Saturday, November 28, 2020
We have been tracking this sector for a long time, and it is certainly not going away. New plants and new ideas will push its expansion as it truly eliminates the cost of externals.
Add in that all flat land needs to be properly dedicated to restorative agriculture with around 300 head of cattle per square mile at least. folding in no till cropping and the market garden is likely too labor intensive..
What is best though is that these can be built in an urban setting. So expanding the offerings matters and is certainly plausible.
Talking about strawberries, it is possible to use a five level industrial shelving unit around six feet long to hold growing flats for strawberries. This can go out on an apartmnet block balcony and be even plugged in to provide additional light and warmth in the winter. We do it all already and the hardware and knowhow exists.
such a strawberry farm would become welcome on any balcony as it woiuld supply a suplus of berries year round...
This 2-Acre Vertical Farm Produces More Than ‘Flat Farms’ That Are Using 720 Acres
Another massively successful vertical farming startup is pushing the future of farming towards the sky, literally and figuratively.Plenty
From an ag-tech startup named Plenty, a two-acre indoor vertical farm produces yields that would normally require a 720-acre ‘flat farm’—and it can be done with 95% less water.
Saving water is critical in an agricultural state like arid California, where Plenty is set to supply fresh produce for 430 Albertsons grocery stores.
The vision is truly one out of Star Trek, with Plenty’s use of robotics and artificial intelligence to ensure perfect plants year round.
The reasons to support indoor vertical farming are varied, ranging from climate-related benefits to removing cumbersome logistical challenges like long-distance transportation.
The company’s website says the technology “frees agriculture from the constraints of weather, seasons, time, distance, pests, natural disasters, and climate” that makes GMO-free nutrient-rich plants at scale with “extraordinary flavor.”
Perhaps that is why Driscoll’s, America’s largest fresh berry farmers, have agreed to grow their strawberries year-round in Plenty’s expanding portfolio of vertical farms.
And investors are seeing the potential of seeding their own portfolios with Plenty.
The company’s method for growing greens, like baby kale and lettuce, on giant vertical racks moved around by robotics recently garnered $400 million in investment capital from the likes of SoftBank, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, and former Google chairman Eric Schmidt.
Time to grow
Reductions in transportation chains would eliminate millions of tons of CO2 every year, since instead of importing produce into city centers from farms across the country or the world, you could order it from a warehouse on the edge of town.
Furthermore, Plenty’s farms grow non-GMO crops without the use of pesticides or herbicides, and recycle every drop of water that’s not used, making them extremely friendly to the environment—except for their power usage.
A spokesperson told GNN they were using 100% renewable energy for their flagship farm in San Francisco, to keep emissions down.
Bathed in sun-mimicking LED lights in climate-controlled spaces year round, the farm ensures veggies grow at an astounding rate, which produces 350-times more food per-acre.
Supply-chain breakdowns resulting from COVID-19 and natural disruptions like this year’s California wildfires, demonstrate the need for a predictable and durable supply of produce can only come from vertical farming, says Nate Storey, co-founder of Plenty.
This will be all the more important if continual warming of the planet leads to droughts or other climate-related disruptions that can’t be overcome by farmers and biologists attempting to make crops more climate and drought-resistant.
Furthermore, vegetables and fruits contain far more micronutrients than cereals, but they also spoil fast and therefore are more expensive. Nations and inner cities that have to import all fresh produce places the poorest in the society at an extreme disadvantage nutritionally speaking. Vertical farming could be the way to solve that problem permanently.
Not only that, Plenty told GNN they have introduced new packaging that is not only made of recycled plastic, it is 100% recyclable, and it keeps food fresh longer to cut food waste.
The science deployed is novel and can go wrong. To prove it is safe we will use it on millions, if not billions. This will actually work, unless of course it does not work.
If you are in a low risk slot, postpone as long as possible. If you have had a negative experience with any prior vaccination please avoid. You are a bad candidate for them. you may produce bad stats.
Otherwise, treat as dangerous and act accordingly. Recall those giving these shots are know nothings anyway.
AS A DOCTOR, PEOPLE ASK ME IF IT’S SAFE TO TAKE A NEW COVID VACCINE. GIVEN THAT CRITICISM IS RISKY, HERE’S MY VERY CAREFUL ANSWER
November 26, 2020
Dr. Malcolm Kendrick, RT
The type of vaccine being developed against the virus has never – outside of Ebola – been used before. The trials have been extremely rushed & involved testing only small numbers. What could possibly go wrong?
Since the first positive results on vaccines have come out, a lot of people have asked me if I think everyone should take them? For some reason, a number of people out there trust my judgement on such things.
I noticed that the Daily Mail recently ran a poll, which showed that three quarters of Britons would agree to have a jab – although 40 percent wanted politicians to take it first to prove it was safe. Frankly, I pity any vaccine injected into certain politicians, as I am not certain it would survive.
Anyway, are the majority of Daily Mail readers right to be so enthusiastic about vaccination? I must admit that I write this article with some caution, because I am acutely aware that the slightest hint of criticism of a vaccine, any vaccine, is risky.
As I remarked to a friend recently, the moment anyone says ‘vaccine’, the only acceptable response is to leap to your feet and salute, whilst singing Ode to Joy. Followed by fifteen minutes of enthusiastic clapping. Failure to do so, means you are taken out and shot for thought crimes. Doubleplusgood, indeed.
The first thing I want to say here is that the type of vaccine being developed against Covid-19 has never been used before, outside of Ebola. Some people feel that they should not really be called vaccines, because they are completely different from anything that has gone before.
Up to now, vaccination has meant injecting a dead virus (or bacteria), or one that has been weakened and can only poorly replicate, or parts of the virus, or suchlike. Once inside the body, the immune system spots this ‘alien’ material, and creates a response against it, which will hopefully be remembered for years and years.
The next time the dangerous virus appears, the body will use the immune memory of something very similar, to wipe out the virus (or bacteria) at high speed, giving it no chance to do damage. The first ever ‘vaccine’ worked by using the cowpox virus to immunise against smallpox.
It had been noticed that milkmaids who caught cowpox, a relatively mild disease in humans, did not then get smallpox. It was Edward Jenner who wondered how, or why, this happened. In 1796, he scraped material from cowpox sores, and then scratched it into the skin of people uninfected with smallpox, to see if they would be protected.
His first volunteer was a young boy, who he ‘immunised’ with cowpox scrapings. Jenner then tried to infect the boy with smallpox scrapings. A form of research that would be rather frowned upon today. Luckily, the young boy survived, and vaccination was born. Everything since has been a variation on this theme, of using a less dangerous ‘thing’ to create a defence against a damaging infection. Until now.
Now, we have a thing called a messenger RNA vaccine (mRNA). RNA is, effectively, a single strand of DNA – the double helix that sits within our cells and makes up our genetic code. Many viruses are made up of a single strand of RNA, surrounded by a protein sphere.
They enter the cell, take over the replication systems, make thousands of copies of themselves, then exit the cell. Sometimes killing the cell as they do so, sometimes exiting more gently. Covid19 (Sars-Cov2) is an RNA virus.
Knowing this, rather than attempting to create a weakened virus, which can take years, or break the virus into bits, the vaccine researchers decided to use Sars-Cov2’s RNA against itself. To do this, they isolated the section of RNA which codes for the ‘spike’ protein – which is the thing the virus uses as a ‘key’ to enter cells.
They then worked out how to insert this small section of RNA, messenger RNA, into the cell, where it takes over a part of the protein replication mechanisms that sit inside all cells. They turn the mechanism into a 3D printer, churning out copies of the spike protein.
These spike proteins then leave the cell – somehow or other, this bit is unclear. The immune system comes across them, recognises them as ‘alien’ and attacks. In doing so, antibodies are created, and the immune memory system kicks into action. If, later on, a Sars-Cov2 virus gets into the body, the immune system fires up and attacks the remembered spike protein. Hopefully killing the entire virus.
This is all, certainly very clever stuff. What, as they say, could possibly go wrong?
The first thing to say is that, with something this new, we don’t really know. It could be that it is absolutely 100 percent safe. We are told that none of the mRNA can get into the nucleus of the cell, where it could become incorporated into the DNA. I hope so. Could it trigger an immune cascade? I hope not.
I know that the researchers will be looking very, very, closely at the novel safety issues that could emerge. If they are not, they damned well should be. However, the timelines here are very short. It normally takes many years to create safe and effective vaccines. Here is it happening in, effectively, weeks.
The early stage human safety studies have been crammed very tightly together. In addition, we will also have very little information on such things as whether or not the vaccine actually reduces serious infections or death, as noted by Professor Haseltine in a recent article: “These [vaccine] protocols do not emphasize the most important ramifications of COVID-19 that people are most interested in preventing: overall infection, hospitalization, and death.” Prof. Haseltine also argues that the trials have all been “designed to succeed.”
The reality is that we are rushing and rushing. There are very good reasons for this rush, but I advise caution. Should everyone take the vaccine? Probably yes for those at highest risk of serious infection and death, where the p
I do not like Newtonian explanations for structures that literally cover light years. My own cloud cosmology expects event horizon decay to convert matter into photonic energy with direction and information retention allowing for decay back into particles even light years away.
This is how a Galaxy throws of an excess of mass as it contracts.
In the meantime we have another eample of difficult to explain structure demading far too much early action never seen.
Observations unveil jet-like structures from the pulsar PSR J1135–6055
NOVEMBER 24, 2020 REPORT
by Tomasz Nowakowski , Phys.org
Exposure-corrected flux map of the extended emission around PSR J1135–6055 for energies in the range 0.5-7.0 keV. Credit: Pol Bordas and Xiying Zhang, 2020.
Using NASA's Chandra spacecraft, astronomers from the University of Barcelona, Spain, have investigated a pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) around the pulsar PSR J1135–6055. The observations detected jet-like structures from this source. The finding is reported in a paper published November 17 on arXiv pre-print server.
PWNe are nebulae powered by the wind of a pulsar. Pulsar wind is composed of charged particles and when it collides with the pulsar's surroundings, in particular with the slowly expanding supernova ejecta, it develops a PWN. Interactions of these nebulae with interstellar medium (ISM) can produce various morphological features, including torus-like structures and bipolar jets.
Observations show that one small subclass of pulsar wind nebulae, known as supersonically moving PWNe (sPWNe) showcase unusually long X-ray outflows. The length, nearly rectilinear geometry and misaligned orientation (with respect to the pulsar proper motion) of these extended jet-like structures is puzzling, and the origin of such features remains unknown.
Now, Pol Bordas and Xiying Zhang report the finding of another interesting jet-like structure as a result of their study of an sPWN around PSR J1135–6055, a young and energetic pulsar at a distance of about 9,130 light years away from the Earth.
"In this letter, we report on the analysis of about 130 ks observations of the PWN around PSR J1135–6055 obtained with the Chandra satellite," the astronomers wrote in the paper.
The observations detected bipolar jet-like structure displaying a highly asymmetric geometry. It consists of an eastern jet-like feature, designated Jet-1, and the western one, named Jet-2. The two jets were estimated to be some 2.0 light years long each.
Jet-1, that may be composed of several extended sub-structures, appears to be more diffuse and displays a much more rectilinear structure compared to Jet-2, which has an "arc" shape. The extended emission observed from the Jet-1 is relatively wider than from the western outflow.
The astronomers assume that the morphology of Jet-2 is likely related to the pressure exerted on the outflow by the surrounding medium. They added that the morphology of the two jets is similar to that observed in the runaway pulsars like PSR J1509–5850 and Geminga.
The researchers attempt to explain the origin of the two jets in PSR J1135–6055 and offer few hypotheses, including both canonical PWN and jet formation models, as well as some alternative scenarios.
"The spectral and morphological properties of the extended structures discussed above cannot exclude alternative scenarios for the production of the jet-like structures observed in PSR J1135–6055," the authors of the paper wrote.
However, further observations of PSR J1135–6055, mainly in X-rays or at lower wavelengths, are required to get more insights into the origin of the observed outflows from this pulsar.
Read this and weep.This is a living body of criminality been fully disclosed. Better yet, it can be copied and applied to every other State, province and country in heh world. Dominion produced dedicated voter fraud machines and where machines were not, they likely produced expert support.
Dominion has become a proven fraud in an industry that must be above any such thing. Now we are getting wall to wall disclosure and this template can be applied directly to all other Sataes. In order to cover their tracks, they had to do something in all of them.
The key point is that they walked into a sting. I expected a sting as early as 2018, but they may also have laid doggo to take out all of them.
five years in the slammer for voter fraud the last time i checked.
Amazing the MSM refuses to get it. Their survival is on the line as someone got well paid off.
Sidney Powell, author of the bestseller "Licensed to Lie" and lead counsel in more than 500 appeals in the 5th Circuit, in Washington on May 30, 2019. (Samira Bouaou/The Epoch Times)
Sidney Powell Suit Makes 30 Allegations in Bid to Invalidate Georgia Election Results
BY PETR SVAB
November 26, 2020 Updated: November 26, 2020
A lawsuit released by lawyers led by former federal prosecutor Sidney Powell makes 30 allegations of electoral fraud and other illegal and irregular activities and features pertaining to the 2020 general elections in Georgia (pdf).
The allegations, most of which are based on witness and expert statements, relate to mail-in ballot fraud and insecurities, recount irregularities and deficiencies, and security hazards of the Dominion Voting Systems machines used by the state.
The suit alleges the following:
The software used by the Dominion machines was accessed by agents of malicious actors, such as China and Iran, “in order to monitor and manipulate elections,” including the 2020 election. The allegation is based on a redacted declaration of a former electronic intelligence analyst under 305th Military Intelligence.
“By using servers and employees connected with rogue actors and hostile foreign influences combined with numerous easily discoverable leaked credentials, Dominion neglectfully allowed foreign adversaries to access data and intentionally provided access to their infrastructure in order to monitor and manipulate elections, including the most recent one in 2020,” the suit says.
An affiant, whose name was redacted for security reasons, alleged that the software used by Dominion was designed for Venezuelan government with the specific purpose to rig elections without the risk of getting caught. The affiant said he was part of a national security detail to former Venezuelan socialist dictator Hugo Chavez.
“The purpose of this conspiracy was to create and operate a voting system that could change the votes in elections from votes against persons running the Venezuelan government to votes in their favor in order to maintain control of the government,” he said.
The allegation was corroborated by another witness who “was in an official position related to elections and witnessed manipulations of petitions to prevent a removal of President Chavez.”
Another affiant said he’s the cousin of the former chief executive of Smartmatic, the company that developed the software adopted by Dominion. He said he has personal knowledge that the executive manipulated the company “to ensure the election for Chavez in the 2004 Referendum in Venezuela,” the suit says.
He also testified that the executive, Anthony Mugica, “received tens of millions of dollars from 2003–2015 from the Venezuelan government to ensure Smartmatic technology would be implemented around the world, including in the U.S.,” the suit says.
The vote tallies produced by the Dominion machines can be manipulated by imputing a malicious code with just “7 minutes alone with [the voting machine] and a screwdriver,” according to Andrew Appel, Princeton professor of computer science and election security expert.
A ballot can be spoiled or altered by the Dominion machine because “the ballot marking printer is in the same paper path as the mechanism to deposit marked ballots into an attached ballot box,” a study by University of California–Berkeley said. It indicates that after a voter submits a ballot to the machine, the machine can add additional marks on it.
The voting machines are susceptible to hacking or remote tampering because they are connected to the internet, even though they’re not supposed to be.
“Voting machines were able to be connected to the internet by way of laptops that were obviously internet accessible,” the suit says. “If one laptop was connected to the internet, the entire precinct was compromised.”
Affiant Hari Hursti, a Finnish computer programmer and election security expert, said, “There is evidence of remote access and remote troubleshooting, which presents a grave security implication.”
The voting machines have activity logs that can be overwritten, according to Hursti. That means hackers or malevolent operators can tamper with the results and then erase their steps.
Ronald Watkins, a software and cyber-security expert who reviewed the Dominion software manual, said the machine operators can change the setting to exclude certain ballots from being counted (based on how much of the “bubble” they had filled in to indicate a vote for a candidate). Scans of the excluded ballots are placed in a separate folder and the operator can delete them simply using Windows File Manager.
Watkins said that to report the final vote counts, the machine operator would copy and paste the “Results” folder from the machine onto a USB drive.
“While a simple procedure, this process may be error-prone and is very vulnerable to malicious administrators,” he said.
There are no procedures that would ensure the security of the USB drives used to report vote tallies from precincts. In one Georgia County, 3,300 votes were found on memory sticks not loaded into the central vote tally system, the suit says.
The test report and secretary of state certificate for the voting machines are undated.
Smartmatic faces litigation over “glitches” that allegedly affected the 2010 and 2013 mid-term elections in the Philippines, “raising questions of cheating and fraud,” the suit says.
Between 31,559 and 38,886 absentee ballots were returned by Republican voters, but were not counted, according to an analysis by expert witness Williams Briggs, a statistician and former Cornell Medical School professor, based on a phone survey of potentially affected GOP voters by the team of former Trump campaign member Matt Braynard.
Between 16,938 and 22,771 Republican voters received absentee ballots they didn’t request, based on the same analysis. That indicates unlawful absentee requests, the suit alleges.
Based on Braynard’s analysis of voter registrations and change-of-address requests, 20,311 absentee or early voters in Georgia voted even though they had moved out of state, which the state prohibits.
Georgia entered into an unlawful consent agreement with Democratic Party agencies that gutted the effectiveness of matching signatures on absentee ballot envelopes with signatures on record with the authorities. The matching was reduced “to a broad process with discretion, rather than enforcement of the signature requirement as statutorily required,” the suit says.
The signature matching procedure was influenced by “guidance and training materials” produced by the Democratic Party.
Gov. Brian Kemp illegally authorized election officials to open outer envelopes of absentee ballots three weeks before the election. Georgia law “clearly prohibits opening absentee ballots prior to election day,” the suit says.
Georgia’s hand recount of the presidential race was illegitimate for a lack of meaningful observation.
“Democrat-majority counties provided political parties and candidates, including the Trump Campaign, no meaningful access or actual opportunity to review and assess the validity of mail-in ballots during the pre-canvassing meetings,” the suit says.
The allegation is based on multiple recount observer testimonies.
Votes for President Donald Trump were placed during the recount into vote piles for Trump’s opponent, former Vice President Joe Biden. The allegation is based on multiple observer testimonies, as well as an undercover video produced by Project Veritas, an undercover journalism nonprofit.
Some ballots from the “No Vote” and “Jorgensen” trays were moved to the “Biden” tray. One witness made the allegation.
Many voters weren’t allowed to cancel their mail-in ballot on Election Day and vote in person. One witness made the allegation.
The same witness alleged that many voters were denied the option to cast a provisional ballot on Election Day “when a mail-in ballot has already been received for them, but when they did not cast those mail-in ballots,” the suit says.
Signatures on mail-in ballot envelopes weren’t verified during the recount, one witness alleged. “At no time did I witness any Recounter or individual participate in the recount verifying signatures [on mail-in ballots],” the affiant said.
Some counties didn’t actually recount the ballots by hand, but instead used machines.
One batch of ballots was suspiciously “pristine.” Almost all were for Biden. The allegation is based on an observer testimony, who professed “20 years of experience of handling ballots.”
One batch of ballots “was pristine” and “there was a difference in the texture of the paper,” according to the witness.
“I observed that the markings for the candidates on these ballots were unusually uniform, perhaps even with a ballot-marking device,” she said.
The ballots also “included a slight depressed pre-fold so they could be easily folded and unfolded for use in the scanning machines.”
The same witness also alleged that at one precinct in Milton, Georgia, poll workers were “asked to sign the chain of custody letter on Sunday, even though the machines were not delivered until 2:00 AM in the morning on Election Day.”
In addition, the machines “were not sealed or locked, the serial numbers were not what were reflected on the related documentation,” she said.
Many batches of ballots were “100% for Biden,” one witness alleged.
The same witness also alleged “that the watermark on at least 3 ballots were solid gray instead of transparent, leading me to believe the ballot was counterfeit.” Local elections director offered the explanation that the ballots in question came from a different printer.
Authorities lied by claiming vote counting was paused in Fulton County because of “a water leak affecting the room where absentee ballots were being tabulated.”
“The only water leak that needed repairs at State Farm Arena from November 3 – November 5 was a toilet overflow that occurred earlier on November 3. It had nothing to do with a room with ballot counting,” the suit says.
After everyone was “sent home,” one witness “saw election workers remaining behind after people were told to leave, the suit says, alleging that several people stayed behind to continue counting ballots without any observers present.
The lawsuit asks the court to order Georgia to do the following:
de-certify the election results
not transmit the currently certified election results to the Electoral College
transmit instead certified election results that state that Trump is the winner of the election
impound all the voting machines and software in Georgia for expert inspection by the plaintiffs
not count votes received or tabulated by machines that weren’t certified as required by federal and state law produce 36 hours of security camera footage of all rooms used in the voting process at State Farm Arena in Fulton County
Friday, November 27, 2020
It has been clear to me that the first phase of human cultural evolution ( 45,000 BP through 10,000 BP ) took place alongside the marine environment for multiple reasons. Not least the availability of ample food tresources in the form of shell fish. The best possible proof of this comes from the Pacific Northwest. The mountains were proof of interference by external tribes for over ten thousand years.
That is exactly what every coast line looked like until the invention of agriculture itself. That the Northwest produced huge communities is actually impressive but again a measure of the fishery. This happened elswhere bnut was ultimately overwritten by the productive power of deltaic and herd agriculture.
It also made possible the actual rise of agriculture itself by providing a working social template to support such an enterprise. After all hunting bands are lacking the large demand for food of a coastal village and are not naturally up for settling even if they plant beans here and there. They are also far too vulnerable.
This conjecture has been badly missed by scholarship, not least because it is now all deep underwater.
Ancient people relied on coastal environments to survive the Last Glacial Maximum
NOVEMBER 24, 2020
Excavations at Waterfall Bluff, South Africa. Credit: Erich Fisher
Humans have a longstanding relationship with the sea that spans nearly 200,000 years. Researchers have long hypothesized that places like coastlines helped people mediate global shifts between glacial and interglacial conditions and the impact that these changes had on local environments and resources needed for their survival. Coastlines were so important to early humans that they may have even provided key routes for the dispersal of people out of Africa and across the world.
Two new multidisciplinary studies published in the journals Quaternary Science Reviews and Quaternary Research document persistent human occupation along the South African eastern seaboard from 35,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. In this remote, and largely unstudied, location—known as the "Wild Coast"—researchers have used a suite of cutting-edge techniques to reconstruct what life was like during this inclement time and how people survived it.
The research is being conducted by an international and interdisciplinary collaboration of scientists studying coastal adaptations, diets and mobility of hunter-gatherers across glacial and interglacial phases of the Quaternary in coastal South Africa. The research team is led by Erich Fisher, Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University; Hayley Cawthra with the South Africa Council for Geoscience and Nelson Mandela University; Irene Esteban, University of the Witwatersrand; and Justin Pargeter, New York University.
Together, these scientists have been leading excavations at the Mpondoland coastal rock shelter site known as Waterfall Bluff for the last five years. These excavations have uncovered evidence of human occupations from the end of the last ice age, approximately 35,000 years ago, through the complex transition to the modern time, known as the Holocene. Importantly, these researchers also found human occupations from the Last Glacial Maximum, which lasted from 26,000 to 19,000 years ago.
The Last Glacial Maximum was the period of maximum global ice volume, and it affected people and places around the world. It led to the formation of the Sahara desert and caused major reductions in Amazonian rainforest. In Siberia, the expansion of polar ice caps led to drops in global sea levels, creating a land bridge that allowed people to cross in to North America.
In southern Africa, archaeological records from this globally cold and dry time are rare because there were widespread movements of people as they abandoned increasingly inhospitable regions. Yet records of coastal occupation and foraging in southern Africa are even rarer. The drops in sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum and earlier glacial periods exposed an area on the continental shelf across southern Africa nearly as large as the island of Ireland. Hunter-gatherers wanting to remain near coastlines during these times had to trek out onto the exposed continental shelf. Yet these records are gone now, either destroyed by rising sea levels during warmer interglacial periods or submerged under the sea.
The research team—the Mpondoland Paleoclimate, Paleoenvironment, Paleoecology, and Paleoanthropology Project (P5 Project)—has hypothesized that places with narrow continental shelfs may preserve these missing records of glacial coastal occupation and foraging.
"The narrow shelf in Mpondoland was carved when the supercontinent Gondwana broke up and the Indian Ocean opened. When this happened, places with narrow continental shelfs restricted how far and how much the coastline would have changed over time," said Hayley Cawthra.
Map of the Waterfall Bluff area in South Africa. Credit: Erich Fisher
In Mpondoland, a short section of the continental shelf is only 10 kilometers wide.
"That distance is less than how far we know past people often traveled in a day to get sea foods, meaning that no matter how much the sea levels dropped anytime in the past, the coastline was always accessible from the archaeological sites we have found on the modern Mpondoland coastline. It means that past people always had access to the sea, and we can see what they were doing because the evidence is still preserved today," said Erich Fisher.
The oldest record of coastal foraging, which has also been found in southern Africa, shows that people relied on coastlines for food, water and move favorable living conditions over tens of thousands of years.
In the study published in the journal Quaternary Research, led by Erich Fisher, a multidisciplinary team of researchers documents the first direct evidence of coastal foraging in Africa during a glacial maximum and across a glacial/interglacial transition.
According to Fisher, "The work we are doing in Mpondoland is the latest in a long line of international and multidisciplinary research in South Africa revealing fantastic insights into human adaptations that often occurred at or near coastlines. Yet until now, no one had any idea what people were doing at the coast during glacial periods in southern Africa. Our records finally start to fill in these longstanding gaps and reveal a rich, but not exclusive, focus on the sea. Interestingly, we think it may have been the centralized location between land and sea and their plant and animal resources that attracted people and supported them amid repeated climatic and environmental variability."
To date this evidence, P5 researchers collaborated with South Africa's iThemba LABS and researchers at the Centre for Archaeological Science of the University of Wollongong to develop one of the highest-resolution chronologies at a southern Africa Late Pleistocene site, showing persistent human occupation and coastal resource use at Waterfall Bluff from 35,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. This evidence, in the form of marine fish and shellfish remains, shows that prehistoric people repeatedly sought out dense and predictable seafoods.
This finding complements the results of a companion study published in the journal Quaternary Science Reviews, where paleobotanists and paleoclimatologists, led by Irene Esteban, used different lines of evidence to investigate interactions between prehistoric people's plant-gathering strategies and climate and environmental changes over the last glacial/interglacial phase. This is the first multiproxy study in South Africa that combines preserved plant pollen, plant phytoliths, macro botanical remains (charcoal and plant fragments) and plant wax carbon and hydrogen isotopes from the same archaeological archive.
According to Irene Esteban, "It is not common to find such good preservation of different botanical remains, both of organic and inorganic origin, in the archaeological record."
Waterfall Bluff view from the ocean. Credit: Erich Fisher
Each one of these records preserves a slightly different window to the past. It let the researchers compare different records to study how each one formed and what they represented, both individually and together.
"Ultimately," said Esteban, "it allowed us to study interactions between hunter-gatherer plant-gathering strategies and environmental changes across a glacial-interglacial transition."
Today, Mpondoland is characterized by afrotemperate and coastal forests as well as open woodlands that are interspersed with grasslands and wetlands. Each of these vegetation types supports different plant and animal resources. One of the key findings of this study is that these vegetation types persisted across glacial and interglacial periods albeit in varying amounts due to changes in sea levels, rainfall and temperature. The implication is that people living in Mpondoland in the past had access to an ever present and diverse suite of resources that let them survive here when they couldn't in many other places across Africa.
Importantly, this study showed that people who lived at Waterfall Bluff collected wood from coastal vegetation communities during both glacial and interglacial phases. It is another link to the coastline for the people living at Waterfall Bluff during the Last Glacial Maximum. In fact, the exceptional quality of the archaeological and paleoenvironmental records demonstrates that those hunter-gatherers targeted different, but specific, coastal ecological niches all the while collecting terrestrial plant and animal resources from throughout the broader landscape and maintaining links to highland locales inland.
"The rich and diverse resource bases targeted by Mpondoland's prehistoric hunter-gatherers speaks to our species' unique generalist-specialist adaptations," said Justin Pargeter. "These adaptions were key to our species ability to survive wide climate and environmental fluctuations while maintaining long-distance cultural and genetic connections."
Together, these papers enrich our understanding about the adaptive strategies of people facing widespread climatic and environmental changes. They also provide a complementary perspective on hunter-gatherer behavioral responses to environmental shifts that is often biased by ethnographic research on African hunter-gatherers living in more marginal environments. In the case of Mpondoland, it is now evident that at least some people sought out the coast—probably because it provided centralized access to fresh water as well as both terrestrial and marine plant and animal resources, which supported their daily survival.
According to Esteban and Fisher, "These studies are just a drop in the ocean compared to the richness of the archaeological record we already know is preserved in Mpondoland. We have high expectations about what else we will discover there with our colleagues in South Africa and abroad when we can get back to the field safely in this post-COVID world."
It is remarkable that he even then addressed the dialectic between intellectual knowing and spiritual knowing and warned against its separation. yet it is our nature to seek the dialectic and to engage one side.
The foundation of human wisdom is understanding this as error, but also identifing the true dialectic. Socialism versus Capitalism are both intellectual constructs and not a true dialectic but derived from the same mother. Thus the actual inability to properly separate them in practise.
Rational constructs infrorm the practical in life. Spiritual constructs inform regarding consiousness and the other side that informs.
LAO TZU’S 2500 YEAR-OLD MESSAGE TO ‘THE PEOPLE OF THE FUTURE’ TELLS HOW TO APPROACH OUR GLOBAL CRISIS
November 24, 2020
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Dylan Charles, Editor
The lessons of 2020 just keep rolling in. Everything is being challenged, and so much that had been in the shadows forever is being illuminated by truth. Our system is totally unsustainable. It’s collapsing under the weight of its own hubris, and all of the things we thought brought us security and convenience are turning against us. It’s time to rethink all of it.
My sense is that we have drifted far from the true nature of life, and have grown dangerously out of balance, divided, and fragmented. Over time we have lost our ability to perceive life in its wholeness, and now, in the actual reality of living in a masked, socially distanced, self-isolating world of almost 8 billion people, this truth is unavoidably right in front of our faces.
Humans aren’t as mysterious as we’d like to believe. We’re creatures of habit, predictability and pattern, and we love to follow programs. By carefully observing the patterns in life, the sages and wisdom keepers of generations long gone were able to envision our current predicament.
I came across a passage from Lao Tzu’s the Hua Hu Ching, in which the venerable Lao Tzu seems to speak directly to us today in this time of great crisis. In an oration with a student, Lao Tzu explains how the human mind of the future will deteriorate into fragmentation, specifically noting that the intellectual element of the mind will take over.
“Kind prince, there is great power in an integrated and sincere mind. By keeping their minds whole and untouched, the ancient sages evolved profound mental and spiritual abilities. They understood that intellectual development by itself fragments the mind and can lead a person far from the true nature of life. In the future, humanity will overemphasize the intellectual element of the mind. Instead of recognizing the wholeness of life, people will perceive life as having a worldly aspect and a spiritual aspect that are separate and unrelated to each other. People will also lose themselves in isolated fragments of conceptual information and become the victims rather than the masters of their knowledge.” ~The Complete Works of Lao Tzu: Tao Teh Ching and Hua Hu Ching, translated by Master Hua-Ching Ni
This sounds remarkably similar to the prophecy of the Eagle and the Condor which sees the people of North America becoming dominated by the masculine, logical, intellectual mind, as represented by the eagle. The remedy for this is a reunification with the condor of South America, which represents the feminine, intuitive and empathetic qualities of the mind.
Lao Tzu goes on to comment on how we, ‘the people of the future,’ can rectify this situation, noting that we will become dependent on modern ideas which don’t serve us well, while shunning holistic knowledge which may be of great benefit to the times. He offers the following insight.
“The remedy for people of the future age of great confusion lies in the ancient knowledge of the integral way of life that has been passed down from generation to generation. The holistic way of life, practiced by the ancient sages incorporated body, mind and spirit as a whole in all activities. Their clothing, diet and dwellings were in accordance with nature. They relied on their limbs for transportation. Their education was broad and comprehensive; it did not emphasize one element of their being while neglecting the others. They did not seek out special activities for recreation; their work and recreation were one and the same. Their forms of exercise developed not only the body, but the mind and spirit as well, through the harmonization of internal energies. Their music functioned as a bridge between mind and spirit and was not just an emotional release. Their leaders were chosen because they were outstanding models of virtue, not for their financial or military capabilities. Philosophy, science and spiritual practice were incorporated as one whole.” ~The Complete Works of Lao Tzu: Tao Teh Ching and Hua Hu Ching, translated by Master Hua-Ching Ni
Life is whole. We don’t live forever, we die. In horrible, tragic, sad, frightening and lonely ways. But we also live, and our disrupted connection from the nature of life is literally physically cutting us off from experiencing life. In this state, all we can see is the end, there is no longer a capacity to see life as a journey. The intellectual mind has framed life as something that must be protected by killing it.
In the passage from the Hua Hu Ching, the student asks Lao Tzu the very question that is on all of our minds today.
The prince replied, “Venerable Teacher, how can people in the future era of confusion deal with their greatly troubled times?
“Kind prince, the people of the future should not blindly accept the new nor reject the old. Things that were developed long ago may still have great value if they have been proven safe and effective by the test of time. The new inventions that appear may seem like shortcuts, but things of temporal convenience will bring hidden troubles later. Future generations will need to evaluate all old and new discoveries and inventions to insure that they are useful and healthy, according to the standards of a holistic way of life.” ~ The Complete Works of Lao Tzu: Tao Teh Ching and Hua Hu Ching, translated by Master Hua-Ching Ni
I interpret this as a call to rethink the way in which technology and centralized control are affecting our lives. Things that seem like good ideas always end up being used to enslave or control us, and at present, there is no pathway to review or to backtrack on any of the so-called great inventions of the time. It’s all coming at us at light speed, and the more complex the physical world becomes, the more confused and disconnected the inner world becomes.
About the Author
Dylan Charles is the editor of Waking Times and host of Battered Souls: A Podcast About Transformation, both dedicated to ideas of personal transformation, societal awakening, and planetary renewal. His personal journey is deeply inspired by shamanic plant medicines and the arts of Kung Fu, Qi Gong and Yoga. After seven years of living in Costa Rica, he now lives in the Blue Ridge Mountains, where he practices Brazilian Jiu Jitsu and enjoys spending time with family. He has written hundreds of articles, reaching and inspiring millions of people around the world.
This article (Lao Tzu’s 2500 Year-Old Message to ‘The People of the Future’ Tells How to Approach Our Global Crisis) was originally created and published by Waking Times and is published here under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Dylan Charles and WakingTimes.com. It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution, author bio, and this copyright statement.
Essentially one person out of twenty will be killed by this disease. We do not realy know what limits its effectiveness except the alr5eady sick and dying are taken easily.
The institutional reaction has been extreme. Yet we need to allow the disease to run through the population in order to produce general immunity. That is provided we can save those badly infected.
Yet it is a corona virus which mutates continously becoming weaker. With rising cases, this may well be happenig now. Trouble is that our test protocols fail to produce hard numbers that are trustworthy.
In the meantime take vitimin D, zinc and 1000s of mg of vitimin C. The C loads all your cells and knocks out viruses.
This Pandemic Must Be Seen
If we could watch what’s really going on in hospitals, there would be no more complacency.
IN MARCH, WHEN the new coronavirus prompted lockdowns around the world, many people felt it came out of the blue. There were plenty of earlier warnings, though, for those who knew where to find them. At the end of December, a low-tech news site beloved by infectious disease doctors relayed that the Wuhan Municipal Health Committee had sent out “an urgent notice on the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause.” By January 4, STAT’s Helen Branswell was warning of a possible link to “a new virus, and perhaps even a new coronavirus.” As for me—a medical journalist who has been reporting on coronaviruses from time to time since 2004—the terrifying, revelatory moment of this pandemic came not from reading any sentence in a news story or by checking bulletins from overseas. It came from watching a woman’s scream.
I first saw the scream at the end of January: A 14-second clip passed around on social media that showed a health care worker sitting in a chair in what looks to be a break room. She’s letting out one devastating howl after another, while most of the others in the room are doing what they can to ignore her anguish. (The woman just beside her noodles anxiously on a cellphone.) I do not know who these people are. I do not know where the clip was filmed. I don’t even know for sure that the footage is from Wuhan or that it was taken during the pandemic. But the rawness in her cries crystallized the possibility in my mind that this new viral outbreak was something far beyond the norm.
The screaming-nurse video is, at this point, rather hard to find. Other videos I remember watching at the time have completely disappeared, but some remain: a distressed woman pushes over signage in apparent despair at the new pandemic reality; bodies accumulate on a hospital floor; a patient films from bed as health care workers haul away a corpse across the room. There were also clips with better sourcing, such as the footage captured by Fang Bin, who did a short walk through a hospital ward to find a man struggling for breath as his father was dying before his eyes. But Fang Bin disappeared, as did other citizen journalists documenting the pandemic in China.
I wasn’t sure, back then, whether I should share the videos I’d seen that had murky sourcing—so for the most part I refrained. By April, I was regretting my decision. These clips had made it clear to me that the new coronavirus was far scarier than the flu, yet many in the US seemed to disagree. Then again, The New York Times had posted a compilation of some Wuhan videos—complete with an ominous soundtrack—on January 23, and that didn’t seem to make much difference: Americans continued to go about their lives mostly unperturbed. Maybe they would have to witness deaths on their home soil before they’d take the problem seriously.
When the pandemic finally did arrive, it brought shocking images of refrigeration trucks parked outside hospitals, and of graves being dug for unclaimed Covid-19 victims. Field hospitals were set up in Central Park. Documentaries showed overstretched emergency rooms. But even then, we rarely saw footage of the kind that showed up in the early clips from China. We rarely saw patients as they gasped for breath. We rarely saw the suffering up close. Surely that’s due, in part, to our culture of death denial; but the dearth of more intimate, macabre videos and images is also a function of our medical privacy laws, which prevent hospitals from disclosing data such as identifying information from a patient. (The appearance of someone’s face in a documentary would be exactly that, of course.) Hospitals also worry over the use of video in malpractice lawsuits, and the profound risk of retraumatizing families with a recording of a loved one’s death.
These clips had made it clear to me that the new coronavirus was far scarier than the flu, yet many in the US seemed to disagree.
It’s not only that we’re shy of putting misery on tape. Spouses and children have been blocked from seeing patients in the hospital, for fear that such visits will infect them and spread the virus further. This makes sense, perhaps, as a measure in support of public health; but aside from all the other human costs that it imposes, it also stops us from bearing full witness to the tragedy. Other hospital rules that keep the shutters closed have far less reason to exist: some have even blocked their doctors from talking to the press—threatening to fire anyone who does.
As Covid-19 case numbers escalate, the problem of invisibility has gotten even worse. The media moved on from showing images of suffering, suffocation, and despair, even as an all-out war continues to rage against Covid-19 in hospital wards. As Ed Yong has vividly described in The Atlantic, frontline workers are exhausted to the bone. Yet some of the public continue to believe the threat is overblown.
Images—especially difficult ones—can, of course, do important, democratic work. During the Vietnam War, photographs of soldiers’ coffins returning through Dover Air Force Base were so influential and demoralizing that we still talk about a Dover test for military action: Will Americans tolerate the sight of flag-draped coffins? The single image of a drowned 3-year-old who had been trying to flee the Syrian war made that conflict real for many of those who had ignored it. When Emmett Till was brutally murdered and mutilated, his mother asked for an open casket funeral and said, “Let the people see what they did to my boy.” And just last summer, when a video of George Floyd’s brutal killing by police spread around the internet, it put millions in the streets.
Here's all the WIRED coverage in one place, from how to keep your children entertained to how this outbreak is affecting the economy.
For the moment, though, there have been only scattered efforts to document the horrors of this pandemic. Platforms such as Faces of Covid have tried to help ensure that the people lost to this virus are not just a statistic, and those infected with the virus are speaking out themselves, serving as the documentarians of their own battles. The British patient Tara Jane Langston posted a harrowing account from her bedside in the spring. In her selfie video, she pleads that anyone who’s listening should put their cigarettes down “because you need your fucking lungs” to fight the virus. She can barely breathe as she ends the clip with a final warning: “Don’t take any chances.” Another haunting patient’s warning appeared this summer: On July 5, Texas mom Sara Montoya posted a video from the hospital where she was in bed, gasping between words. “It is not worth it,” she says of risk-taking during the pandemic. “Put your masks on.” She died the next month of Covid-19.
We must have more direct appeals like these. If many Americans still see the pandemic as a faraway problem, that’s because many Americans aren’t seeing the pandemic at all. Last week former White House press secretary Joe Lockhart tweeted out a call to action: “Hospitals across the country should bring the media into the emergency rooms, into the ICUs to see for themselves the carnage that's going on,” he wrote. “Guard patient privacy, but show America what's going on.”
It’s time to pull back the curtain on the suffering caused by Covid-19. The virus itself is invisible, but its effects are not. We need to see the toll.
This essentially confirms that consuming cocoa is beneficial to brain activity. I have learned to make cocoa without milk. Turns out that hot water works just fine with honey for sweetening. You make up a cocoa honey paste and then pour in boiling water or tea for that matter.
I have this once a day.
That is the easiest way to get cocoa into your diet. I use cocoa by way of Costco. You get a lot. Better quality will have to wait for market demand, but that will come now.
Cocoa flavanols boost brain oxygenation, cognition in healthy adults
NOVEMBER 24, 2020
Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain
The brains of healthy adults recovered faster from a mild vascular challenge and performed better on complex tests if the participants consumed cocoa flavanols beforehand, researchers report in the journal Scientific Reports. In the study, 14 of 18 participants saw these improvements after ingesting the flavanols.
Previous studies have shown that eating foods rich in flavanols can benefit vascular function, but this is the first to find a positive effect on brain vascular function and cognitive performance in young healthy adults, said Catarina Rendeiro, a researcher and lecturer in nutritional sciences at the University of Birmingham who led the research with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign psychology professors Monica Fabiani and Gabriele Gratton.
"Flavanols are small molecules found in many fruits and vegetables, and cocoa, too," Rendeiro said. "They give fruits and vegetables their bright colors, and they are known to benefit vascular function. We wanted to know whether flavanols also benefit the brain vasculature, and whether that could have a positive impact on cognitive function."
The team recruited adult nonsmokers with no known brain, heart, vascular or respiratory disease, reasoning that any effects seen in this population would provide robust evidence that dietary flavanols can improve brain function in healthy people.
The team tested the 18 participants before their intake of cocoa flavanols and in two separate trials, one in which the subjects received flavanol-rich cocoa and another during which they consumed processed cocoa with very low levels of flavanols. Neither the participants nor researchers knew which type of cocoa was consumed in each of the trials. This double-blind study design prevents researchers' or participants' expectations from affecting the results.
About two hours after consuming the cocoa, participants breathed air with 5% carbon dioxide—about 100 times the normal concentration in air. This is a standard method for challenging brain vasculature to determine how well it responds, Gratton said.
The body typically reacts by increasing blood flow to the brain, he said.
"This brings in more oxygen and also allows the brain to eliminate more carbon dioxide," he said.
With functional near-infrared spectroscopy, a technique that uses light to capture changes in blood flow to the brain, the team measured oxygenation in the frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a key role in planning, regulating behavior and decision-making.
"This allows you to measure how well the brain defends itself from the excess carbon dioxide," Fabiani said.
Researchers also challenged participants with complex tasks that required them to manage sometimes contradictory or competing demands.
Most of the participants had a stronger and faster brain oxygenation response after exposure to cocoa flavanols than they did at baseline or after consuming cocoa lacking flavanols, the researchers found.
"The levels of maximal oxygenation were more than three times higher in the high-flavanol cocoa versus the low-flavanol cocoa, and the oxygenation response was about one minute faster," Rendeiro said.
After ingesting the cocoa flavanols, participants also performed better on the most challenging cognitive tests, correctly solving problems 11% faster than they did at baseline or when they consumed cocoa with reduced flavanols. There was no measurable difference in performance on the easier tasks, however.
"This suggests that flavanols might only be beneficial during cognitive tasks that are more challenging," Rendeiro said.
Participants varied in their responses to cocoa flavanols, the researchers found.
"Although most people benefited from flavanol intake, there was a small group that did not," Rendeiro said. Four of the 18 study subjects had no meaningful differences in brain oxygenation response after consuming flavanols, nor did their performance on the tests improve.
"Because these four participants already had the highest oxygenation responses at baseline, this may indicate that those who are already quite fit have little room for improvement," Rendeiro said. "Overall, the findings suggest that the improvements in vascular activity after exposure to flavanols are connected to the improvement in cognitive function."