Friday, September 25, 2020

BIOWARFARE: Chinese communists “intentionally” unleashed “Frankenstein” COVID-19, says Wuhan scientist





This person is emminently qualified to report this.  We have heretoforth suspected as much due to circumstances.  Now we have someone who reviewed the data.

What is becoming clear is that the disease was deliberately spread during December to get ahead of the Chinese New year.  It is reasonable that multiple projects where run in order to nail every possible country.

Nasty..


BIOWARFARE: Chinese communists “intentionally” unleashed “Frankenstein” COVID-19, says Wuhan scientist

Tuesday, September 22, 2020 by: Ethan Huff




https://www.naturalnews.com/2020-09-22-chinese-communists-intentionally-unleashed-frankenstein-covid-19-says-scientist.html




(Natural News) Appearing during a recent episode of “Tucker Carlson Tonight” on Fox News, Chinese scientist Dr. Li-Meng Yan made the claim that the communist Chinese regime is directly responsible for unleashing and spreading the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19).

Reiterating what she has been saying in other forums, Dr. Li-Meng explained how the “Frankenstein” virus was “intentionally” developed through genetic engineering to “make such harm” in the world.

The bombshell interview, which is gaining plenty of media attention, furthers the narrative that the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) is anything but a random occurrence in bats. Instead, it represents the essence of a man-made plandemic intended to cause global pandemonium and chaos.

According to Dr. Li-Meng, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has been trying to silence her message, which implicates the regime in basically unleashing a bioweapon. She says her confession is being “suppressed” and made “to disappear,” though she has found numerous forums, including at Fox News, to spread it.

Almost immediately after releasing a report suggesting that SARS-CoV-2, as the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) is also called, was man-made, Dr. Li-Meng’s Twitter account, which had 60,000 followers, was suspended. She has also been silenced by the left-wing media, which is completely ignoring her claims.

“This is created in the lab, this is from, technically owned by China military and also it is spread to the world to make such damage,” Dr. Li-Meng, who fled Hong Kong back in April for her own safety, told Carlson.

“Do you believe the Chinese government released this intentionally, on purpose?” Carlson further asked.

“Yes, of course it’s intentionally,” Dr. Li-Meng responded.

More related news about the China Virus, as President Trump is calling it, can be found at Pandemic.news.

Dr. Li-Meng worked in top coronavirus lab where “designer” viruses are made

Dr. Li-Meng’s background includes her work as a virologist in a World Health Organization (WHO)-run reference lab at the University of Hong Kong, where coronaviruses are routinely dissected and manipulated using genetic engineering.

“I work[ed] in the WHO reference lab, which is the top coronavirus lab in the world, in the University of Hong Kong,” she explained to Carlson. “And the thing is I get deeply into such investigation in secret from the early beginning of this outbreak.”

“I had my intelligence because I also get my own unit network in China, involved [in] the hospital … also I work with the top corona[virus] virologists in the world,” she added.

Dr. Li-Meng is convinced that she has “solid scientific evidence” of malfeasance concerning the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19), which she says “actually is not from nature, it is a man-made virus created in the lab.”

Carlson, startled by the claim, inquired further into the matter, to which Dr. Li-Meng responded that the Chinese military “discovered and owned the very unique bat coronavirus which cannot affect people, but after the modification becomes the very harmful virus as now.”

Dr. Li-Meng is planning to unveil even more evidence in the future towards this end, which she says will solidify her claims. This evidence will also detail precisely how the CCP developed the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) to make it both highly infectious and pernicious.

As it turns out, virus genomes have their own unique fingerprints that function like identifiers as to their true origins. And the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19), Dr. Li-Meng contends, clearly shows that it originated from the Chinese government’s “own special bat coronavirus” that was modified for the purpose of targeting humans.

“What you’re alleging is even more shocking than I anticipated when we invited you on,” Carlson told Dr. Li-Meng, who confirmed that “big suppression” from the Chinese government is the reason why the truth about the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) has taken this long to get out there.

Sources for this article include:


COVID-19: Does Sweden Have Herd Immunity?



The big take home is that all the lockdowns were simply too late and that the disease passed through the population.

We may all now have herd immunity.

Regardless, the Swedish experience confirms that the lockdowns were an error.



COVID-19: Does Sweden Have Herd Immunity?



https://www.zerohedge.com/medical/covid-19-does-sweden-have-herd-immunity

At the beginning of August I wrote an article about my experiences working as an emergency physician in Stockholm, Sweden during the covid pandemic. For those who are unaware, Sweden never went in to full lockdown. Instead, the country imposed a partial lockdown that was almost entirely voluntary. People with office jobs were recommended to work from home, and people in general were recommended to avoid public transport unless necessary. Those who were over 70 years old, or who had serious underlying conditions, were recommended to limit social contacts.


The only forcible restriction imposed by the government from the start was a requirement that people not gather in groups of more than 50 at a time. After it became clear that covid was above all dangerous to people in nursing homes, an additional restriction was placed on nursing home visits. At no time has there been any requirement on people to wear face masks in public. Restaurants, cafés, hairdressers, and shops have stayed open throughout the pandemic. Pre-schools and schools for children up to the age of 16 have stayed open, while schools for children ages 16-19 switched to distance learning.


My personal experience is that people followed the voluntary restrictions pretty well at the beginning, but that they have become increasingly lax as time has gone on. As a personal example, my mother and my parents-in-law stayed locked up in their homes for the first six weeks or so of the pandemic. After that they couldn’t bear to be away from their grandchildren any longer.

In my earlier article in August, I mentioned that after an initial peak that lasted for a month or so, from March to April, visits to the Emergency Room due to covid had been declining continuously, and deaths in Sweden had dropped from over 100 a day at the peak in April, to around five per day in August.

At the point in August when I wrote that article, I hadn’t seen a single covid patient in over a month. I speculated that Sweden had developed herd immunity, since the huge and continuous drop was happening in spite of the fact that Sweden wasn’t really taking any serious measures to prevent spread of the infection.

So, how have things developed in the six weeks since that first article?

Well, as things stand now, I haven’t seen a single covid patient in the Emergency Room in over two and a half months. People have continued to become ever more relaxed in their behaviour, which is noticeable in increasing volumes in the Emergency Room. At the peak of the pandemic in April, I was seeing about half as many patients per shift as usual, probably because lots of people were afraid to go the ER for fear of catching covid. Now volumes are back to normal.

When I sit in the tube on the way to and from work, it is packed with people. Maybe one in a hundred people is choosing to wear a face mask in public. In Stockholm, life is largely back to normal. If you look at the front pages of the tabloids, on many days there isn’t a single mention of covid anywhere. As I write this (19th September 2020) the front pages of the two main tabloids have big spreads about arthritis and pensions. Apparently arthritis and pensions are currently more exciting than covid-19 in Sweden.

In spite of this relaxed attitude, the death rate has continued to drop. When I wrote the first article, I wrote that covid had killed under 6,000 people. How many people have died now, six weeks later? Actually, we’re still at under 6,000 deaths. On average, one to two people per day are dying of covid in Sweden at present, and that number continues to drop.

In the hospital where I work, there isn’t a single person currently being treated for covid. In fact, in the whole of Stockholm, a county with 2,4 million inhabitants, there are currently only 28 people being treated for covid in all the hospitals combined. At the peak, in April, that number was over 1,000. If 28 people are currently in hospital, out of 2,4 million who live in Stockholm, that means the odds of having a case of covid so severe that it requires in-hospital treatment are at the moment about one in 86,000.

Since March, the Emergency Room where I work has been divided in to a “covid” section and a “non-covid” section. Anyone with a fever, cough, or sore throat has ended up in the covid section, and we’ve been required to wear full personal protective equipment when interacting with patients in that section. Last Wednesday the hospital shut down the covid section. So few true cases of covid are coming through the Emergency Room that it no longer makes sense to have a separate section for covid.

What about the few formal restrictions that were imposed early in the pandemic? The restriction on visits to nursing homes is going to be lifted from October 1st. The older children, ages 16-19, who were engaging in distance learning during part of the spring, are now back in school, seeing each other and their teachers face to face. The Swedish public health authority has recommended that the government lift the restriction on gatherings from 50 people to 500 people.

When I wrote my first article, I engaged in speculation that the reason Sweden seemed to be developing herd immunity, in spite of the fact that only a minority had antibodies, was due to T-cells. Since I wrote that article, studies have appeared which support that argument. This is good, because T-cells tend to last longer than antibodies. In fact, studies of people who were infected with SARS-CoV-1 back in 2003 have found that they still have T-cells seventeen years after being infected. This suggests that immunity is long lasting, and probably explains why there have only been a handful of reported cases of re-infection with covid, even though the virus has spent the last nine months bouncing around the planet infecting many millions of people.

As to the handful of people who have been reported to have been re-infected. Almost all those cases have been completely asymptomatic. That is not a sign of waning immunity, as some claim. In fact it is the opposite. It shows that people develop a functioning immunity after the first infection, which allows them to fight off the second infection without ever developing any symptoms.

So, if Sweden already has herd immunity, what about other countries? How close are they to herd immunity? The places that have experienced a lot of covid infections, like England and Italy, have mortality curves that are very similar to Sweden’s, in spite of the fact that they went in to lockdown. My interpretation is that they went in to lockdown too late for it to have any noticeable impact on the spread of the disease. If that is the case, then they have likely also developed herd immunity by now. Which would make the ongoing lockdowns in those countries bizarre.

What about the vaccine? Will it arrive in time to make a difference? As I mentioned in my first article, lockdown only makes sense if you are willing to stay in lockdown until there is an effective vaccine. Otherwise you are merely postponing the inevitable. At the earliest, a vaccine will be widely available at some point in the middle of next year. How many governments are willing to keep their populations in lockdown until then? And what if the vaccine is only 30% effective? Or 50%? Will governments decide that is good enough for them to end lockdown? Or will they want to stay in lockdown until there is a vaccine that is at least 90% effective? How many years will that take?

So, to conclude: Covid is over in Sweden. We have herd immunity. Most likely, many other parts of the world do too, including England, Italy, and parts of the US, like New York.

And the countries that have successfully contained the spread of the disease, like Germany, Denmark, New Zealand, and Australia, are going to have to stay in lockdown for at least another year, and possibly several years, if they don’t want to develop herd immunity the natural way.

The Prelude to World War II: The Spanish Civil War and Today's America


This is a detailed history of the Spanish Civil War which is well worth reading.

This history is complex and confusing and suffers from proper coverage.  This also reminds us of the horrible history of the Russian revolution as well.  In fact we have an additional problem of deliberate suppression in Marxist takeovers.

Thus a fresh clear look at the Spanish war is useful.



The Prelude to World War II: The Spanish Civil War and Today's America (Ammo)





Source: Ammo | By Sam Jacobs The Prelude to World War II: The Spanish Civil War and Today's America You're free to republish or sh...



Source: Ammo | By Sam Jacobs



https://operationdisclosure1.blogspot.com/2020/09/the-prelude-to-world-war-ii-spanish.html
The Prelude to World War II: The Spanish Civil War and Today's America

You're free to republish or share any of our articles (either in part or in full), which are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Our only requirement is that you give Ammo.com appropriate credit by linking to the original article. Spread the word; knowledge is power!

America is definitely not Europe, but we can find a number of parallels between European history and contemporary America. For example, we’ve previously written about the Italian Years of Lead as a possible template for urban unrest and low-level inter-tribal warfare in the United States. Another example of how things might play out in the United States is the Spanish Civil War.

The Spanish Civil War is known to historians, amateur and professional alike, as the “dress rehearsal for the Second World War.” It is so termed because it pitted one side – which was equipped, armed and funded by Europe’s fascist regimes (Germany and Italy) – against a government largely funded and propped up by the Soviet Union. However, it is worth noting that General Francisco Franco’s nationalist forces were not themselves fascist (though there were fascists within their ranks) and that Spain remained neutral during the Second World War, later becoming a close ally of the United States in the fight against Communism internationally.

While there are few perfect analogs to be found anywhere in world history, there are parallels between the contemporary domestic political situation in the United States and the period immediately before and during the Spanish Civil War. And while the situation in the United States might play out in a much similar way to the Spanish Civil War, it is worth noting that our previous Civil War was the bloodiest in human history. There is little doubt that a Second American Civil War would not be significantly more destructive.

Prologue: The Situation in Spain Prior to the Civil War


As we talk about the leadup to the Spanish Civil War, the situation will begin very much unlike modern-day America, however, it will become more like the contemporary domestic situation as time goes on.

The main difference, of course, is that Spain was a monarchy for almost all of its existence until 1931. A republic was briefly declared during the years 1873 and 1874, but it didn’t have much staying power and ultimately was not a transformative government in Spain. Following the First World War, the corrupt central government of Spain became increasingly unpopular and a military dictatorship, that of Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, arose. This fell in 1930, along with the abdication of the deeply unpopular King Alfonso XIII.

This led to the creation of the Second Spanish Republic and a new constitution in 1931. It was a radically leftist constitution in a largely conservative and Catholic country. Women’s suffrage, civil marriage, compulsory universal education, the nationalization of Catholic Church properties, the prohibition of Catholic religious orders from teaching in schools (and the Jesuit order entirely), as well as a provision allowing for the nationalization of any property that was for the “public good” were all components of the new Spanish constitution. In many ways it resembled the constitution of Weimar Germany, in that it was an attempt by the left to radically remake a country through constitutional means.

The first election saw leftist elements firmly in the saddle, but the second, in 1933, was a major victory for forces of the right. However, because the conservative party had won a plurality in the parliament, and not a majority, the left-wing president of Spain invited the centrist party to form a government. Meanwhile the socialist government alleged electoral fraud, which caused them to become further radicalized. On the ground, a radical working-class movement became hostile toward the ostensibly left-wing government after the movement was suppressed violently by the military.


Monarchist forces, with the explicit backing of Benito Mussolini and the implicit backing of King Alfonso XIII, as well as ideologically fascist forces led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, began military drills, preparing for war. The streets of Spain became battlegrounds, with 330 assassinations, 213 failed assassination attempts and 160 religious buildings destroyed, with arson being the primary means of their destruction. The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, formerly a fairly standard European social democratic party, began to cleave between forces who favored moderation and those who sought a more explicitly Bolshevik party.

The Coup d’Etat of July 1936

Much as the War Between the States began with the attack on Fort Sumter, so did the Spanish Civil War begin with the Coup d’Etat of July 1936. This was effectively an uprising by all forces of the Spanish right, which included two different factions of monarchists, nationalists, fascists (known in Spain as Falangists) and conservatives.

The igniting event was the election of 1936. This saw a very, very slim (less than 1 percent of the vote) victory of the Spanish left (socialists, Communists and anarchists) over the Spanish right. The right wing in Spain stopped planning to take over the Spanish Republic and instead decided that they were going to overthrow it.

The central republican government of Spain was very weak and had been making attempts to purge suspect right-wing generals from its ranks. To that end, General Francisco Franco, who ended up becoming dictator of Spain until 1976, was removed from his office as chief of staff and put out to pasture in the Canary Islands. When the uprising began, the nationalist rebels had the unanimous support of the Army of Africa, a 30,000-strong force that boasted some of the hardest core soldiers Spain had to offer. Many of these troops were Muslims from Morocco, who had been told that the republic planned to outlaw worship of Allah.

Indeed, Spanish Morocco was the base of operations for the rebels, with Generals Franco and Goded taking control of the Canary and the Balearic Islands, respectively. Any opposition in the Spanish colonial empire was quickly crushed with leading trade unionists and leftists simply executed by the rebel forces. The two trade union federations in Spain offered to help crush the uprising, but were told that there was nothing to worry about as the uprising was confined to Morocco and other overseas possessions.

The coup was less than a rousing success for the nationalist rebels, who invaded from their overseas bases. They failed to capture any major cities, which remained significant bases of support for the republican government. The republican government remained in possession of the lion’s share of Spanish territory. However, the republican government was at a disadvantage for two reasons: First, the nationalists had split the territory of peninsular Spain in half, dividing the country between republicans in the north and south while they controlled the middle.


Second, the republican government responded to the crisis by effectively mobilizing the far left in Spain as shock troops to terrorize the population into submission. Communists in particular were unleashed to execute and torture anyone even suspected of being a nationalist sympathizer. It didn’t help that the clergy bore the brunt of this, with nuns gang raped before being summarily executed. The republicans went so far as to exhume the bodies of dead religious figures and desecrate their corpses.

The Spanish Red Terror


The Spanish Civil War continues to have a sort of romantic quality among the left, many of whom see the Civil War-era republican government as an example of “real” socialism in action or, at the very least, something close to it. However, the Spanish republican left were less bloody than their more famous Communist counterparts in Russia, China and the Eastern Bloc only due to a lack of scale and a limited time frame on which they operated.

The Red Terror in Spain predates the nationalist rebellion and was, indeed, one of the primary motivations for the uprising. It is generally agreed that the Spanish Red Terror began during an Asturian miners' strike in 1934. Priests and the religious were targeted in what was not simply a strike, but a rebellion against the government. Supporters of the rebellion targeted clergy and religious figures, resulting in the destruction of 58 churches and convents during a period of a little more than two weeks. Ironically, the rebellion was put down by Goded and Franco at the behest of the republican government.

Once the rebellion began, the Catholic Church – its clergy, its religious orders and its lay faithful – were largely seen as fair game by supporters of the republic. The comparison between the Church in Spain 1936 and white Americans in 2020 isn’t much of a stretch. Much of the violence directed against the Church was predicated on the basis that they “deserved” this as payback for historical crimes. All told, 3,400 priests, monks and nuns were murdered during the first two months of the Spanish Civil War. Indeed, most of the deaths during the early months of the Civil War were not because of deaths on the battlefield, but rather because of targeted executions against enemies of the Spanish Republic.

In addition to the atrocity against nuns, there were a number of horrific incidents mostly involving clergy. The parish priest of Navalmoral was forced to undergo a parody of the Passion of Christ, ending with a vigorous debate about whether or not to actually crucify the priest at the end. They “mercifully” decided to just shoot the man. The priest of Ciempozuelos was thrown to fighting bulls and had his ear cut off at the end of the spectacle. In Ciudad Real, a priest was castrated and had his penis and testicles put in his mouth. People were forced at gunpoint to swallow their own rosaries. Others were thrown down mine shafts or forced to dig their own graves prior to summary execution. A Madrid nun was executed for the crime of refusing a marriage proposal from a militiaman who had participated in the sacking of her convent.

All told, the republicans destroyed over 20,000 churches and other religious sites during the war. Unsurprisingly, Spanish Catholics overwhelmingly supported the nationalist effort during the Civil War. Even among conservative allies of the republic (for example, conservative Catalan nationalists), support for the republican cause was lukewarm at best, thanks to the Spanish Red Terror.

The Red Terror’s victims are not limited to Catholics or nationalists. As the war progressed and the Communists came to have greater power in the republic (for example, when they were given the Interior Ministry and when the militias were put under centralized control), they also turned their fire on anarchists, socialists and Trotskyists. This move against the non-Communist elements of the Spanish left is detailed in later chapters of George Orwell’s memoir, An Homage to Catalonia.

A Spanish White Terror?

Some attempts have been made to create an equivalence between the Red Terror in Spain and the Francoist repression at the end of the war. There certainly were atrocities committed by the Francoist forces during the course of the war. Indeed, it would be a bit strange if there weren’t, as such atrocities are a hallmark of modern warfare. Specifically, the Francoist forces engaged in war rape and frequently confiscated babies from republican women prior to their execution. These babies were then placed with Francoist families.

However, there are also some important differences between the terror engaged in by the Francoist forces and their republican adversaries. The Francoist repression wasn’t indiscriminately targeted at the friends, family and acquaintances of anyone who fought on the republican side. It was directed squarely at people who had committed atrocities in the name of the republican regime. The large numbers run up by the Francoist forces aren’t a function of the bloodthirsty nature of the victorious nationalist forces – on the contrary, they were quite conciliatory and looking to get the country moving again after a highly destructive war. Rather, it’s because the atrocities committed by the republican forces during the Civil War were so widespread. Those executed generally received trials unlike those summarily executed by the republicans.

Forced labor was employed for projects such as draining swamps, digging canals and building national railway systems. But again, it is worth noting that the people who were being conscripted for labor were considered criminals by the new regime. Indeed, any participation in the Popular Front government of the republic was criminalized by the Law of Political Responsibility, enacted two months after the end of the war. What’s more, this forced labor is not comparable to gulag labor where the intent was to work the victims to death.

As with any fight against Communist forces, it is worth asking a simple question: What would Spain have looked like if the Communists had won? We have ample examples of what Communist regimes look like – in Eastern Europe, in Asia and in Latin America. There is little reason to believe that a Communist regime in Spain would not have been as bloodthirsty and ruthless as other Communist regimes. Indeed, the experience of the Civil War shows that a Spanish Communist regime would have been quite destructive and, it is fair to say, vindictive in its victory.

The Course of the War


Without getting too bogged down into the details of the war, the Civil War is largely the story of the nationalist forces winning victory after victory until the end of the war. This is largely because the republican military wasn’t centralized. Instead, most of the military decisions were delegated to individual autonomous militias who elected their own officers and operated on a democratic basis. Nationalist forces were unified under Franco very quickly, with everyone from conservatives to monarchists to fascists all forced to play nice in service of the nationalist cause. Such centralization did not come for the republicans until the very end of the war, and by then it was too little, too late – and also largely a power play by Moscow’s forces in the Communist Party.

The only major republican victory during the war was the Battle of Guadalajara. This was not a successful republican offensive, however – it was a successful repulsion of a nationalist attack. What’s more, the republicans didn’t even defeat a Spanish military force. They were fighting instead primarily volunteers from fascist Italy. The main impact of this loss was that the nationalists stopped trying to end the war with one big battle and instead focused on chipping away at vulnerable parts of republican Spain.

In 1939, Catalonia, the strongest base of republican support, fell to the nationalists and it was mostly all over but for the shouting. While there were major cities still under the control of the republicans (such as the capital, Madrid), everything from here on out was largely a mop-up operation for the nationalists. The republican government was in total disarray and attempted to negotiate a peace settlement with Franco, but the Generalissimo would only accept an unconditional surrender from the republicans.


Franco declared victory in a radio address on April 1, 1939. Over 500,000 republicans fled to France, where they were largely held in squalid internment camps. Some stragglers continued to fight guerilla warfare against the Francoist government even into the 1950s, but there was no significant impact. In 1944, some republican veterans who had been fighting with the French Resistance attempted to invade Catalonia from France, but the attack was repelled within 10 days.

The Relevance of the Spanish Civil War Today

So what does a European civil war that ended 70 years ago have to do with anything going on in America today? A lot, actually.

First, there is the intense political polarization of the United States. A significant portion of the country champions changing the United States into a radical liberal nation with greater centralized control and a firm Constitutional commitment to leftist social justice causes. Another significant portion of the country is opposed to any further changes to the United States Constitution and is openly hostile toward leftist egalitarian principles.

What’s more, we are already beginning to see street battles not dissimilar to those that happened in Spain in the lead up to the Civil War. It is also worth noting that the anarcho-communist ideology, which held great sway among the partisans of the Second Spanish Republic, likewise informs the insurrectionary elements of the American left that began rioting and burning down American cities in the summer of 2020.

As we prepare for the 2020 Presidential election, it is clear that whoever loses will not only be unhappy with the results, but will probably consider them to be illegitimate. On the left, there is the Russiagate hoax, the leftist conspiracy theory that alleges that the Russian intelligence services “stole” the election for President Donald Trump in 2016. On the right, there is the very reasonable fear that there will be a variety of electoral chicanery, including mass mail-in balloting, voting by dead people, voting by pets, voting by dead pets and outright fabrication of ballots from largely Democratic-controlled urban areas in swing states. Indeed, a Bloomberg article seems to be preparing the American public for a stolen election, stating that while it might “appear” that Donald Trump will win reelection in a landslide the night of the election, that further months and weeks will reveal that he did not, in fact, win as the aforementioned mail-in ballots come in.

An article from the Washington Post states that any outcome but a Biden landslide will result in massive violence and civil unrest. While Jeff Bezos’ vanity blog certainly has their reasons for promoting this notion, it’s not entirely without merit. If the president is reelected, no matter how big the margin, there will likely be another wave of urban unrest that will dwarf the events of the summer of 2020. If Biden wins by a slim margin, there will be accusations of fraud and likely more confrontations in the streets, albeit more two-sided. It seems that the only result that would be accepted as “legitimate,” particularly by the press and the American left, is one where Biden wins dramatically.

It is worth briefly considering the other side of the equation. The American Conservative ran a column in July 2020 discussing the very real phenomenon of the American right’s increasing impatience not with democracy, but with liberalism. This is a phenomenon known as “illiberal democracy,” where the forms of democracy persist, but are used for anti-liberal means. Put in simple terms: How many on the American right – even the mainstream American right – would be terribly bothered by the president taking extreme action against an insurrectionary left?

No one has a crystal ball to see the future. However, it is not a wild assertion to suggest that the real violence in America is coming after the election.

Possible Methods of UFO Propulsion Examined - Part VII



This describes the historic effort to combine electro magnetism and gravity.  What matters though is that the gravitational field equations of relativity are not the direct path to to a socalled combined theory.

They are mathematically complete and this nicely leaves only one path forward to deal with particle physics.  That turns out to be the metric.  which is only understood in mathematics in terms of hte original Pythagorian until you encounter my work which introduces the third and forth Pythagorian.


This allows us to introduce the Space Time Pendulum which is the literal act of creation.  From that we produce a universe by flooded by such fundamental particles and their derivatives.  This leads go a completely different definition of gravity itself. . .
.

Possible Methods of UFO Propulsion Examined - Part VII

Sunday, September 20, 2020


Possible Methods of UFO Propulsion Examined - Part VII

By Dr. Raymond A. Keller, author of the international awards-winning Venus Rising series of books






Richard Alan Ferrell, Ph.D., Physics (1926-2005), early pioneer in anti-gravity research; for a thorough biography see https://umdphysics.umd.edu/about-us/2-uncategorised/539-richard-a-ferrell-.html. 

https://www.phantomsandmonsters.com/2020/09/possible-methods-of-ufo-propulsion_20.html



The work of the Gravity Research Foundation (GRF) of New Boston, Massachusetts, was proving invaluable in attempts at extending theories of anti-gravity into the general discourse of the scientific community, moving the subject from the realm of “crackpots” into abstraction and generalizations based on a wide array of observations and the results of sundry experimentation. In the GRF award-winning essay selected for 1950, a then graduate student in the physics department at Princeton University in New Jersey, Richard A. Ferrell, turned his attention to the two principal features of general relativity as a field theory and how it relates to the gravitational interaction of matter. These included:


1. The production of the field of disturbance in space by the matter existing elsewhere. One portion of space is considered to influence (more strongly if it contains matter) its neighbor, the latte to pass on the condition in turn to its neighbor, and so on until the disturbance has been extended throughout the universe. This situation is analogous to the spreading of waves over the surface of a pond. There are partial differential equations to describe accurately how the neighbors act on one another.


2. The exertion of actual forces upon matter at any given point by the field or disturbance which happens to exist at that point. 

From his preliminary analysis of this two-part theory, Ferrell initially thought that he might be able to attack the problem of finding gravitational shields, absorbers, reflectors or similar devices through an investigation of either of the two aspects separately. He was hoping to find a new way of producing the field or a new way of having the field act upon the matter. However, Ferrell noted in his GRF 1950 essay on the “Possibility of New Gravitational Effects,” that, “A particle which, according to the second aspect of the theory, is acted upon by the field will also produce a field of its own. When this is added to the original field already present, one is able to describe the total field in terms of the equations of the first aspect of this theory. These equations require the field at every point of space to change in a certain manner with time, and thereby also specify the way the portion due to the particle alone varies with time.”


The young scientist continued to clarify this complex subject: “But because the particle and the field it produces are intimately connected, we consequently see that the motion of the particle is also determined by the first aspect and that the second aspect is not actually a separate, independent phase of the theory. The realization and proof of this fact is a development of recent years. More precisely, Einstein, Schild and Infield have proved that the equation of motion of a particle can be derived from gravitational field equations.”


Essentially, following Einstein’s long road of equations had led Ferrell down to a dead-end street when it came to finding any possible access it might afford to new and useful effects such as the shield, reflection or absorption of the gravitational field. The scientist surmised that, “This does not mean that new effects are not likely to be discovered. However, these future effects will surely be rather subtle to have gone unnoticed for so long. Such, for example, was the case with the discovery of the laws of electromagnetism by Faraday and Maxwell. Only much later did these slight and previously unnoticed phenomena become the basis of dynamos, electric motors, radio, etc.”


Farrell did admit that the scientific community of the early 1950s should remain optimistic about finding a unified field theory which will adequately describe both gravitation and electrodynamics. He noted that Einstein’s latest theory had not yet reached that important stage; but, in the young scientist’s estimation, Einstein’s theorizing gave every indication of at least moving in the right direction toward achieving this end. Clearly, when such a comprehensive theory appears on the scene, it should give many predictions of completely unsuspected phenomena, depending upon the interaction of electric charges and the gravitational field. The great difficulty with laboratory experiments involving general relativity, however, would be in measuring the extremely small effects.


The Princeton graduate student addressed this issue: “However,” he declared, “if coupled with the much stronger electrical effects, general relativity might be made an experimental field of investigation and brought into the laboratory for the first time. Work in both the theoretical and hopefully, later the experimental aspects of this subject should be strongly encouraged as it could be very fruitful.”


What history has shown is that a frontal attack in science does not necessarily prove to be the most successful approach. Endeavors that are guided primarily by the desire to know and to understand the laws of nature have proven to be the ones that have resulted in becoming the most beneficial to the progress of humankind, i.e. backyard mechanics like John Roy Robert Searl in the United Kingdom trying to build their own versions of flying saucers or Nikola Tesla designing electric airships based on dreams and visions. 


Of the two aspects of Einstein’s theory, however, Ferrell did admit that, “There is only one feature to consider in surveying known and in scouting for unknown gravitational effects, viz. the production of the field by matter.” Isn’t it interesting to note that Searl postulated that gravity was a particle? Since it emitted radiation, he assumed it has a mass.




Replica of I-beam composed of unknown alloy and inscribed in type of hieroglyphics recovered from the Roswell, New Mexico, UFO crash site on 7 July 1947 by Army Air Corps crash retrieval detachment personnel. Entire craft was supposedly fabricated with the same alloy. 


*****

In Part VIII, we turn our attention to the work being done by Dr. Myron J. Lover in 1951 with respect to the thermodynamic aspects of alloys specifically designed to be heated or cooled by gravity waves. Lover states that these materials were already known by the powers-that-be. Any connection here with the Roswell or Aztec, New Mexico, UFO crash site recovery operations? You won’t want to miss it, right here on phantomsandmonsters.com.


Thursday, September 24, 2020

Gesara locks down world peace.


Unless we have been seriously misled, Gesara is locked in and happening.  The Stunner is that it makes WAR impossible,  This is a natural consequence of a blockchain system.  The entire globe controls the money of any given country.  Local runaway fiat money printing can no longer underwrite the military.

This item also informs us that Cheney had the law changed just before 9/11.  This confirms complicity.  No suspicion here.

Both these itdems were never apparent until now.


11:42 Guess what? The Powers that Be… [Were]… knew about it and had it cut from the film because they said…we’re not ready for the public to know about that yet…

12:00 Charlie Ward: That’s happening right now as we speak… Zimbabwe is going to have back what it’s been robbed of for years…

16:01 What’s happening right now is Biblical…

16:42 I really believe, based on the information that I’ve got… that’s the world we’re moving into [a world of Peace]… because of what I do behind the scenes I know that Trump is working very closely with Russia/Putin, China/Xi, India/Modi, very very closely… he’s working with the Leaders of those countries… a lot of people around the Leaders are Deep State… Chairman Xi is standing alone… the Chinese Communist Party is being removed… same thing with Modi… getting the wrong people out, the right people in….

17:37 The other thing that is very very clear right now… previous American administrations… forced Regime change by going in Militarily and removing people…

17:49 Ron Steel: And taking the money while they were at it…

17:53 Charlie Ward: Yeah, which was a big big mistake and nobody liked it… the Americans didn’t like it… the Iraqis, Afghans, Syrians… nobody liked it… what Trump is doing now is creating Peace and exposing in every single country around the world what’s evil… then it’s for people of that country to stand up to what’s evil and get rid of it yourself… in the States you’ve got evil people running certain states and then you have to get rid of them…

19:04 Ron Steel: Cheney actually got the Law changed 2-weeks prior to 9-11 that took away the power from our American Generals to control combat against any source coming into our country whether it be Air, Land, Sea or whatever… and he got himself to be in charge of it… Cheney did…

19:29 And so because of that one thing… when the flights were coming in for the Towers… it was on radar… they knew it… they were scrambling trying to get somebody up there to deal with it… and Cheney blocked it every single time… they called him 3 times and he blocked it, he blocked it, he blocked it… they told him if you don’t do it now it will be hopeless and he said, go ahead… and they scrambled them but by the time they got up there… it was too late…

20:08 That’s why when they bent down and told Shrub (GWBush)… when he was in the little classroom… about what happened… see the look on his face… he doesn’t look surprised at all…

20:16 Charlie Ward: Not at all… he knew EXACTLY what had happened…

20:30 Ron Steel: My word was that NESARA was supposed to be announced on that day… [Charlie Ward: It was]… my kids were supposed to grow up wealthy and they didn’t… and I feel so angered by that… I know what they went through.. we had some great years and some bad years… it just angers me because I know what I had planned for them…

20:54 Charlie Ward: Look, we’re in the process now where we’re coming to that stage… one thing is for certain is that Trump is making sure there’s no mistakes this time…

21:06 I know they’ve been teasing me with dates… what they’re doing is poking poking poking to see who sticks their head up… who tries to hijack it…

Because they’re [deep state] DESPERATE to hijack it… BECAUSE IT TAKES AWAY ALL THEIR POWER… [the RV, GCR, NESARA & GESARA]…

21:30 Ron Steel: Don’t pay attention to the dates because those are thrown out there for the deep state to bit on… I’ve heard anything from now to the end of the year to the beginning part of next year as far as all this rolling out… and I don’t know which one’s right… it always looks like it’s tomorrow but it never is…

22:00 Charlie Ward: You can be assured that the timing will be absolutely spot on right… you can be assured of that…

22:13 Ron Steel: We know Iraq is making great strides with its new Prime Minister as far as kicking out all the Iranian influence in the Government there… He did it all in 48 hours or less… we’re basically Trump-er-i-zing the world….

22:33 Charlie Ward: Well, he’s at the forefront definitely… but I think God has his hand on him… and is guiding him… to looks as well as he does after 3.5 years in office… he looks younger than when he started… so somebody’s looking after him… and the only person that can make you look that much younger is God…

22:56 Ron Steel: Yeah, and I remember Obama was gray at the end of his term… [Charlie Ward: Well, he was a naughty boy.]… I know Santa [Surfing] thinks everything is a sign… the hair went from Golden-blond and then Gold and Silver… then it went back Gold again…

23:54 I have some news about the QFS… this is all based on the Cross Border Interbank Payment System… CIPS… inside CIPS is the Quantum Financial System [QFS]… CIPS is an Artificial Intelligence Private Network… it’s a QFS 3D Smart Phone and Digital Currency… that you’ll be able to operate on ANY Media Format [making banks superfluous]…

24:31 It provides Pristine Clean Integrity in the movement of money and funds from Central Banking to Destination Accounts… we’re going from Banking to Destination Accounts… which is very very big… it will cover a new Global Network of Asset Backed Funds and will replace the U.S. Centrally controlled SWIFT system…

24:53 This has not fully happened yet… but it will protect all parties from corruption, usury, and manipulation within the banking system that currently is happening… it will assure the banks are monitored and protected within the agreed upon contractual obligations with regard of the transfer of funds…

25:15 Ron Steel cont.: This is what was advocated in the Gold Treaty… even back 20 years ago they were saying you’re not going to get paid on the programs you’re in until we have a gold-backed dollar… that… and we’ve got rid of all the bad guys… so they told us that 20 years ago and here we are still trying to get there…

25:50 (continuing reading) Completely independent from the central banking system… It makes all other transfer systems obsolete… This is NOT a crypto-currency... it is a system based on asset-backed digital currency… the security-based on Phototonic Technology that does 3.5 Trillion Frames – not bytes - PER SECOND… We know it’s operational…

26:51 Charlie Ward: No, we’re transiting from one to the other…

[Ron continues reading and it's fascinating… If you watch this short video it tells you all about the QFS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jN6gTF2Sum0]



46:00 Charlie Ward: What’s so interesting is the first country to sign up to GESARA was North Korea… I think the last country was Lebanon… they’ve all come into line right now and the beautiful thing, that you’ve rightly said, is unless they stay in line, they’ll be kicked out, also as part of the agreement, you can’t go to war against anybody and be a part of GESARA…

46:35 Ron Steel: Isn’t that wonderful? That’s a Godsend…

46:43 Charlie Ward: It’s absolutely wonderful… This is the time we’re moving into right now and it’s just a shame more people aren’t aware of it… so many people that are fast asleep… they have no idea what’s happening… they’re panicking about the virus, riots, 5G, vaccines… this is all part of the smokescreen to bring in the Global Financial Reset and the removing of the deep state from all over the world… and look, we’re nearly there!!…

47:10 Ron Steel: My own kids won’t listen, Charlie... I was talking to him yesterday, and he goes, “Dad, you’re so absorbed in your Right Wing Ultra-Conservatism you don’t even listen to reason”… and I said “This IS the reason…”

47:19 Charlie Ward: Exactly… this is why I’ve tried to keep everything as close to FACT as I possibly can… because everything I was told 6 years ago… 2 years ago… then in November-December ’19… so far has happened…

47:39 Inside me right now Ron… I’ve got a massive orchestra wanting to shout out and say… “I told you so”… but that’s not going to achieve anything… so it’s just a question of waiting… and just being humle about it… we're getting there… things are REALLY HAPPENING NOW… for me it’s just so exciting to see it happen…

48:00 Ron Steel: Well we knew… within the last couple of months… that they were testing the Emergency Broadcast System… [Charlie nodding his head vigorously]… and it’s just hard for me to fathom that our Media is so corrupt… that they wouldn’t allow this news to come out on it… but of course it’s owned by the people responsible for the cabal… so I get it… my understanding is that that [EBS] was deliberately tested so Trump could make these announcements…

48:33 Charlie Ward: That’s exactly right…

48:44 Ron Steel: We’re hearing that there’s going to be another downswing before all the good is announced… [Charlie Ward: Yes. Another lockdown]… my company that I work with… I’ve been in the Financial Service business since 1986… I’ve been Exec. VP for one, I was Regional VP for an International one… and owned my own agency for a number of years… it’s just… I think they think we’re going back to the office on January 4… I hope not… I’m thrilled working at home… we’re getting 10k new people every month into Fort Worth and a lot of them are coming from CA…

Pompao warns Pope on China Concordat News




Two years at a time.  At least we know that much.  I still do not understand what the original agreement set out to do except normalize communication.  Not a bad thing in itself.


At this point the CCP is under massive pressure and it is also clearly striking out at those it percieves as it tormentors.


Something is going on and this visit presages surprises coming..


POMPEO WARNS POPE ON CHINA CONCORDATNEWS: 

by Jules Gomes • ChurchMilitant.com • September 21, 2020 71 Comments


Sino-Vatican deal compared to treaty with Third Reich

https://www.churchmilitant.com/news/article/pompeo-warns-pope-dont-renew-china-deal


WASHINGTON (ChurchMilitant.com) - U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo is warning Pope Francis that the Vatican risks endangering its moral authority if it renews its controversial secret deal with China.



Persecuted Chinese Catholics feel betrayed by Pope Francis

"No regime suppresses faith on a larger scale than the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)," Pompeo announced Sunday, after urging the Vatican to "stand with fellow Catholics and the people of Hong Kong" in a tweet Saturday.

The Twitter outburst from Pompeo's government account follows his strongly-worded column published Friday in the journal First Things, arguing that "now more than ever, the Chinese people need the Vatican's moral witness and authority in support of China's religious believers."

"The Holy See has a unique capacity and duty to focus the world's attention on human rights violations, especially those perpetrated by totalitarian regimes like Beijing's," Pompeo asserted, noting that the "same power of moral witness" that inspired the fight against 20th-century communist and authoritarian regimes "should be deployed today with respect to the Chinese Communist Party."

"Two years on, it's clear that the Sino-Vatican agreement has not shielded Catholics from the Party's depredations, to say nothing of the Party's horrific treatment of Christians, Tibetan Buddhists, Falun Gong devotees and other religious believers," Pompeo noted.

Faith Being Subverted

The CCP's "decades-long war on faith" against Catholic clergy, laity and Protestant house churches are all "parts of a 'Sinicization' campaign to subordinate God to the Party while promoting [China's president] Xi [Jinping] himself as an ultramontane deity," Pompeo observed.

Two years on, it's clear that the Sino-Vatican agreement has not shielded Catholics from the Communist Party's depredations.Tweet

The secretary lamented that "Communist authorities continue to shutter churches, spy on and harass the faithful and insist that the Party is the ultimate authority in religious affairs."

Vatican diplomats meet this month to renew the 2018 concordat, which, he said:


legitimized priests and bishops whose loyalties remain unclear, confusing Chinese Catholics who had always trusted the Church. Many refuse to worship in state-sanctioned places of worship, for fear that by revealing themselves as faithful Catholics they will suffer the same abuses that they witness other believers suffer at the hands of the Chinese authorities' increasingly aggressive atheism.

The secretary also pointed out that "Hong Kong's most prominent voices for human dignity and human rights have often been Catholics." He named "father of democracy" Martin Lee and media baron Jimmy Lai, who "have been arrested, spied on and harassed for the simple 'crime' of advocating the basic freedoms" promised by Beijing "in exchange for regaining sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997."

Pope Francis: "I hope that the possibility to have good relations [with China] exists."


Pompeo concluded: "I pray that, in dealing with the Chinese Communist Party, the Holy See and all who believe in the divine spark enlightening every human life will heed Jesus' words in the Gospel of John, 'The truth will set you free.'"

Pope, Prelate Laud China

So far, Vatican diplomats have signaled their willingness to renew the treaty.

"To be friends with a country like China, which has so much culture and so many opportunities to do good, it would be a delight," Pope Francis told reporters.


Christians are being tortured for their faith in China

In 2018, after returning from a trip to China, Bp. Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, chancellor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, affirmed: "Right now, those who are best implementing the social doctrine of the Church are the Chinese."

Sorondo extolled the communist regime for defending "the dignity of the human person" and "assuming a moral leadership that others have abandoned" in the area of climate change.

"Like communists in the Soviet Union, the Chinese leadership engage in disinformation, misinformation and manipulation — and they likewise view the Vatican and religion as a foe," said political scientist Paul Kengor, author of recently published The Devil and Karl Marx: Communism's Long March of Death, Deception, and Infiltration.

"Do not pursue a policy of accommodation that compromises your Catholic principles and that will make you ashamed," Paul Kengor told the Holy Father in a Church Militant interview after the pontiff expunged his pro-Hong Kong remarks during his July 5 Angelus address.
Media Sound Warnings

Even mainstream media supportive of Pope Francis are beginning to challenge what is being interpreted as his capitulation to China.

In July, Britan's The Times blasted Pope Francis as "Beijing's unlikely admirer," lamenting that "the Vatican's rapprochement with China has led it to acquiesce in depravity."

Do not pursue a policy of accommodation that compromises your Catholic principles and that will make you ashamed.Tweet

Detailing evidence of "concentration camps and even genocide," in China, columnist Dominic Lawson pointed out that "Pope Francis — who was open in his criticism of Donald Trump's Mexican 'border wall' — has nothing to say about this publicly."

"An earlier pope was, shall we say, disappointed by the outcome of the concordat the Holy See concluded with the Third Reich. To continue to believe the promises of totalitarian regimes is not just foolish: It is an abomination," Lawson wrote.

Improving bison health, production




This is welcome. The bison has begun the long generational process of domestication.  We need truly tame herds able to work with tame cattle herds in a mob grazing operation.  That means trained to use an electeric fence.

There are also diseases to shake off and lost genetics that also need to be  recovered as we pass into the future.

The herd remains small, yet a simple financial program could easily get this herd to double every five years to fully utilize hte landscape.  

Where i do want to  see them is in the boreal forest which is difficult for cattle.  There herded with moose and large deer, we may well produce an fully active and managed agro biome supported in the winter by bull rush silage.

Improving bison health, production

Center for Bison Studies opens in Rapid City, South Dakota

21-Sep-2020 11:40 AM EDT, 

by South Dakota State University
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1


The Center of Excellence for Bison Studies will focus on research activities to improve bison herd health and production and the economic viability of both private and tribal bison producers.

https://www.newswise.com/articles/improving-bison-health-production?sc=dwhn


Newswise — The future of America’s national mammal continues to brighten as officials from South Dakota State University, the National Bison Association and the National Buffalo Foundation formally launched the Center of Excellence for Bison Studies. The new center is headquartered at SDSU’s West River Research and Extension facility in Rapid City, South Dakota.


The U.S. 2018 Farm Bill authorizes the USDA’s National Institute for Food and Agriculture to recognize centers of excellence in research, extension and education in the food and agricultural sciences. The Center of Excellence for Bison Studies will be coordinated through SDSU, but will include active participation by researchers and extension officials from other land grant universities, including 1994 tribal land grant colleges and universities.

The center will focus on research activities to improve bison herd health and production and the economic viability of both private and tribal bison producers.

Plans for the Center of Excellence began in May 2017 when leaders of the National Buffalo Foundation, the National Bison Association’s Science and Research Committee and Sinte Gleska University convened with SDSU researchers at the main campus in Brookings, South Dakota. Participants at the session agreed on a number of research priorities, but recognized that a coordinated effort was needed to generate the resources to underwrite those initiatives.

“We will be pulling together the leading experts in their fields to help us gain a better understanding of this animal and the ecosystems it lives in and to develop new resources for the people who raise bison,” said Kristi Cammack, the center’s new director.

Bill Gibbons, Director of the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station at SDSU and Associate Dean for Research, added, “We realized in that 2017 meeting that there were many un-answered questions regarding all aspects of bison, ranging from their role in the landscapes they occupy to their importance in Native American culture to their significance in agriculture. And, we recognized that there are many qualified researchers interested in taking on those projects. What was missing was a unified commitment to bring together the resources to support that research.”

Phil Baird, Provost of Sinte Gleska University in South Dakota, noted, “Bison are once again coming back to tribal lands across the country. Being a part of the center will help tribal managers as they restore both cultural herds and grow tribal nation-building herds.”

The Center of Excellence represents a significant milestone in the restoration of bison herds to North America, according to Dave Carter, Executive Director of the National Bison Association. “Our knowledge on how best to manage our herds has evolved through a lot of trial and error, supplemented by scattered studies at universities across North America. The Center of Excellence will bring together academicians, ranchers and tribal bison managers in a collaborative commitment to help us be better stewards of our herds.”

The National Bison Association’s Science and Research Committee will work closely with the center’s leadership to identify key research and outreach priorities.

“Having the Center of Excellence in place and with SDSU’s direct involvement, we all see a much broader view of the future of bison, while at the same time opening many fresh opportunities to expand our fundraising initiatives,” said Cecil Miskin, chair of the National Buffalo Foundation. The 501(c)(3) charitable foundation, which is dedicated to being the major trusted funding source for bison research and education, will embark upon a major fundraising campaign in the coming months to provide the resources to underwrite the center’s initial research projects.

Cammack will oversee the day-to-day operations of thecCenter, under the direction of an 11-member board comprised of SDSU, National Bison Association and National Buffalo Foundation officials, bison ranchers and tribal representatives. The center will operate under a formal memorandum of agreement established among SDSU, the National Bison Association and the National Buffalo Foundation.

Artificial Intelligence Detects Osteoarthritis Years Before it Develops




This is attempting to use statistical analysis on MRI data to determine who is at high risk.  Apparently they are having some success.  

This is not a total solutiuon but it is certainly a valuble beginning.

The fact is that we need lead time in attempt to stabalize the medical problem.
.


Artificial Intelligence Detects Osteoarthritis Years Before it Develops


https://www.newswise.com/articles/artificial-intelligence-detects-osteoarthritis-years-before-it-develops?sc=dwhn




Kundu et al. (2020) PNAS.

Spotting Subtle Patterns In Knee Cartilage: The cartilage in this MRI scan of a knee is colorized to show greater contrast between shades of gray.PreviousNext




Newswise — PITTSBURGH, Sept. 21. 2020 – Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Carnegie Mellon University College of Engineering have created a machine-learning algorithm that can detect subtle signs of osteoarthritis—too abstract to register in the eye of a trained radiologist—on an MRI scan taken years before symptoms even begin. These results will publish this week in PNAS

With this predictive approach, patients could one day be treated with preventative drugs rather than undergoing joint replacement surgery. 


“The gold standard for diagnosing arthritis is x-ray. As the cartilage deteriorates, the space between the bones decreases,” said study co-author Kenneth Urish, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of orthopaedic surgery at Pitt and associate medical director of the bone and joint center at UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital. “The problem is, when you see arthritis on x-rays, the damage has already been done. It’s much easier to prevent cartilage from falling apart than trying to get it to grow again.” 


Right now, the primary treatment for osteoarthritis is joint replacement. And the condition is so prevalent that knee replacement is the most common surgery in the U.S. for people over age 45


For this study, the researchers looked at knee MRIs from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, which followed thousands of people for seven years to see how osteoarthritis of the knee develops. They focused on a subset of patients who had little evidence of cartilage damage at the beginning of the study. 


In retrospect, we now know which of these participants went on to develop arthritis and which didn’t, and the computer can use that information to learn subtle patterns on the MRI scans of presymptomatic people that are predictive of their future osteoarthritis risk. 


“When doctors look at these images of the cartilage, there isn’t a pattern that jumps out to the naked eye, but that doesn’t mean there’s not a pattern there. It just means you can’t see it using conventional tools,” said lead author Shinjini Kundu, M.D., Ph.D., who completed this project as part of her graduate training in the Pitt Medical Scientist Training Program and Carnegie Mellon Department of Biomedical Engineering


To validate this approach, Kundu, who now is a resident physician and medical researcher at the Johns Hopkins Department of Radiology, trained the model on a subset of the knee MRI data and then tested it on patients it had never seen before. Kundu did this dozens of times, with different participants withheld each time, to test the algorithm on all the data. 


Overall, the algorithm predicted osteoarthritis with 78% accuracy from MRIs performed three years before symptom onset. 


Currently, there are no drugs that prevent presymptomatic osteoarthritis from developing into full-blown joint deterioration, though there are a few highly effective drugs that can prevent patients from developing a related condition—rheumatoid arthritis. 

The goal is to develop the same types of drugs for osteoarthritis. Several candidates already are in the preclinical pipeline. 


“Instead of recruiting 10,000 people and following them for 10 years, we can just enroll 50 people who we know are going to be getting osteoarthritis in two or five years,” Urish said. “Then we can give them the experimental drug and see whether it stops the disease from developing.” 


Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (grant K08-AR071494). 


Additional authors include Beth Ashinsky of Drexel University; Mustapha Bouhrara, Ph.D., and Richard Spencer, M.D., Ph.D., of the National Institute on Aging; Erik Dam, Ph.D., of the University of Copenhagen; Shadpour Demehri, M.D., of Johns Hopkins University; and Mohammad Shifat-E-Rabbi and Gustavo Rohde, Ph.D., of the University of Virginia

To read this release online or share it, visit https://www.upm