the plate, there can be foods rich in healthy fats, such as avocado.

Choose complex carbohydrates: Complex carbohydrates are dietary fiber and starch. Starch, not easily digested by the body quickly, includes beans, whole grains, and sweet potatoes. They are not quickly converted into sugar in the body and are extremely rich in diverse nutrients.

Due to deep processing, the ratios of fiber, vitamins, minerals and protein in refined carbohydrates decrease. Once in the body, they are quickly broken down into large amounts of glucose. Typical refined carbohydrates include pasta and bread with fine flour, and baked goods, such as cakes and cookies.

We should eat fewer refined carbohydrates. We may want to replace half of our white rice with brown rice or mixed rice, replace white breads with whole wheat breads, or occasionally use steamed corn, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, or taros as staple foods.

We should limit our intake of sugar, especially refined sugar. It is better to eat low glycemic index fruits instead of drinking fruit juices. We should also avoid eating foods with high added sugar. If we want to add sugar to our food, we can replace white granulated sugar with natural sugar substitutes, such as stevia and monk fruit sweeteners. However, we shouldn’t use synthetic sweeteners as sugar substitutes, because they can damage the probiotics in our intestines and harm our health.

When cooking, we should use herbs and spices that have a hypoglycemic effect, such as fenugreek, onions, garlic, shallots, chives, cinnamon, bay leaves, and cloves.

Dancing 'Little Men' in Trees Near Homer, Alaska Residence

We have small apparent hominids working about a grove of trees that do not stumble or fall.  I am labeling them hominids in order to assert that they are unlikely aliens. Zero hardware is observed and what is seen is a surprisng community within the grove.

Strong mind work is indicated as   invisibility is the norm here and this witness is the exception along ultimately with her boy friend.  This also means mass can be largely pushed out of the body allowing safe work in the trees.  Again we have a comparable to our long observed giant sloth and these may well be sloths as well.  At least they are arboreal as well.

At least this immediately explains why they are never observed at all.  It is equally plausible that those little people who are clearly hominid rather than sloth have the same skills.  Humanity had them as well until 45,000 years past when we chose to 'Fall from Eden'  These are advanced traits that show up weakly in lesser creatures.

Dancing 'Little Men' in Trees Near Homer, Alaska Residence

Sunday, May 29, 2022


A Homer, Alaska resident noticed, on several occasions, crawler-like humanoids hopping about in the trees near her home. The trees eventually died, possible by contact with this unusual beings.

Lisa Merrell lived in Homer, Alaska between 2013 - 2018 and in that time she observed numerous bizarre creatures. The house she lived in, on a small street, was surrounded by tall trees (most of which have since died or were chopped down).

One night she was in her room, hanging out with her boyfriend. She had noticed strange movement and asked to use his binoculars (I'm assuming she had noticed something previously and requested he bring them over). When she looked through the binoculars towards the trees, she spotted something strange, a “little man” hopping from tree to tree. It seemed to be “dancing” about in the trees. She noted that it did not seem to be worried about gravity, falling, nothing, it was just hopping around.

A month later, she started noticing more of these creatures. Eventually it got to be hundreds. She feared she might be losing her mind since nobody else was seeing it. Her boyfriend did not initially believe her until, one night, he saw them himself. She further noticed that the trees that they would hop around in would slowly start to die. She began to suspect that the creatures climbing on them was somehow causing them to die.

When she returned to the location in 2021 with the crew of the Discovery Channel, while shooting the TV show “Aliens In Alaska” she was shocked to see the patch of forest near her home was dead...the trees were rotten and black. “I don't know what they are but I don't think they are from here. I think they are aliens,” she told the producers of the show.

In 2018, partially because of the strange incidents around their home, she and her family, decided to move to Kodiak. She has not seen them since. As an artist, Lisa drew the creatures as she remembered them. Curiously, they look very similar to a “crawler.”

Transcribed source: Aliens in Alaska, Season 1, Episode 1, “Men in Black” Episode

Monday, May 30, 2022

Physics of the Ascension


Physics of the Ascension

First off, the only person who clearly 'ascended' was Jesus or Yesua.  He also did it in front of a mob of witnesses so there could be zero doubt that this had occured.

Unfortunaely thousands if not millions today of well meaning folk who practice meditation actually believe that ascension is the goal of meditation practice.  This has generated many examples of meditators choosing to leave their bodies which is still thinly connected but comatose and thus incorruptible and all that.  Yet this is not evidence of a real ascenson.

The purpose of meditation is not to leave the body and go to heaven.  That happens easily enough on death and obviously with a lot less effort.  As I have already posted, the purpose of meditation is to learn to work with the INNER SUN in order to restore the body to prime and to heal others by sharing the radiance of the INNER SUN.  This is what Yesua was doing in his ministry of miracles all explained by application of the INNER SUN.  There was a good reason for him to be thirty years of age.

The ascension was a deliberate shift in TIME to leave physically and likely to return to his own TIME.  This obviously makes Yesua a TIME traveller who came to conduct his ministry in order to alter our historical pathway.  He obviously succeeded in our past but has still to be sent back to do his task in a present.

The gospels report on his ministry and his crucifiction, resurection and ascension, all taking place inside of a few short months.  The rest of the material appears to be insertions conforming to sacred tales of the era.  Yet the detail is extraordinary and included ample professional witnesses, ultimately allowing transcription as well.  Who did that then??

I am obviosly suggesting that Yesua was inserted, along with a resurection team from our near future, in order to create the whole narritive in time and place.  The insertion was likely done in the area today of Bristol to allow the establishment of their mission while losing the aspect of sudden arrival through the voyage to the Levant.

The mere fact that he was physically at his prime while deeply learned conforms to such an insertion back in TIME.  Please do observe that all this is completely possible usings the Physics I have described with Cloud Cosmology.  Actual TIME shifts are often observed with UFOs and in nature.

What is so important is that no magic is called for anywhere.  In our own time, we will all know what happened and that it all worked and we will all be profoundly grateful.

For the record, it is reported that we can resurrect a human being twice without brain damage, but also restore to a youthful body a little more often.  After that we have to recall the spirit body from the other side to fully recreate the human being in question.  This does tell us that all humanity acceptable to be restored will experience restoration at the hsnds of advanced masters able to mediate the use of the INNER SUN.  It always remains a human endeaver.