Friday, May 31, 2024

Autonomous robot invents the world's best shock absorber

this is a serious application of AI tech  it means optimized materials flow for all mass production lines.  This is increasing all the time.    The gross consumer market is now over one billion on the way to five billion and ultimately to 100 billion.

All good and huge in scale

the ultimate widget tester.

Autonomous robot invents the world's best shock absorber

May 22, 2024

Boston University's autonomous AI robot gingerly discards it's latest plastic pancake

Build, weigh, crush, measure, discard, redesign, repeat. All day, all night, never stopping. Boston College's autonomous AI robot MAMA BEAR has struck gold after three years and 25,000 attempts, with the world's most impact-resistant shape.

MAMA BEAR – which stands for Mechanics of Additively Manufactured Architectures Bayesian Experimental Autonomous Researcher – 3D prints small structures before gently placing them into a hydraulic press and crushes them. It measures the energy absorption of each little creation it makes as it flattens them into little plastic pancakes. MAMA BEAR then stores the numbers in a database, taking note of each design and its flaws or improvements before slightly modifying the design and diligently 3D printing another iteration – for the last three years straight. Over 25,000 times so far.

In doing so, MAMA BEAR has set a new efficiency world record of 75% energy absorption, shattering the previous record of 71%. The record-breaking design looks very much like nothing I could have imagined on my own; it's a sort of twisted flower-looking shape.

The robot is the brainchild of Keith Brown, an ENG associate professor of mechanical engineering, and his team in the KABlab. He came up with the idea in 2018 and by 2021, the lab was built and MAMA BEAR was off to find a design that was just right.

What's not to be happy about? Proud of his acheivements, Keith Brown sits amidst his BEAR creation, as happy as a ...well... clam

Boston University

According to Boston University's article, the robot crushes its creations "under a pressure equivalent to an adult Arabian horse standing on a quarter." I wasn't exactly sure what that meant – though it does paint a fun mental picture – so I took the liberty of converting it to hard data: The median weight of an adult Arabian horse is roughly 880 lb (400 kg). A US quarter is 0.955 inches (24 mm) around. That comes out to around 1,253 psi (86 bar). Squish. You're welcome.

So what's the point? Boston College is trying to make the most efficient mechanical energy-absorbing structure possible for a ton of different potential applications. The National Science Foundation as well as the US Army have a stake in this project. The Army is taking the data and creating a new helmet padding design for battlefield soldiers. And a 4% increase in energy absorption efficiency could literally mean the difference between life and death in such an application.

Hot off the press, the autonomous AI robot is about to wisk away this design to be weighed and crushed like an old used car

Or these could be the new packing peanuts. New bumper designs on vehicles. Protective athletic gear. The list goes on for potential uses. It's a delicate balance of trying to create a shape and structure that isn't so hard as to damage whatever it's trying to protect, but still be strong enough to absorb whatever impact comes its way.

It's estimated that there are over a trillion possible designs in the quest for the most efficient structure – not to mention the materials used – so MAMA BEAR has barely scratched the surface of what could be possible. Boston University has been using TPE, TPU-1, 2 and 3, nylon, PETG, and PLA for its designs so far. We're looking forward to more MAMA BEAR achievements in its ongoing quest for perfection.

The team has published a detailed paper with all the scientific data backing their new record in Nature Communications.

When Technological and Economic Limits are Passed

Once we reach out and touch Mars ,every other doable planetoid will be accessed with a flying ferris wheel able to act as a base port.  these will be fabrication plants as well.

every planetoid can be easily occupied so long as you establish yourself in the crust.  We will ultimately have thosands of these with a minimum population of several thousand.

The supply craft chain can also be used bring materal back as well and even shift cargos about.. this can provide a network of stations throughout the Oort belt.

When Technological and Economic Limits are Passed

Brian Wang speaks with humanoid bot and AI expert Dr John Gibb about the surprises in a future where teslabots do everything in factories.

RethinkX projects a 20 year disruption of the global labor market by humanoid robots. RethinkX projects there will be about one billion humanoid robots by 2045-2055. However, this skips over the starting point of the Technological singularity when factories get nearly completely automated.

RethinkX projects humanoid robots will enter the market at a cost-capability of under $10/hour for their labor, on a trajectory to under $1/hour before 2035 and under $0.10/hour before 2045.

I project that one million humanoid bots should be plenty to kickstart the exponential civilization. They need to be able operate and build factories and operate autonomous mining and construction machinery. They will operate factories but also build new factories. There can be unlimited production by constantly and rapidly doubling the number of bots, factories and mines.

We need to create a simplified supply chain of few minerals and metals for batteries and other components. Partial non-exponential aspects like needing humans to build and operate semiconductor chip fabs would not be that limiting on the other aspects that are exponential.

RethinkX says it is impossible to know in advance the full details of how the new labor system will differ from today, but the key feature is: the marginal cost of labor will rapidly approach zero.

Elon Musk described the thousand Starship fleets going to Mars every two years at a SpaceX presentation last month. The fleet can easily transport hundreds of thousands of humanoid robots and all of the factory machinery and mining machinery.

Having no zoning and no Not in my Backyard restrictions on Mars will allow unlimited replication of factories. Production of more rockets, factories and robots can then colonize and develop the entire solar system.

Nextbigfuture Described Truly Exponential Humanity Beyond the RethinkX Humanoid Robot Labor Forecast

RethinkX says it is impossible to know in advance the full details of how the new labor system will differ from today, but the key feature is: the marginal cost of labor will rapidly approach zero.

Elon Musk described the thousand Starship fleets going to Mars every two years at a SpaceX presentation last month.

A million person city on Mars is what Elon Musk and SpaceX have described. They talk about it being sustainable. This means all of the mining and gigafactories need to be there. There must be a simplified human supply chain on Mars. This is the seed that is needed to replicate and build more and more Gigafactories for Starships, humanoid bots and machines.

Twenty-six doublings from the sustainable Mars City and Gigafactories is the 10 trillion bot colonization of the Solar System. This can be completed by 2100.

"A Pervasive Fear Has Settled In": Dems Are Absolutely Freaking Out Over Biden

In an age when nothing is secret and at best protected by waning disbelief, it is right to be smoked.  The fear comes from knowing that they are utterly caught and not knowing what can happen.

Banding has not make it into common discussion yet but even that is surely rising.

The purpose is not even punishment.  It is to induce an allergic reaction to all forms of official corruption.  Punishment will be reserved for actual crimes.

"A Pervasive Fear Has Settled In": Dems Are Absolutely Freaking Out Over Biden


TUESDAY, MAY 28, 2024 - 09:45 AM

While keeping in mind the old adage "It's not the votes that count, but who counts the votes," Democrats are absolutely freaking out about what a dumpster fire Joe Biden is heading into the 2024 election.

Susan Walsh/AP

According to Politico, "A pervasive sense of fear has settled in at the highest levels of the Democratic Party over President Joe Biden’s reelection prospects, even among officeholders and strategists who had previously expressed confidence about the coming battle with Donald Trump."

And while Democrats have spent 2024 on a "joyless and exhausting grind," now, nearly five months away from the election, "anxiety has morphed into palpable trepidation," according to more than a dozen party leaders and operatives who spoke with the outlet.

"You don’t want to be that guy who is on the record saying we’re doomed, or the campaign’s bad or Biden’s making mistakes. Nobody wants to be that guy," said one Democratic operative close to the White House, adding that Biden's terrible polling "are creating the freakout."

"This isn’t, ‘Oh my God, Mitt Romney might become president.’ It’s ‘Oh my God, the democracy might end.’" the source added, dramatically.

The freakout comes as Trump leads in 5 key states, while young and nonwhite voters are shifting allegiances:

Strategists catching the vapors

And while the White House isn't yet facing reality, Democratic strategists are telling it like it is...

But Democratic critics of the campaign’s approach — while agreeing that abortion should be a winning issue — said they’re challenged when pressed by friends to make the case for why Biden will win.

“There’s still a path to win this, but they don’t look like a campaign that’s embarking on that path right now,” said Pete Giangreco, a longtime Democratic strategist who’s worked on multiple presidential campaigns. “If the frame of this race is, ‘What was better, the 3.5 years under Biden or four years under Trump,’ we lose that every day of the week and twice on Sunday.” -Politico

And then we have this suspected offworlder, former Clinton strategist James Carville, who says Democrat messaging is full of shit:

Pollster Nate Silver, who was more or less unpersoned by the Democrats for getting 2016 wrong and has since become moderately redpilled, shreds Democrat messaging that the economy is ackshually doing great, and people complaining about inflation are out of touch.

Silver's FiveThirtyEight has Biden's average job rating at 38.4%, vs. 38.1% on March 7 - suggesting that whatever the Biden campaign has been attempting isn't working...

Whatever the Biden campaign has been doing over the past two months — and it’s a lot of activity, including $25 million in swing-state ad spending, according to AdImpact — it has had only a limited effect. According to FiveThirtyEight, Biden’s average job-approval rating on March 7, the date of his State of the Union Address, was 38.1 percent. As of Friday, it’s 38.4 percent. -Politico

Politico then notes that Trump has been eating away at Biden's lead in 'safe' blue states, conducting what they called "psychological warfare" in New York, California and New Jersey (dramatic!).

Trump, meanwhile, has already started his incursion into safe blue states. His campaign’s psychological warfare in New York, California and New Jersey — where House districts will determine control of Congress’ lower chamber — is spiking Democrats’ already-elevated blood pressure.

“New York Democrats need to wake up,” said Manhattan Borough President Mark Levine. “The number of people in New York, including people of color that I come across who are saying positive things about Trump, is alarming.”

Meanwhile, Trump is crushing Biden when it comes to fundraising - having raised $25 million last month, not including a record-setting $50.5 million haul from an event in Palm Beach, Florida.

"The list of why we ‘could’ win is so small I don’t even need to keep the list on my phone," one Democratic adviser told the outlet.

And of course, the Biden campaign is playing dumb (or they're just dumb. We'll go with that.):

"Trump’s photo-ops and PR stunts may get under the skin of some very serious D.C. people as compelling campaigning, but they will do nothing to win over the voters that will decide this election," said campaign spokesman Kevin Munoz. "The work we do every day on the ground and on the airwaves in our battleground states — to talk about how President Biden is fighting for the middle class against the corporate greed that’s keeping prices high, and highlight Donald Trump’s anti-American campaign for revenge and retribution and abortion bans — is the work that will again secure us the White House."

Keep telling yourself that, Kevin.

Cancer Surgeon Reveals the Surprising Potential of Ivermectin Against Cancer

Interesting. understand that a virus reside in the blood and is contained by the immune system so far so good. Then when a weakness occurs. the virus acts and triggers a cancer event.

sort of like dealing with a Plantor Wart .also a virus event. I had one cut out. great except a couple months later it reappeared. Since then i merely shave it back for zero issues. It obviously intercts with the imune system to keep the viral load suppressed.

If invermectin breaks up viruses and vitimin C dos the same, then we have an excellent strategy for suppressing all viral driven problems.

It dies not cure, vbut does fire up the immune system to do its job.

Cancer Surgeon Reveals the Surprising Potential of Ivermectin Against Cancer

Dr. Kathleen Ruddy is a member of Front Line Covid19 Critical Care Alliance (FLCCCA) and a retired cancer surgeon trained at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. She is conducting her own observational study on the effect on late-stage cancer patients who use Ivermectin. Dr. Ruddy explained that Ivermectin comes from a single cell organism discovered in soil in Japan. She said that Ivermectin can kill parasites and it can dismantle viruses. She believes that the majority of cancers are caused by tumor viruses yet to be discovered. She discussed three patients who had astonishing reversals of cancers and metastatic spread after using Ivermectin.

Disclaimer: NeedToKnow.News is a media outlet. We do not give medical advice, but instead report the news. Please contact your own doctor or medical expert for any health issues.


Epoch Times transcript excerpt:

Dr. Ruddy: The opening act in this story is that I began to do the scientific research that was in peer-reviewed papers, and I read them chronologically. I wanted to understand what everyone was thinking, as they made their discoveries and what questions they asked. Here was all this research that showed that ivermectin had great potential as an anti-cancer agent. Having seen for myself and being very well persuaded by the work of Doctors Kory and Marick and others, plus the data coming out of South Africa and India that ivermectin was safe and effective in treating patients with Covid, I began to wonder to what extent it might it be effective in treating patients with cancer.

I understood that the pharmaceutical industries were not going to invest in a $0.10 pill. If the pharmaceutical industries were not willing to do that, no one else was going to do it, because pharma funds everyone that is doing research. I was introduced to a patient with stage 4 prostate cancer. He had received two vaccines. He was perfectly healthy and a marathoner, and had no history of cancer in the family.

He worked for the government, and he was going to lose his job and his pension if he wasn’t vaccinated. Two months after his second Pfizer shot, he was diagnosed all at once with stage 4 prostate cancer. He tells a very compelling, melodramatic story about that 24-hour period of time in his life.

He went through the traditional protocols; radiation, chemotherapy, pharmacologic, castration, all of it, over a period of nine months. His name is Paul Mann. His doctor said, “There’s really nothing else we can do. He said, “Can’t you give me more radiation? Can’t you give me more chemo? Aren’t there any other drugs? Are there any clinical trials? The answer was, “No, there’s nothing. There is only hospice. Send for the priest.”

A friend of his knew me and said, “Would you give Paul a call? He just needs some moral support.” I began calling him and we spoke about once a week for three weeks. The poor guy was suffering and had cancer in 11 bones in his body. His right leg was completely swollen and obstructed with a tumor. He was miserable.

I said, “Paul, I don’t know if this is going to help you, but I know it’s not going to hurt you. I just can’t imagine based on my judgment and understanding of the scientific literature and all of the work that Doctors Kory and Marik have done that ivermectin would hurt you. It might help, but I can’t say.”

He said, “I’ll give it a try.” He drove to Tennessee where you could get it without a prescription. He drove from where he lives in New York to Tennessee and paid cash for his ivermectin. He didn’t submit it to an insurance company. He didn’t tell his oncologist back in Missouri.

His ivermectin prescriptions were listed in his medical chart. How did that information get from the pharmacy in Tennessee to his chart in Missouri? They don’t know. But actually, somebody does know, and I’d like to know myself.

Anyway, he starts taking ivermectin. He doesn’t have any problems with it. I talk to him every week, “How are you feeling? How’s your leg? How’s the pain? He says, “No change. But I don’t know. It’s not quite as swollen. There’s pain everywhere. Maybe it’s getting a little bit better. It’s not necessarily getting worse.”

Fast forward to a two-month follow-up appointment at the clinic. They didn’t expect to see him. He’s feeling a little bit better. They do a PSA [Prostrate-Specific Antigen Test], which in the beginning was off the charts, maybe 700 or 800. At the time, they recommended him to hospice.

Mr. Jekielek: What exactly do those numbers mean, for the layperson?

Dr. Ruddy: Over four would be abnormal. What are we talking about here? Prostate cells normally secrete a protein, a prostate-specific antigen. It’s one of the things that they do. Cancer cells that originate in the prostate that are dividing rapidly and growing fast are spitting out PSA. It’s not that they’re contributing to the body economy in any way. It’s just they just want to multiply and divide. That’s the end of the story.

Your PSA levels start to rise, which is a screening marker. They will say, “Your PSA was four, and now it’s eight. Let’s do a prostate ultrasound.” The PSA can be a screen for the emergence of a tumor, but it can also be used, particularly at high levels, as evidence for cancer, response to cancer, or recurrence of cancer. His was supposed to be four, but it’s in the hundreds.

He goes back for a two-month appointment and it’s 1.3. They said, “You’re in biochemical remission.” He was not in complete remission, because he still had the bone metastasis, but this was good news. Slowly, he begins to improve. There is less pain and the swelling is down. He has a lot of other vaccine injuries, but he’s getting better.

They are giving him nutritional support and other supplements. He was sometimes having a TIA [Transient Ischemic Attack], which is a little mini-stroke. But he didn’t tell me about that because we were talking about cancer. But over a period of time, I was asking him, “Are you having TIAs?” His wife said, “Yes, he’s having TIAs.”

I asked, “What do the cancer doctors tell you? She said, “They say it’s not related to my cancer.” I got a call from his wife one evening and he was in the emergency room. He had this catastrophic TIA. I said, “Paul, what are they doing for you?” He said, “They did a CAT scan of my head, but they didn’t see anything specific. It’s a TIA and not related to my cancer.” Then they send him home.
I asked, “Did they do anything? He replied, “No.” I said, “You need to see a cardiologist. There are things they can do.” I looked it up really quickly. and of course, there are things they can do. They get him to the cardiologist, get him on blood thinners, and then no more problems with TIAs. That’s an indictment of the healthcare system.

Then he is getting better. Nine months later, he’s out dancing for four hours, three nights a week. He gets a head-to-toe rescanning and three of the bone mets are gone. There’s no growth of the mets that are there, and no new lesions. There’s only one hot spot and that’s where he received radiation therapy. The radiologist really could not distinguish whether that was a tumor hotspot or a radiation hotspot.

He is doing very well. The vaccine injury is a problem, but the cancer is no longer a problem, except for the fact that it’s still there and we want to get rid of it completely. He called me from a hockey game and said, “If I didn’t already know I have cancer, I would not know I have cancer. That was patient number one. I said, “Now, that’s interesting.”

A second patient crossed my path, a guy in his seventies who lost 40 pounds over a year-and-a-half, was not vaccinated, was a smoker and drinker, and all he did was fish. He could no longer swallow and he could hardly talk. I got on the phone with him and said, “Eddie, tell me a little bit about your history.” He knew someone with prostate cancer who had taken ivermectin and cured himself from prostate cancer with it.

Eddie began taking ivermectin. I have no idea what the dosing was. He was just taking it. I gave him some advice about diet and how to get the weight back on. In a couple of weeks, he sounded stronger. He could swallow, his voice was better, and he had gained six pounds. I followed him for another month or so.

I said, “Eddie, we need to get a scan.” He doesn’t have insurance. He doesn’t like doctors. He had been diagnosed in that interval with two unresectable esophageal tumors. The surgeons wouldn’t go near it. The doctor said, “We’ll give you chemo and radiation.” He said, “No, you’re not.” He just takes his ivermectin.

About six weeks later, I said, “Eddie, you need to get a scan.” I had to argue with Eddie to get a scan. We got the scan. No tumors. Gone. The biggest problem was that he had sold his fishing boat. He was getting better and his tumor was gone. Now, he needed to go out and buy another fishing boat. That was the second patient. Again, I said, “Now, that’s interesting.”

The third patient was a woman who was referred to me. Her husband called me. He said, “Could you talk to my wife? I think she’s got a problem.” She could feel a lump in her lower pelvis. She had had that for a while. I asked her, “Do you have any vaginal bleeding?” She replied, “Yes, a little bit, but not much.”

I said that the best thing to do would be to go to the doctor and get a CAT scan. She doesn’t like doctors. She doesn’t have insurance. She’s not getting a CAT scan. I was able to convince her to at least get an ultrasound. She gets an ultrasound. She has a 6-centimeter tumor in her pelvis. It’s close to the colon, it’s close to the ovary, it might be near the uterus, who knows? It’s just wedged down there.

Watch the full video with Dr. Kathleen Ruddy that includes a transcript when you sign up for a free account at Epoch Times:

Thursday, May 30, 2024

Orcas are still smashing up boats – and we've finally worked out why

The good news is that they are not mad at us.  unfortunately this is about as helpful as a friendly bull.  Nice to know though that they trust us enough to treat our boats like beachballs.

The quandary is just how to handle the problem in a fence free environment.  We do not know.  We also do not know how to walk across a field accompanied by a herd of friendly steers.

Something weighing that much makes gentle rough.

Orcas are still smashing up boats – and we've finally worked out why

May 27, 2024

This orca gave a team competing in The Ocean Race a scare
The Ocean Race

For four years now, orcas have been ramming and sinking luxury yachts in European waters, and scientists have struggled to work out just why these smart, social animals had learnt this destructive new trick. But, sadly, it's not their anticapitalist 'eat the rich' agenda, nor is it to do with territory and aggression. The truth is, well, it's child's play.

Following years of research, a team of biologists, government officials and marine industry representatives have released their findings on just why one particular Orcinus orca group has developed this destructive streak. And it turns out, orcas – especially the kids and teens – just want to have fun. The report reveals that a combination of free time, curiosity and natural playfulness has led to young orcas adopting this 'trend' of boat-bumping, which is not at all surprising for a species that has been known to adopt odd, isolated behaviors from time to time.

In recent years, a dramatic recovery in the population of bluefin tuna in the region has been a win for a group of about 40 critically endangered Iberian killer whales that feed exclusively on the large fish. This has meant they've cut down their time spent foraging, leaving space for other 'hobbies.'

"In addition, climate change could be playing a role, leading to these tuna being in the Gulf of Cádiz continuously rather than seasonally," the scientists noted. "This year-round abundance means that there appears to no longer be a need for the whales to pursue every fish encountered."

Analyzing data collected from individual orcas and through observation, the scientists found that the 'attacks' on vessels usually involved a couple of animals at a time, from a core group of 15 that have so far been observed messing with boats. But these 'attacks' are anything but – from the orcas' perspective, at least.

Most of the 15 were male juveniles and teens, the "most curious and exploratory" of an orca population, suggesting that what started as playful head-bumping on boat rudders has escalated as the animals have grown larger. The team notes that this rudder-bumping behavior was observed around 2017, but the interactions didn't result in any boat damage. Now that the orcas are larger, their game has become a lot more powerful.

And no orca over the age of 25 – when males are fully grown – has been seen participating in the tomfoolery. Scientists suspect younger orcas have seen older siblings playing with their rudder 'toys' and then copied. (Some females have been spotted, but they're most likely there just to babysit the kids.)

These social, playful animals seem to be living up to their reputation

"Killer whales are known to play with other objects or animals in their environment to the point of damaging them (in the southern resident killer whale population of Washington, USA, which feed on salmon, individuals will ‘play’ with harbour porpoises to the point of killing them, which may be a similar escalation of an initially less harmful interaction), so this behaviour seems on that spectrum," the scientists wrote.

The animals are known to be sensitive to trends, with scientists having observed odd new behaviors spreading through a pod like a TikTok challenge, only to be forgotten just as quickly. Perhaps most famously, in 1987, a female orca in the Pacific Ocean near Puget Sound was observed carrying a dead salmon on her head; within two months, killer whales from her pod and two others were also wearing 'fish hats.' But it was all a fad.

"Different populations often have distinct dietary specialisations that are maintained by cultural transmission, and these 'ecotypes' typically have a variety of persistent behavioural traditions that are related to their divergent foraging," the authors wrote. "Some populations may also develop unusual and temporary behavioural 'fads' and other idiosyncrasies that do not appear to serve any obvious adaptive purpose. Understanding the recent boat interactions by Iberian killer whales may benefit from an examination of such ephemeral traditions in other well-studied killer whale populations."

Still, one orca's playtime is another human's frightening encounter, as this video from The Ocean Race in 2023 shows (fast-forward to around 20 seconds).


Boat owners and authorities will no doubt be hoping that this rudder-play trend will also be phased out sooner rather than later.

Since 2020, Atlantic Orca Working Group (GTOA) reports there have been 673 "interactions" between the marine animals and watercraft since 2020, with at least four boats sinking. Just two weeks ago, an unknown number of orcas – also known a little less favorably as killer whales – repeatedly rammed the 49-ft (15-m) yacht Alboran Cognac in the Straight of Gilbraltar between Spain and North Africa. After the passengers and crew were rescued by an oil tanker, they watched from afar as the yacht took on water and soon disappeared below the surface.

The latest sinking saw the Spanish maritime rescue agency SASEMAR issue a statement warning boat-owners not to venture too far from the shore and, whatever they do, don't drop anchor in open water in the high-risk zone.

"In an ideal world, there would be a simple strategy for mariners to follow when killer whales interact, which would avoid vessel damage and harm to the whales. Unfortunately, there appears to be no such panacea," the authors of the study wrote. "The singular agreement amongst the experts at this workshop is that the interactions between Iberian killer whales and vessels are not aggressive. The interactions have more elements consistent with fad behaviour or play/socialising than aggression. The use of such terms as ‘attack’ to describe these interactions is thus inappropriate, misleading and should cease."

Fluidic Space Telescopes For 25X More Power at the Same Cost

We are starting to see space based engineering taking advantage of zero gravity and internal structural strengths.

As posted, a ferris wheel can produce g forces running from zero to one g for a sound sleep on the rim.  The whole thing is a suspension bridge rotated from a hub which supplies natural docking.

such a system allows us to fabricate mile wide space craft as well, able to leave dry dock after construction.

This item also promises to be hugely expandable and we do need that engineering station soon.


Fluidic Space Telescopes For 25X More Power at the Same Cost

May 27, 2024 by Brian Wang

The future of space-based UV/optical/IR astronomy requires ever larger telescopes. The highest priority astrophysics targets, including Earth-like exoplanets, first generation stars, and early galaxies, are all extremely faint, which presents an ongoing challenge for current missions and is the opportunity space for next generation telescopes: larger telescopes are the primary way to address this issue.

With mission costs depending strongly on aperture diameter, scaling current space telescope technologies to aperture sizes beyond 10 m does not appear economically viable. Without a breakthrough in scalable technologies for large telescopes, future advances in astrophysics may slow down or even completely stall. Thus, there is a need for cost-effective solutions to scale space telescopes to larger sizes.

The FLUTE project aims to overcome the limitations of current approaches by paving a path towards space observatories with largeaperture, unsegmented liquid primary mirrors, suitable for a variety of astronomical applications. Such mirrors would be created in space via a novel approach based on fluidic shaping in microgravity, which has already been successfully demonstrated in a laboratory neutral buoyancy environment, in parabolic microgravity flights, and aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Theoretically scale-invariant, this technique has produced optical components with superb, sub-nanometer (RMS) surface quality. In order to make the concept feasible to implement in the next 15-20 years with near-term technologies and realistic cost, we limit the diameter of the primary mirror to 50 meters.

In the Phase I study, they: (1) explored choices of mirror liquids, deciding to focus on ionic liquids, (2) conducted an extensive study of ionic liquids with suitable properties, (3) worked on techniques for ionic liquid reflectivity enhancement, (4) analyzed several alternative architectures for the main mirror frame, (5) conducted modeling of the effects of slewing maneuvers and temperature variations on the mirror surface, (6) developed a detailed mission concept for a 50-m fluidic mirror observatory, and (7) created a set of initial concepts for a subscale small spacecraft demonstration in low Earth orbit.

In Phase II, they will continue maturing the key elements of the mission concept.

1. they will continue the analysis of suitable mirror frame architectures and modeling of their dynamic properties.
2. they will take next steps in the machine learning-based modeling and experimental work to develop reflectivity enhancement techniques for ionic liquids.
3. they will further advance the work of modeling liquid mirror dynamics. In particular, they will focus on modeling the effects from other types of external disturbances (spacecraft control accelerations, tidal forces, and micrometeorite impacts), as well as analyzing and modeling the impact of the thermal Marangoni effect on nanoparticle-infused ionic liquids.
4. they will create a model of the optical chain from the liquid mirror surface to the science instruments.
5. they will further develop the mission concept for a larger-scale, 50-m aperture observatory, focusing on its highest-risk elements. 6. they will mature the concept for a small spacecraft technology demonstration mission in low Earth orbit, incorporating the knowledge gained in other parts of this work.

Previous Work from Phase 1

The state-of-the-art 21 foot (6.5 meter) aperture James Webb Space Telescope needed to be folded up origami-style – including the mirror itself ­– to fit inside the rocket for its ride to space. The aperture of an optical space observatory refers to the size of the telescope’s primary mirror, the surface that collects and focuses incoming light.

The aperture the FLUTE researchers are targeting first is approximately 164 feet (50 meters) in diameter – half as long as a football field. The fluidic mirror and lens designs are not limited to that size and could increase to 10 kilometers. the 50 meter mirror space telecope could deploy from one SpaceX Super Heavy Starship launch. FLUTE has already tested parts of their system on the international space station. The next step is a smallsat complete system orbital test.

Conventional technology for making optical components for telescopes is a grind. It involves an iterative process of sanding and polishing solid materials, such as glass or metal, to shape the precise curved surfaces of lenses and mirrors needed. Using current technologies, scaling up space telescopes to apertures larger than approximately 33 feet (10 meters) in diameter does not appear economically viable.

FLUTE’s novel cost-effective technology approach takes advantage of the way fluids naturally behave in microgravity.

Greek Marines don 3,500-year-old armor to prove it's combat-capable

This armor is at least one thousand years before we had greek hoplite armor.  This then coincides with the global sea borne empire of the european Bronze Age and explains the existence of armor throughout greece.long after.  It all came from somewhere.

Fancy or not, this armor is akin to japanese armor and effective.  Bronze plats can be formed by hammering.

Thus these sea borne lords were also armored as well which was compelling however small the numbers

Greek Marines don 3,500-year-old armor to prove it's combat-capable

May 27, 2024

The Dendra armor has been a mystery since its discovery in 1960

Andreas D. Flouris et al

An ancient mystery may have been solved after researchers, with the help of 13 Hellenic Marines, proved that a unique 3,500-year-old suit of Greek armor wasn't necessarily just for show, but could have been used for combat at the time of the Trojan War.

In May 1960, the site of a botched tomb robbery near the village of Dendra in Southern Greece sparked a mystery worthy of Indiana Jones. The thieves got away with very little, but their attempted heist uncovered the tomb of a warrior with his belongings stacked in one corner of the funerary chamber.

It's not unusual to find arms and armor in warrior tombs, but this one was off the charts for oddness. Among the deceased's belongings was a suit of armor called a panoply that has no known counterpart in history. It consists of an elaborate bronze cuirass made up of a front and back plate. Hanging from this was a neck guard called a gorget, two shoulder-guards or pauldrons with overlapping plates to protect the arms, and three curved bottom plates or taces back and front to protect the lower trunk.

The recreated Dendra armor

Andreas D. Flouris et al

It was all the product of remarkable workmanship, which is an understatement if ever there was one because there wouldn't be anything similar until the time of France's King Louis XIV over 3,000 years later. In other words, the Dendra Panoply was a classic example of a lost art that died with the Mycenaean Age after the fall of Troy.

Ever since its discovery, the question has remained: what was this armor for? Was it for battle or was it some sort of parade armor only worn for ceremonial occasions?

To find the answer, a team of researchers, some from the University of Thessaly, engaged in a series of four studies that bear a striking resemblance to a research proposal I tried to get off the ground in the 1980s during my archaeologist days. I was curious about ancient and medieval armor and sword combat and I wanted to study them and how they were used from an engineering point of view. Unfortunately, I had to give up the project because it was almost impossible to get my hands on replica swords and other items of sufficient quality without spending a fortune on something that would be highly unlikely to find funding.

Map of the area around ancient Troy

Andreas D. Flouris et al

Today, you could probably arrange to buy some quite reasonably at the nearest Renaissance Festival.

Forty years too late. Go figure.

The new series of studies involved creating functional copies of the Dendra Panoply, as well as helmets and suitable blunted swords and spears, then kitting out 13 Hellenic Marines selected for their fitness and their ethnic and physical matching of ancient Greek warriors based on historic and archaeological evidence. They were then kitted with biosensors and completed an 11-hour simulation of an ancient Greek combat patrol.

The Dendra tomb
Andreas D. Flouris et al

The researchers also recreated the Mycenaean diet for the men (sorry, no caffeine) and ancient Greek fighting techniques based on the writings of the poet Homer in his classic The Iliad, which recounts the battle for the city of Troy. While the team acknowledged that no one knew exactly when the Trojan Wars were fought and that Homer wasn't entirely reliable (he was, after all, blind, writing to entertain, and his works were probably somewhat altered over the centuries), he did provide accounts of ancient warriors that were of a workable level of accuracy.

In addition, the team took into account the climate and terrain of the Trojan Wars and created a digital simulation that would allow them to evaluate combat under a variety of conditions.

What the researchers were looking for was evidence that someone under realistic conditions could carry out sustained combat in the Dendra armor. What they found was that the volunteers could march and fight in hit-and-run maneuvers typical of the time on foot or with chariots with no more stress than a fit man of an average of 29 years could be expected to suffer and that the armor allowed for a practical level of mobility and protection.

Not only that, but the development of such armor in the Late Bronze Age in Europe could explain the rise of ancient Greek culture and influence in the region.

"Our results support the notion that the Mycenaeans had such a powerful impact in the Eastern Mediterranean at least partly as a result of their armor technology," said physiologist and team member Andreas Flouris of the University of Thessaly.

The Money’s Gone

We have here a long list of known false hoods except that the money is never running out, not least because we print it on demand.

There is a squeeze on deflating the available debt.  Writing it off is a stroke of the pen.  And print to replace.

fixing it will be that easy because the real demand for money in unceasing.  get over it.

The Money’s Gone

No one is talking about what is behind everything that is happening – what is behind the fake pandemic, the utterly unscientific global obsession with imaginary global warming, a collapsing global economy with soaring inflation that is now endemic and the drive towards World War III.

It’s really quite simple, Dr. Vernon Coleman says in his latest video. “It’s all about money.”
Dr. Vernon Coleman: The Money’s Gone, 23 May 2024 (11 mins)

Hello, it’s May 2024. Welcome to video 336.

There is, to say the least, a lot going on.

But no one is talking about the big problem. No one is talking about what is behind everything that is happening.

And yet it’s actually all quite simple.

It’s all about the money.

And time is running out faster than you think.

The fake pandemic, the damaging lockdowns, the crazy obsession with a toxic vaccine that was never properly tested, doesn’t work and is now the cause of an epidemic of heart disease and a deluge of cancer cases, the insane social distancing, the absurd and dangerous mask wearing, faked statistics created with a deadly PCR test that never worked, the utterly unscientific global obsession with imaginary global warming, a collapsing global economy with soaring inflation that is now endemic, the drive towards World War III with NATO using Ukraine as the battleground for a proxy war with Russia and supplying Israel with bombs and bullets as its false flag attack and ethnic cleansing programme continue to appal the world, the taunting China over Taiwan and now a planned global euthanasia programme, heavily promoted by a compliant and unquestioning media, which is designed to encourage the poor, the sick and the mentally ill to sign up for doctor assisted suicide. All around the world people are being signed up to promote euthanasia, just as Greta was used by the media to promote climate change.

Incidentally, if you are wondering why Biden and Sunak seem particularly enthusiastic about forcing us into World War III there is a simple answer. Both will be fighting elections this year. Both are behind in the polls. And both know that when there is a war, the government usually gets re-elected. It was, of course, because of this that Margaret Thatcher started the Falklands War.

To the ignorant and the innocent, it must look as if we are living in an unusual and exceptional time of turmoil with everything happening all at once. But we know that nothing is happening by accident. You and I know that it is all planned.

And it is all about money.

It’s not about covid-19, and it’s not about climate change. They’re just weapons.

It’s really all about money.

Because the money has run out.

No one under 55 years of age is ever going to receive a pension, unless they have a corporate or private pension, and many corporate pensions are vulnerable. And politicians are talking about confiscating private pensions. No one under 55 working for a government or council can expect to receive the pension they think they’ve been promised and told to expect. Most pensions, and all State pensions are Ponzi schemes, of course. They always have been. Today’s pensioners receive their pensions from today’s workers. There is no pot of money put aside to pay tomorrow’s pensioners. In a few decades’ time, the streets are going to be clogged with men and women in their 60s, 70s and beyond who will be literally begging for food. When winter comes, they will freeze to death. Every evening official death wagons will drive through the streets with robots picking up dead bodies and taking them away to be burnt.

And those to whom 55 seems a long way distant, should be aware that the employment prospects of anyone over the age of 35 are poor. The cut-off age for the human junkyard gets lower and lower each year. In China, now the training ground for social credit policies, the over 35s are being fired by tech firms because they are regarded as being too old. And the Chinese civil service doesn’t want employees over 35. The argument is that the ageing process is well underway at 30. And parenthood slows people down. The real reason for this new policy is, of course, to prepare people for expanding euthanasia programmes. Unemployment and poor health go hand in hand. And with no pension to look forward to, the over-35s will be a ready market for the euthanasia programmes now being introduced around the world.

If you work for a government, Google or the BBC you doubtless think I am exaggerating. You probably think you’ve got a solid gold pension waiting for you. If you work in a high echelon position at the CIA then you know I’m not exaggerating but you won’t dare agree with me because you are paid to sneer and demonise and to lie.

But look at the facts.

Governments in the US, UK, Canada, Australasia and the EU have been over-spending for years and now they are bust. They’ve been printing money and spending it for years and government debts have gone through the roof. America’s debt is rising by a trillion dollars every hundred days. If the Government puts up interest rates, the cost of its debt will rise. If they bring down interest rates then inflation will take off.

The USA’s national debt is now so high that within five years, half of every dollar paid in tax will go towards paying the interest. Within a decade, every penny paid in tax will go to help pay the interest. There won’t be any money left for health care, schools, road building or anything else.

And long before that happens, the bond markets will collapse and interest rates will soar – making everything worse. The American dollar will collapse as more money is printed and essential spending is cut. Remember, I warned about inflation and rising interest rates years before anyone else.

This is a global problem.

It is why euthanasia is being promoted so enthusiastically. Benefits paid to the sick are unaffordable, so the sick will either be invited to kill themselves or they will be killed on hospital wards – as is already happening.

And it is why politicians are constantly pushing up the retirement age.

In the UK, there is a £46 billion black hole threatening pensions, and it has already been suggested in the House of Lords in London that the pension age be raised to 75.

Everywhere, all around the world, government debt has risen to unsustainable levels. There are going to be defaults, bankruptcies, recessions, depressions, hyperinflation and wars we cannot afford to fight.

And, of course, it is not the cost of providing healthcare for the elderly which really worries the conspirators – big problem though that is. It is the cost of providing pensions and benefits which is the big problem.

In the UK, the world’s premier provider of socialist, state-managed health care, the cost of providing health care has been cut by simply not providing any proper health care. GPs are paid £150,000 a year for 24-hour working weeks – just as farmers are being paid not to farm. Strikes are encouraged and waiting lists are so long that unless you are a member of the royal family you have no chance of being diagnosed let alone treated.

It was always all about the money.

They have been working towards the manufactured chaos we are living through for some years now. They need to terrify people. They need to bring in new laws. And they need to kill a lot of people. Billions.

Back in the 1980s, they tried to introduce AIDS as a weapon. It failed because they tried to oversell it too quickly – and a young media doctor called Coleman, who had columns and TV shows, destroyed the Government’s arguments and became a target. Attempts to use swine flu and bird flu were clumsily managed and failed.

But the coronavirus hoax which remarketed the flu and which gave us the covid-19 fake pandemic was better planned. All around the world, doctors and media operatives were bought.

The deadly, inadequately tested toxic vaccine will kill millions. The wars they are encouraging will kill millions. Millions will die of the cold and of starvation. The killing programmes are well underway. Euthanasia is, in a way, their final solution. And they are going to find ways (such as impoverishing people, terrifying people, reducing services such as health care, in order to push people into signing up to the euthanasia programmes. They are already using euthanasia to kill people who are depressed or poor (see my previous video `They want to kill us all’ if you find this difficult to believe [see HERE and HERE]).

And now the screw is being tightened and most people are either unaware of the threat or they are too busy worrying over trivial side issues to notice what is happening.

You need to plan.

I’m not selling gold or survival rations but you need to think how you’ll live in a world where everything is going to get much, much worse in every way.

You need to be aware that your Government is fast running out of money and that the Nanny State you may have been encouraged to trust is going to betray you.

Can we stop them?

Of course we can – if we fight hard enough.

We can stop them by sharing the truth with as many people as possible. Most people still don’t realise how close we are to the end of life as we know it.

Right from the start this war has been about information. It was always a propaganda war. The conspirators bought the media and they demonised and lied about free-thinking truth-tellers. TV and radio stations and newspapers became propaganda vehicles.

I am banned from all mainstream [corporate] media, all social media and 99% of the internet. No one dares interview me lest they lose their podcast, platform or channel. All I have left is my website – which carries new articles every weekday – and my video channel. The website and the videos are all entirely free and carry no advertisements. Please visit the website as often as you can to keep up with what is happening. Subscribe to my video channel on BitChute and share my videos with everyone you can reach. My books can be found via the bookshop on

Please remember you are not alone. More and more people are waking up. And once they’re awake they don’t go back to sleep.

Distrust the Government, avoid mass media and fight the lies. Remember: if you’re not paranoid by now then you’ve not been paying attention. These are dark and dangerous days; far darker and far more dangerous than most people realise.

And thank you for watching an old man in a chair.

Wednesday, May 29, 2024

Why Is the Human Brain So Efficient?

So just how does a massively parallel system actually do logic?  Has anyone solved this instead of handwaving?

slow works when you want this approach obviously.  but can a random element do quick logic/?  and feed it back as a suggestion.  The fact we can identify two separate processes suggest we also need to look for more.

and just how do we construct alternate logic systems or is the one we have unique?.  This is a real difficult problem in math.

Why Is the Human Brain So Efficient?

How massive parallelism lifts the brain’s performance above that of AI.


April 3, 2018

The brain is complex; in humans it consists of about 100 billion neurons, making on the order of 100 trillion connections. It is often compared with another complex system that has enormous problem-solving power: the digital computer. Both the brain and the computer contain a large number of elementary units—neurons and transistors, respectively—that are wired into complex circuits to process information conveyed by electrical signals. At a global level, the architectures of the brain and the computer resemble each other, consisting of largely separate circuits for input, output, central processing, and memory.1

Which has more problem-solving power—the brain or the computer? Given the rapid advances in computer technology in the past decades, you might think that the computer has the edge. Indeed, computers have been built and programmed to defeat human masters in complex games, such as chess in the 1990s and recently Go, as well as encyclopedic knowledge contests, such as the TV show Jeopardy! As of this writing, however, humans triumph over computers in numerous real-world tasks—ranging from identifying a bicycle or a particular pedestrian on a crowded city street to reaching for a cup of tea and moving it smoothly to one’s lips—let alone conceptualization and creativity.

So why is the computer good at certain tasks whereas the brain is better at others? Comparing the computer and the brain has been instructive to both computer engineers and neuroscientists. This comparison started at the dawn of the modern computer era, in a small but profound book entitled The Computer and the Brain, by John von Neumann, a polymath who in the 1940s pioneered the design of a computer architecture that is still the basis of most modern computers today.2 Let’s look at some of these comparisons in numbers (Table 1).

The computer has huge advantages over the brain in the speed of basic operations.3 Personal computers nowadays can perform elementary arithmetic operations, such as addition, at a speed of 10 billion operations per second. We can estimate the speed of elementary operations in the brain by the elementary processes through which neurons transmit information and communicate with each other. For example, neurons “fire” action potentials—spikes of electrical signals initiated near the neuronal cell bodies and transmitted down their long extensions called axons, which link with their downstream partner neurons. Information is encoded in the frequency and timing of these spikes. The highest frequency of neuronal firing is about 1,000 spikes per second. As another example, neurons transmit information to their partner neurons mostly by releasing chemical neurotransmitters at specialized structures at axon terminals called synapses, and their partner neurons convert the binding of neurotransmitters back to electrical signals in a process called synaptic transmission. The fastest synaptic transmission takes about 1 millisecond. Thus both in terms of spikes and synaptic transmission, the brain can perform at most about a thousand basic operations per second, or 10 million times slower than the computer.4

The computer also has huge advantages over the brain in the precision of basic operations. The computer can represent quantities (numbers) with any desired precision according to the bits (binary digits, or 0s and 1s) assigned to each number. For instance, a 32-bit number has a precision of 1 in 232 or 4.2 billion. Empirical evidence suggests that most quantities in the nervous system (for instance, the firing frequency of neurons, which is often used to represent the intensity of stimuli) have variability of a few percent due to biological noise, or a precision of 1 in 100 at best, which is millionsfold worse than a computer.5

A pro tennis player can follow the trajectory of a ball served at a speed up to 160 mph.

The calculations performed by the brain, however, are neither slow nor imprecise. For example, a professional tennis player can follow the trajectory of a tennis ball after it is served at a speed as high as 160 miles per hour, move to the optimal spot on the court, position his or her arm, and swing the racket to return the ball in the opponent’s court, all within a few hundred milliseconds. Moreover, the brain can accomplish all these tasks (with the help of the body it controls) with power consumption about tenfold less than a personal computer. How does the brain achieve that? An important difference between the computer and the brain is the mode by which information is processed within each system. Computer tasks are performed largely in serial steps. This can be seen by the way engineers program computers by creating a sequential flow of instructions. For this sequential cascade of operations, high precision is necessary at each step, as errors accumulate and amplify in successive steps. The brain also uses serial steps for information processing. In the tennis return example, information flows from the eye to the brain and then to the spinal cord to control muscle contraction in the legs, trunk, arms, 

But the brain also employs massively parallel processing, taking advantage of the large number of neurons and large number of connections each neuron makes. For instance, the moving tennis ball activates many cells in the retina called photoreceptors, whose job is to convert light into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to many different kinds of neurons in the retina in parallel. By the time signals originating in the photoreceptor cells have passed through two to three synaptic connections in the retina, information regarding the location, direction, and speed of the ball has been extracted by parallel neuronal circuits and is transmitted in parallel to the brain. Likewise, the motor cortex (part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for volitional motor control) sends commands in parallel to control muscle contraction in the legs, the trunk, the arms, and the wrist, such that the body and the arms are simultaneously well positioned to receiving the incoming ball.

This massively parallel strategy is possible because each neuron collects inputs from and sends output to many other neurons—on the order of 1,000 on average for both input and output for a mammalian neuron. (By contrast, each transistor has only three nodes for input and output all together.) Information from a single neuron can be delivered to many parallel downstream pathways. At the same time, many neurons that process the same information can pool their inputs to the same downstream neuron. This latter property is particularly useful for enhancing the precision of information processing. For example, information represented by an individual neuron may be noisy (say, with a precision of 1 in 100). By taking the average of input from 100 neurons carrying the same information, the common downstream partner neuron can represent the information with much higher precision (about 1 in 1,000 in this case).6

The computer and the brain also have similarities and differences in the signaling mode of their elementary units. The transistor employs digital signaling, which uses discrete values (0s and 1s) to represent information. The spike in neuronal axons is also a digital signal since the neuron either fires or does not fire a spike at any given time, and when it fires, all spikes are approximately the same size and shape; this property contributes to reliable long-distance spike propagation. However, neurons also utilize analog signaling, which uses continuous values to represent information. Some neurons (like most neurons in our retina) are nonspiking, and their output is transmitted by graded electrical signals (which, unlike spikes, can vary continuously in size) that can transmit more information than can spikes. The receiving end of neurons (reception typically occurs in the dendrites) also uses analog signaling to integrate up to thousands of inputs, enabling the dendrites to perform complex computations.7

Your brain is 10 million times slower than a computer.

Another salient property of the brain, which is clearly at play in the return of service example from tennis, is that the connection strengths between neurons can be modified in response to activity and experience—a process that is widely believed by neuroscientists to be the basis for learning and memory. Repetitive training enables the neuronal circuits to become better configured for the tasks being performed, resulting in greatly improved speed and precision.

Over the past decades, engineers have taken inspiration from the brain to improve computer design. The principles of parallel processing and use-dependent modification of connection strength have both been incorporated into modern computers. For example, increased parallelism, such as the use of multiple processors (cores) in a single computer, is a current trend in computer design. As another example, “deep learning” in the discipline of machine learning and artificial intelligence, which has enjoyed great success in recent years and accounts for rapid advances in object and speech recognition in computers and mobile devices, was inspired by findings of the mammalian visual system.8 As in the mammalian visual system, deep learning employs multiple layers to represent increasingly abstract features (e.g., of visual object or speech), and the weights of connections between different layers are adjusted through learning rather than designed by engineers. These recent advances have expanded the repertoire of tasks the computer is capable of performing. Still, the brain has superior flexibility, generalizability, and learning capability than the state-of-the-art computer. As neuroscientists uncover more secrets about the brain (increasingly aided by the use of computers), engineers can take more inspiration from the working of the brain to further improve the architecture and performance of computers. Whichever emerges as the winner for particular tasks, these interdisciplinary cross-fertilizations will undoubtedly advance both neuroscience and computer engineering.

Liqun Luo is a professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences, and professor, by courtesy, of neurobiology, at Stanford University.

The author wishes to thank Ethan Richman and Jing Xiong for critiques and David Linden for expert editing.

By Liqun Luo, as published in Think Tank: Forty Scientists Explore the Biological Roots of Human Experience, edited by David J. Linden, and published by Yale University Press.


1. This essay was adapted from a section in the introductory chapter of Luo, L. Principles of Neurobiology (Garland Science, New York, NY, 2015), with permission.

2. von Neumann, J. The Computer and the Brain (Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 2012), 3rd ed.

3. Patterson, D.A. & Hennessy, J.L. Computer Organization and Design (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2012), 4th ed.