Friday, November 16, 2018

Emergent Voter fraud investigation.


 
 
 
You must understand that this time around, the government had set up an evidence gathering operation.  The map informs us of the obvious targets.  It really takes a slew of motivated folks to simply break the law and you have it with illegal immigrants.
 
The DEMS were allowed to run their shell game this time around and are now completely caught.  The evidence will come out soon and all compromised winners will be blocked from been seated until we have a special election.

The end result will be voter ID and a secure voting system.  It may also be the demise of the DEM party, certainly as constituted.  I would like to see a grass roots clean out of the DEMs.  That is presently happening in the Catholic Church as the hiearchy is now withering on the vine there.
 
Republican control will soon see the whole progressive taint cleansed from our suystem of education as well..

 
 
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.446
https://www.scribd.com/document/330420022/11-03-2016-Chelsey-Smith-SOE-Affidavit
We knew then.
We know now.
This time - we have Gov't control.
Boomerang Suicide.
Q
 
 
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.466
ARIZONA
R Gov won by 328,000 votes.
D Sen is winning by 32,000 votes.
R Gov won Maricopa County by 325,000 votes.
D Sen winning Maricopa by 32,000 votes?
[350,000] vote swing to D Sen?
Q
 
 
 
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.453
Drq26owWsAE-7Wy.jpg-large.jpg
 

WHAT IF THE BELOW COULD BE PROVEN?

1-Election + D party officials filled out many thousands of blank ballots?
2-Election + D party officials removed and destroyed 'legal' ballots?
3-Election + D party officials deliberately organized non-citizen voting?
4-Election + D party officials in [XX] locations across the US [under lock & key] stored many thousands of 'blank' ballots for purposes of 'altering the vote total'?
Who safeguards 'blank' ballots?
Who issues 'blank' ballots?
Who controls 'blank' ballots?
How many 'blank' ballots are generated vs. total county pop?
THE CONTROL AND ISSUANCE OF BLANK BALLOTS IS KEY.

Why did the same counties [under dispute today] REFUSE to turn over voter registration information upon request to the Voter Fraud Commission? 

Why was the Voter Fraud Commission disbanded and turned over to DHS?
What vested auth does DHS have compared to a commission body?

https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/without-evidence-trump-and-sessions-warn-of-voter-fraud-in-tuesdays-elections/2018/11/05/e9564788-e115-11e8-8f5f-a55347f48762_story.html?utm_term=.db84f6960764

Enemy @ the Front Door.

Q

Licorice is a potential treatment for ischemia-induced brain damage





Turns out that we hardly ever actually eat licorice at all but use anise oil instead.  that clearly needs to change.  It is noteworthy that most TCM concoctions add licorice in order to improve flavor.   That is two things we all should be aware of.  

I personally now use an modernized version of Tai Chi version which employs machines.  Over two years, i have eliminated crippling dysfunction in one arm and hand and completely restored muscle tone throughout my body while restretching ligaments as well to eliminate risk of calcification.  All this has stopped deterioration from aging cold.

The fact is that this informs us that using a licorice in our tea will help protect us against strokes. This needs to be thought out and applied.  Perhaps even in coffee.

 

Delicious remedy: Licorice is a potential treatment for ischemia-induced brain damage

Sunday, November 11, 2018 by: Ralph Flores

Tags: brain damage, brain health, Brain Injury, caries, food as medicine, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, goodfood, goodhealth, goodmedicine, Herbs, ischemia, licorice, licorice root, natural cures, natural health, natural medicine, natural remedies, neuroprotective, stroke, superfoods, tooth decay

https://www.naturalnews.com/2018-11-11-licorice-potential-treatment-ischemia-induced-brain-damage.html

Natural News) These days, licorice is best known as a candy flavor, but at the root of that sweetness is an actual root that holds a bevy of medicinal benefits. A study led by researchers from South Korea indicates that the Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), a plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, holds the potential to treat brain damage associated with ischemia. The study, published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, utilized an ischemia mouse model to investigate this claim.

The flavor that most people associate with licorice – and the one that they either love or hate – isn’t even from licorice itself. Most types of licorice candy use anise oil as their primary flavor, with licorice root used as a sweetener. This isn’t far from how the root was first used. It’s been used to sweeten flour, as flavoring, and as coloring for a long time since it was first brought to the U.K. from the Middle East. In the Middle Ages, dark salty licorice was all the rage in Europe – especially northern countries such as Holland and Sweden.

More than being food, however, licorice is better known in ancient times as a medicinal herb. In China, two species of licorice, G. uralensis and G. inflata, are classified as drug plants in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. Most forms of Chinese medicine widely used licorice to enhance the potency of other ingredients, reduce toxicity, and improve the medicine’s flavor. It’s reported that almost half of all prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine used licorice.

Earlier studies have also identified certain health benefits from the licorice root. These include the ability to prevent fungal infections and tooth decay, as well as protect the brain from damage. The latter, in particular, is what caught the eye of the South Korean team. In the study, they looked at whether licorice root has neuroprotective properties following an ischemia.

Cerebral ischemia, also referred to as brain ischemia, happens when the brain doesn’t get enough oxygen in the blood. This greatly impairs the brain’s function and can even lead to conditions such as brain tissue death, cerebral infarction, or ischemic stroke. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the U.S., with 87 percent of all strokes classified as an ischemic stroke.

To mimic brain ischemia, researchers used a procedure known as middle cerebral artery occlusion, where the artery was bound to reduce blood flow in the brain. Biomarkers related to cell death, as well as tissue damage caused by loss of blood flow, were studied afterward. The team found that mice that have been treated with a methanol extract of licorice prior to the procedure had significantly lower biomarkers for tissue damage. In addition, the team also found that licorice affected certain proteins associated with cell death, which they identified as a potential reason for the plant’s neuroprotective properties.

“The [neuroprotective] effect of licorice was due to its regulation of apoptosis-related proteins,” the team wrote in their study. “These data suggest that licorice could be a potential candidate for the treatment of ischemia-induced brain damage.” (Related: Food for thought: compound in licorice may protect brain cells from Alzheimer’s and other diseases.)

Natural ways to prevent stroke

While the South Korean study revealed that licorice is great for those who already have brain ischemia, it’s even better to prevent the risk of having it, which is the common precursor to most kinds of stroke altogether. Indeed, certain risk factors for stroke are uncontrollable, such as age, gender, and a personal or family history of the condition, but for the most part, a lot of stroke cases stem from risk factors that can be controlled, including:

The use of alcohol or drugs
Smoking
A poor diet
Lack of exercise or physical inactivity
Stress and depression

These conditions don’t just increase your likelihood of having a stroke, but also other chronic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here are some things that you can do to curb your risk of brain ischemia, and ischemic stroke, as early as now.

Go for a heart-healthy diet. Adding more fruits and vegetables, especially pomegranate seeds, and drinking either black or green tea regularly can significantly reduce the likelihood of having (or repeating) a stroke and helps lower stress levels.

Get moving. Studies have shown that tai chi, a Chinese exercise which uses slow and graceful movements, is great for preventing, and recovering from, a stroke. The exercise improves body balance, as well as reduces stress and depression — making it especially effective for older adults.

Manage your weight. A healthy body weight can effectively manage not only stroke but also other equally debilitating diseases. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), women with a waist size over 35 inches and men with a waist size over 40 inches have a higher risk for Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including ischemic strokes.

Chill out once in a while. The American Heart Association (AHA) has indicated that high levels of stress can greatly increase the risk of having a stroke. Learning relaxation techniques and going to a massage are some ways to reduce tension in the mind and body and improve blood flow.3

Find more about the other health benefits of licorice at Herbs.news.3

Sources include:3

Science.news
LiebertPub.com
StevenFoster.com
TheConversation.com
ColumbiaNeurosurgery.org

California fires

This pretty well spells out that California chose to not spend on fire prevention. That it was handled at the State level is concerning as well.  Dry land fire maintenance needs to be managed locally.  In fact property taxes need to reflect real fire risk, just as we do in flood zones by now allowing building in the first place.

Trying to dump all the costs up to the federal level is nonsensical and it is obviously killing people.

It does not address the big problem and that is building there in the first place.  I recall visiting a chap down in Denver who had a home perched on top of a high ridge.  I could look down that same ridge through thousands of feet of dryland brush.  One spark and that hillside would explode upward into his house in minutes following the already rising airflow.

The problem is now repeating annually obviously because all the dry-land has an ample buildup of brush and it is been used to blackmail the Federal Government for funds.




Self-induced DISASTER: California fires the direct result of shortsighted environmentalist policies that prohibit forest management 
Saturday, November 10, 2018 by: Mike Adams
 
Tags: bad ideas, California, catastrophe, destruction, Ecology, environ, environmentalism, fire breaks, fires, forest management, left cult, stupid




https://www.naturalnews.com/2018-11-10-self-induced-disaster-california-fires-the-direct-result-of-shortsighted-environmentalist-policies.html



Natural News) Actions have consequences, and bad actions often have bad consequences. In much the same way that liberal policies have burned Venezuela’s economy to the ground, California environmentalist policies have unleashed a catastrophic fire that has so far claimed the lives of 11 people and countless animals.



This is what liberal policies always lead to: Destruction, pain, suffering and death.



We pray for those who are suffering through this catastrophe, but above all we pray that the people of California might wake up and realize this disaster is self-inflicted and can be prevented. But that can only happen if dangerous liberal policies that promote these catastrophes are finally stopped.



Years ago, the California government began interfering with local efforts to bulldoze the deadwood out of forests as part of a forest management plan to reduce fire risk. This was all done, of course, under the banner of “environmentalism,” usually with emotional pleas to “save the wildlife” by leaving all the forests alone.



Year after year, the deadwood built up. It was only a matter of time, of course, before a fire would be ignited by lightning (Mother Nature’s natural fire starter). Fueled by the tremendous underbrush that was no longer being cleaned out of the forests, the fires erupted with catastrophic ferocity.



“Extreme environmentalists have shut down public access. They talk about habitat, and yet they are willing to burn it up,” warned Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke in an interview with KCRA. “This has nothing to do with climate change. This has to do with active forest management,” he said.



Liberals, you see, don’t believe in forest management. They don’t want fire breaks to be maintained, and they don’t want fire access roads to “disrupt” forest ecology. So in their effort to prevent humans from having any impact at all on forests, they prevent commonsense management activities from taking place that would help prevent forest fires.



This is how liberals think: They demand authoritarian control so they can create a liberal utopia, but when their ideas are implemented, they deliver absolute Hell.



“There is no reason for these massive, deadly and costly forest fires in California except that forest management is so poor,” tweeted President Trump. And he’s right. “Billions of dollars are given each year, with so many lives lost, all because of gross mismanagement of the forests.”





Liberals, of course, blame “climate change” instead of their own disastrous policies. As Zero Hedge explains:



As University of Washington Climate Scientist Cliff Mass pointed out in an analysis of the factors contributing to California’s wildfires, climate change isn’t driving climate change; rather, poor land management policies and population growth in once-rural areas have been by far the biggest contributors. According to one recent study cited by Mass, the risk of fire increased in once-rural areas as populations increased, placing buildings, plants, vehicles and other ignition sources in fire-prone areas that were once sparsely populated.



Liberals always create their own Hell… the problem is they want to take the rest of us with them

None of us should be surprised that the insane policies of liberals always lead to these people creating their own Hell. Every city, state and nation run by Leftists has either already plummeted into collapse or is on its way there.



Liberal ideas are bad ideas. They don’t work. They’re rooted in insanity, emotion or irrationality rather than cause and effect. Liberals think “wishing” is reality, which is exactly why they think there are 67 genders… or 85… or whatever the number has expanded to this week. In exactly the same way that liberals ignore biological reality and push “gender identity” nonsense, they also ignore forest management reality and pretend that forests won’t burn up if humans don’t touch them.



It makes me wonder why all the liberals in California don’t simply announce today that they “self-identify” as people living in an area where there are no fires. Wouldn’t that make the fires go away, according to liberal logic? Since liberals believe reality is completely subjective, why can’t they simply wish away fires, earthquakes, floods and droughts? (Answer: Because good intentions don’t count. What matters is cause and effect.)



Instead of facing reality and solving problems with practical, real-world solutions, liberals blame imaginary causes for all the disasters they unleash. The current target to take the blame for all natural disasters is “climate change” — a work of complete fiction dredged up by liberals desperate to blame California’s atrociously bad water management, forest management and topsoil management policies on the petroleum industry.



Before long, California will have to find another scapegoat to blame for its astonishingly dangerous debt spending and public pension policies, all of which will drive the state into financial bankruptcy and destitution. If you think the streets of San Francisco are bad now, just wait until the state suffers the financial collapse that’s sure to break. Mass homelessness, disease and crime will make cities like Los Angeles uninhabitable by civilized people. (See CaliforniaCollapse.news for more coverage.)



Quite literally, liberals “torch” everything they touch. Poof! Economies, ecosystems and entire nations go up in smoke due to leftist policies, all of which are rooted in sheer delusion and bad ideas laced with “good intentions.” But good intentions don’t count when they’re wrapped in disastrous policy like offering free, unlimited health care to illegal aliens — another genius California concoction that will cause the state’s fiscal house of cards to collapse.



Delusional thinking does not solve real world problems, which is exactly why liberals must be stripped of all power



California liberals are delusional people, and that makes them dangerous to the rest of us. Sadly, when the liberal mob grows to a sufficient size, they can out-vote the rational people in society. When that happens, their bad ideas ruin the lives of everyone, including the good people who are trying to stop them.


If the people of California want to stop living in a Hell hole, they need to stop voting for Democrats. Sadly, it doesn’t look like that’s going to happen any time soon.



Until that day comes, the people of California will continue to suffer under their own self-inflicted disasters — ecological, economic, legislative, fiscal and otherwise.



The fires of Malibu you see today are prophetic foreshadows of what’s coming to the entire state if Democrats aren’t stripped of power.



I pray for all the people of California, including those who are suffering from the inescapable consequences of their own delusions.



Oh, and it’s not just California, either. The America voters are burning down the entire country by demanding debt spending and entitlement benefits that will lead the entire nation into financial abyss.


Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.442


Nov 10 2018 12:21:14


(EST)6050f1c2ccebd48eca6919a9dfd82d7f6be18e35f7c28396c1b1605bd45d27c7.jpg







DkF49eIWwAE8VQr.jpg










Do you believe in coincidences?

How many coincidences before it becomes mathematically impossible?

Expand your thinking.

;Amount of fires in CA past 12-months?

;Amount of fires in CA past 10-years?

;Date FED funding cut off from CA as result of violation(s) of Sanctuary State/City?

;CA budget cuts past 12-months re: Fire & Prevention?

;Reduce/eliminate dry brush clean up?

;Reduce/eliminate tree-line clean up?

;Reduce/eliminate fire break installation(s)?

;Reduce/eliminate chopper fly over(s) to target 'high exposure' areas?

;Reduce/eliminate population areas exposure & fire break safety management?

;Reduce/eliminate use of inmates [correction facilities] for Highway clean up and dry brush removal?

What is the primary purpose of declaring a State of Emergency?

What determines the size of the FED payment to a State that has declared a State of Emergency?

What is the current debt of CA?

The More You Know…

Q

Vegan Cheese is made with DAIRY protein


 
 What we discover here once again is that you cannot make cheese without using casein.  Yet they lie about it all and call the stuff vegan.  There is no such thing.  Or if there is, it is obscure and not exactly on your local grocery shelf.

I do think that Vegan is a fad that mostly misses the science involved.  A high vegetable diet is known to be beneficial but not exclusively so.  Our digestive system has three groups of intestinal flora one of which deals with meats.  Our real problem is eating them to excess which is much harder with grains and vegetable.

This debate will obviously grind on and if it leads folks to paying attention to what they are eating, we are all better off.



Dear vegans: your “vegan” cheese is made with DAIRY protein
 
Sunday, November 11, 2018 by: Ethan Huff
 
Tags: badfood, buyer beware, canola, casein, deception, GMO, GMOs, grocery, herbicides, ingredients, lies, milk protein, pesticides, soy, toxins, vegan, vegans, vegetarian, veggie cheese

https://www.naturalnews.com/2018-11-11-dear-vegans-your-vegan-cheese-made-with-dairy-protein-watch-brighteon.html

Natural News) Marketing is one of the keys to maintaining consumer demand. But sometimes marketers go a wee-bit overboard, stretching the truth about whatever good and service they’re trying to sell in order to maximize profits.


In a recent video update, Mike Adams, the Health Ranger, discussed this very thing as it pertains to so-called “vegetarian” and “vegan” food products, some of which are deceptively marketed as something they’re not.


Watch below as Adams, who heads up CWC Labs, explains why many alternative “cheese” products marketed to vegetarians and vegans contain hidden animal ingredients such as casein, a type of protein derived from cows’ milk.


“I’m here to tell you the truth that might shock you if you think you’re a vegan; you might not be a vegan after all,” Adams explains.


“Sometimes you don’t need a million dollars worth of equipment to get the answer to what’s in your food. Sometimes all you have to do is look at the label because it’s right there on the ingredients. And in this case, this product, GoVeggie, contains milk protein, casein, from cows.”


You can also read Adams’ article on this at NaturalNews.com.

All “veggie” cheeses appear to contain questionable ingredients, says Adams


In evaluating a number of so-called “veggie” cheeses, Adams found that all of them contain casein or some other animal ingredient that consumers probably aren’t aware is present in the product.


“In fact, all of the vegetarian and vegan cheeses that I’ve seen so far at the grocery store have all contained cows’ milk protein,” Adams warns.


Mother Nature's micronutrient secret: Organic Broccoli Sprout Capsules now available, delivering 280mg of high-density nutrition, including the extraordinary "sulforaphane" and "glucosinolate" nutrients found only in cruciferous healing foods. Every lot laboratory tested. See availability here.



“And it’s not even organic, which means it could contain hormones or pesticides or, who knows, maybe those cows were fed GMOs, you don’t know.”


Other GoVeggie products loaded with canola oil and soy protein concentrate, both likely GMOs


This, of course, is another common problem with many “health food” products – the presence of hidden poisons in the form of genetically-engineered ingredients and other additives that may contain additional chemical toxins.


In the case of “veggie” cheeses, many of them contain meat alternatives like soy protein that, more often than not, come from GMO sources that are heavily sprayed with pesticides and herbicides known to cause health problems.


“So you think you’re eating healthy because you’re a vegan or a vegetarian, and you end up eating GMO soy protein and canola oil and cows’ protein in the cheese, the so-called cheese,” Adams says. “You’re being tricked by these companies, and that’s why I do these kinds of videos.”

Adams has no problem with people trying to eat healthy and live healthy lifestyles however they see fit, even if it means making extreme dietary restrictions. He merely wants the public to know that not all such products are actually healthy, and that people need to read the labels carefully.

“I respect your dietary decisions – eat the way you want to eat – but at least know the truth about what you’re eating. Read the labels and know what’s in your food,” Adams says.

As part of his greater mission to improve the overall quality of the food supply by shining a light on its many offenders, Adams has promised to continue investigating food at the scientific level. This includes future plans to unveil detailed analyses about the chemical content of many popular food items.


“Later this year, we’re going to be releasing pesticide testing results for off-the-shelf foods like these and many others, including breakfast cereals and infant formula,” Adams adds, urging viewers to stay tuned to NaturalNews.com for all of the latest updates.


For more news about how to eat better as part of a healthy lifestyle, be sure to check out CleanFood.news.


Sources for this article include:

Brighteon.com
NaturalNews.com

Thursday, November 15, 2018

Qanon Placeholder Whitiker



 
 
 
What we have here is a long working list of ongoing investigations that naturally trigger sealed indictments.  The tactical operation we have juust witnessed is having a placeholder stepping in as acting AG who is completely familiar with these files and has the authority to proceed without political interference.  I do believe this was the plan from the beginnuing and that Sessions is very much part of it.
 
In this manner we have a window in which those indictments can be unsealed and those reports all released and/or declassified.  All roadblocks have been side stepped and the DEEP STATE knows this.
 
At the same time  we have secured both the Senate and the Supreme Court and now have a window in which it is also possible to position a large number of judges as well.

This is the worst possible outcome for those who have gamed the Justice system.  It is also telling that Trump does not know this man.  He was chosen for his ability and adherence to the rule of law.  A lot of folks have lost all political cover and will not be sleeping well.
 
.
 
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.464

FAKE NEWS > [optics] 'FALSE' majority > BLUE WAVE
BLUE WAVE [optics] > No Voter Irregularities > Nothing to See Here
FAKE NEWS > Voter Irregularities Challenge > CONSPIRACY
Q3


2489
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.463
[Placeholder - OIG Report & Findings]
[Placeholder - OIG report & FBI, DOJ, & Media Coll]
[Placeholder - OIG report & Exe B_ABCs & Media Coll]
[Placeholder - OIG report & Foreign ASST_D1]
[Placeholder - OIG report & Foreign_Insert(s)_ORec & Info Diss]
[Placeholder - OIG report & FISA Abuse DIR_INDIR_Source_DIS]
[Placeholder - OIG report & Umbrella SPY & Targeting]
[Placeholder - OIG report & OTR_C_]



2480
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI No.454
ThankYou.jpg
 


With Respect, Honor, and Gratitude.
Your sacrifice(s) will never be forgotten.
Thank you and God Bless, Veterans!
Q

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BATTLE OF BELLEAU WOOD


 
 
Yes it should be remembered.  It was a difficult fight not improved by still naive tactics.  That they won is more a measure of the reality that in early august 1918, a million man British Army was now rolling up the Western front spearheaded by the storm trooper tactics of the four division strong well equipped and trained Canadian Corps.  
 
German forces were seriously stretched leading into this Strategic counter attack and that made anything but defensive actions against the Marines unlikely.   However. it certainly served to bolster low French Morale which needed this badly.  It was important for that as well
 
 
The losses were far too high for the reasons explained in the item.  The cost in hard to replace highly trained soldiers cannot be ever easily replaced.  The British army did exactly the same thing in 1914 and essentially got themselves almost wiped out.  It took a long time to bring themselves back with the real millions they needed.
 
The USA was fortunate that they ultimately were chasing a retreating enemy.  Another year would have demanded a million ill trained soldiers at least and that would have been nasty.  In WWII, the western allies got to do the same thing after D day and avoided facing an intact million man army of veterans..
 
 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BATTLE OF BELLEAU WOOD

DAVID JOHN ULBRICH

JUNE 4, 2018
 
https://warontherocks.com/2018/06/the-importance-of-the-battle-of-belleau-wood/

Every U.S. marine knows the famous quotes from their comrades fighting in 1918 in the Battle of Belleau Wood: “Retreat, hell we just got here!” by Capt. Lloyd Williams, and “C’mon you sons-of-bitches, do you want to live forever?” by Gunnery Sgt. Dan Daley. Every marine proudly claims the “Devil dogs” moniker because of their ferocity in combat. Alongside the Battles of Fallujah, Khe Sanh, Chosin, and Iwo Jima, Belleau Wood occupies a hallowed place in U.S. Marine Corps lore and history. These battles are ingrained in the Marines’ collective consciousness from the first days of boot camp, during ceremonies at birthday balls, on walls in museums, and on pages of publications.


The Battle of Belleau Wood occurred 100 years ago in June 1918 during World War I. The battlefield lays about five miles west of the town of Ch√Ęteau-Thierry, barely fifty miles northeast of Paris,
France. Looking at the strategic context in early 1918, Belleau Wood was only one small piece of a major campaign that saw the American forces help the French and British armies stem the tide of the DeutschesHeer‘s spring offensive. In March, the Germans launched this massive attack along the Western Front in France because a peace treaty with the new Bolshevik government in Russia had freed up German units deployed on the Eastern Front. The German leadership hoped the influx of 50 divisions could overwhelm the Allied forces in France, bringing the war to an end before millions of Americans could cross the Atlantic and reinforce France and Britain. The German offensive made significant gains for the first few weeks but began to falter by May during the Aisne Offensive. This was when American units like the 2ndDivision and its 4th Marines Brigade joined the fray to help stop the Germans at the Battle of Belleau Wood. The marines remained in contact with the enemy for almost all of June.


The fighting around Belleau Wood pitted units from five German divisions against the U.S. Army’s 2nd Division of the American Expeditionary Forces, which was subdivided into the Army’s 3rd Infantry Brigade and the 9,500 man-strong 4th Marine Brigade. This unit included the 5th Regiment led by Col. Wendell Neville and the 6th Regiment led by Col. Albert Catlin. Three rifle battalions, of 800 men each, and a machine gun company comprised each regiment. The 2nd Division also contained the 2nd Field Artillery Brigade and other organic units like the 2nd Regiment of Engineers.





The area of operation included a forested area (Belleau Wood proper) on high ground running approximately one mile north to south and between one-quarter and one-half mile east to west. To the west of the wood lay Hill 142 under German control. A wheat field lay to the southeast of the wood. The 60 buildings in the village of Bouresches sat to the north across 800 yards of wheat. By June 4, more than 2,000 German soldiers with at least 30 machine guns had ensconced themselves in Belleau Wood, and another 100 Germans with at least six machine guns held Bouresches. German machine gun fire from the wood could sweep much of the wheat field. Looking to the north and east from their lines of departure, the marines faced two difficult obstacles: either advance from tree to tree in close quarter fighting or make a perilous march across the open field of green wheat that rose barely above knee-level.


In the first few days of June, the 4th Marine Brigade dug into a defensive line just to the southwest of the wheat field and Belleau Wood. The battalions in the 5th Marine Regiment established themselves on the left, and those in the 6th Marine Regiment on the right. Retreating French soldiers warned them of coming German attacks, urging the marines to withdraw. It was here that Capt. Williams retorted: “Retreat, hell we just got here!” The Americans stood their ground and forced the Germans to halt their advance and withdraw to Belleau Wood and Bouresches. The marines then prepared their own plans to assault those German positions.


To overcome the disadvantages of open ground and concealed Germans, the Americans expected to advance across the open area without concentrated artillery support and to achieve small-arms “fire superiority” as they neared Belleau Wood and Bouresches. The marines embraced the goal of fire superiority because they placed so much emphasis on rifle marksmanship. The tactics coincided the doctrine of “open warfare” espoused by Gen. John J. Pershing who commanded the AEF. He expected fast-moving American infantry units to make aggressive attacks against German positions over open ground, overwhelm them, and drive into the interior behind enemy lines. The American tactics ran counter to French doctrine as well as hard- experiences in the trenches, which called for a rolling artillery barrage to soften enemy positions and clear the path for infantry units to follow. Gen. Pershing naively assumed that the AEF could succeed in battle using uniquely American tactics, despite nearly four years of bloody fighting that pointed to the decisive advantages that machine guns and fortified positions afforded defenders against attackers. The marines embraced open warfare, expecting that their highly accurate rifle fire would give them the advantage.


Before dawn on June 6, the marines of the 1st Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment (denoted as 1/6) drove the Germans from Hill 142. This anchored the American line to the Allied units farther to the west. It also allowed the marines to pour fire into Belleau Wood to the east. Next began an uncoordinated American attack that started on the evening of June 6. The 3/5 and the 3/6 hit the center and southern sides of Belleau Wood respectively. However, while marching across the open ground, heavy German machine and artillery fire cut the 3/5 to shreds. Meanwhile, the 3/6 fought their way in the southern edge of the woods before their advance ground to a halt in the face of enemy fire. In all the confusion, the two-time Medal of Honor recipient Gunnery Sgt. Daly questioned his men: “C’mon you sons-of-bitches, do you want to live forever?” Despite their best efforts, the marines’ marksmanship failed to silence the German guns. By nightfall, both Marine battalions suffered debilitating casualties.

To the east in the evening of June 6, two smart-looking companies of the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment began an orderly advance across the eight hundred yards of wheat toward the enemy positions in Bouresches. This assault was doomed from its start because the Americans did not obtain supporting artillery to provide a rolling barrage. Instead the 2/6 faced withering German gunfire from the village to the northeast and from Belleau Wood to the northwest. The two Marine companies quickly began taking casualties as they were pinned down without communications with each other or the battalion’s commanding officer Maj. Thomas Holcomb. Even so, the surviving marines pushed their way into the village of Bouresches where they fought house to house and expelled the German defenders.


That first day of June 6 proved to be costly for the 4th Marine Brigade: Six officers and 222 enlisted men and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) killed in action, and another 25 and 834 wounded in action respectively. This amounted to more casualties than in the entire history of the Marine Corps to date. On June 8, two days into the battle, Holcomb scribbled a letter his wife back on the American homefront. He described his men’s performance in the wheat field:


The regiment has carried itself with undying glory, but the price was heavy. My battalion did wonderfully. . . There was never anything finer than their advance across a place literally swept with machine gun fire. . . There never was such self-sacrifice, courage, and spirit shown.


Holcomb next gave his wife an inkling, albeit sanitized, of the conditions in Bouresches on June 9. “I am safe and well. I have not even had my shoes off for 10 days, except once for ten minutes. Several days I’ve been without food and my only sleep has been snatched at odd moments during the retorted,” wrote Holcomb. “The whole brigade put up a most wonderful fight. We have been cited twice by the French authorities.”


After being reinforced by more than 100 soldiers of the Company A of the 2nd Regiment of Engineers, the remaining 200 marines in 2/6 dug in and withstood several German infantry assaults on Bouresches before relief arrived a week later. Meanwhile, together with soldiers in the 2nd Regiment of Engineers, the marines of the 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 1/6, 3/6, and 6th Machine Gun Battalion secured most of Belleau Wood by June 11. They encountered concentrated German small arms, machine gun, and artillery fire, often at point-blank range. Exploding shells from enemy and Allied guns splintered the trees, showering the ground with deadly wood splinters and metal shrapnel. The Germans also used mustard gas shells to try to halt the advance. The adversaries clashed in bitter hand-to-hand combat with knives, rifle butts, bayonets, and trench shovels. As Marine officers and NCOs fell dead or wounded, junior officers and enlisted men took their places. The most determined counterattack on June 13 came when elements of three Germans divisions attempted to reclaim their old positions. Then, the French Army’s artillery finally unleashed a 14-hour long heavy bombardment that allowed marines in 2/5, 3/5, and 3/6 to dislodge the remaining Germans from the northern end of Belleau Wood on June 26.


After three of weeks of intense combat, a report announced the 4th Marine Brigade’s success with the message “Belleau Wood now U.S. Marine Corps entirely.” The French government renamed it Bois de la Brigade de Marine in honor of the incredible sacrifices and fierce struggles there. The members of the 4th Marine Brigade were also awarded the French Croix de Guerre.


Although a victory for the Americans, the Battle of Belleau Wood exacted a heavy toll on the 4th Marine Brigade. Of its complement of 9,500 men, the brigade suffered 1,000 killed in action, and 4,000 wounded, gassed, or missing equaling a 55 percent casualty rate. The supporting 2nd Regiment of Engineers lost another 450 casualties of its assigned unit strength of 1,700 soldiers. During the three weeks of fighting, Thomas Holcomb’s 2nd Battalion alone suffered a shocking 764 casualties out of a paper strength of 900 marines. On June 6 alone, his unit started across the wheat field with two companies with some 500 marines. After wrenching control of Bouresches, only 200 of Holcomb’s men remained able to repel German counterattacks. This represented a 60-percent casualty rate, which matched the rates of earlier battles in World War I. Not to put too grim a face on this high figure, but Holcomb’s career as a future commandant of the Marine Corps may easily have ended in obscurity, and the heroic memories of the wheat field would have been for naught if the remnants of the 2nd Battalion had not held Bouresches. Surviving the rest of the World War I, Holcomb continued to rise through ranks until being named the seventeenth commandant of the Marines Corps in December 1936. He shepherded the Corps through the last years of the Great Depression, managed its mobilization, and directed the Corps’ first two years of the Pacific War. In this time, the Corps expanded from 17,000 marines in 1936 to 385,000 by Holcomb’s retirement in December 1943.


Battlefield success at Belleau Wood merited an immortal place in Marine Corps history and lore. Similar observations can be made about the other famous battles of Fallujah, Khe Sanh, Chosin, and Iwo Jima, all of which should be sobering reminders that victorious ends have often required bloody means.


These points of pride notwithstanding, all the battles left other indelible marks on those marines fighting in them that exceeded celebratory and triumphalist tones. Beyond Marine Corps lore, the Battle of Belleau Wood represented a substantive step in the organization’s maturation from shipboard guard or constabulary forces of the 19th century into the multi-purpose force-in-readiness of the 20th and 21st centuries. This battle and the others later in World War I gave the Marines invaluable experiences of prolonged combined arms operations in modern warfare.


Several future Marine Corps senior leaders saw action at Belleau Wood, including future commandants such as John Lejeune, Clifton Cates, Lemuel Shepherd Jr., Wendell Neville, and Thomas Holcomb, as well as marines who later attained flag rank such as Roy Geiger, Charles Price, Holland Smith, Keller Rockey, and Merwin Silverthorn. In one extraordinary case, Gerald Thomas rose through the ranks from sergeant at Belleau Wood in 1918 to become lieutenant general and assistant commandant of the Marine Corps from 1952 to 1954. These marines became a group of veterans famously known as the “Old Breed” during the decades after World War I ended. The future flag officers gleaned many vital lessons from serving in France, thereby recognizing that the Marine Corps needed effective training in appropriate weapons and tactics, relevant doctrines for those weapons and tactics, planning for operational roles for the Marine Corps in future conflicts, military education of Marine officers in the art of war, suitable force structures to perform particular missions, and reorganization of the U.S. Marine Corps in structures similar to the French General Staff. Consequently, Belleau Wood has maintained not only a legacy as an iconic battle but also as the first of several learning laboratories for those Marine officers who eventually led their Corps to victory in World War II.


CORRECTION: Due to an editing error, an earlier version of this post mistakenly referred to the German army as the Wehrmacht. This term did not come into use until later in the 20th century, and the error has been corrected.


David Ulbrich, Ph.D., is currently director of the M.A. in Military History program at Norwich University. This article draws on materials in his award-winning book Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-1943 (Naval Institute Press, 2011) and in Ways of War: American Military History from the Colonial Era to the Twenty-First Century (2nd ed., Routledge, 2017) co-authored with Matthew S. Muehlbauer.

Sous Vide



We all need to know this.  This is mostly about meat which is fine, particularly as it prevents heavy water loss which is a problem for most cooking methods.

However, what about vegetables?  I ask this because I grew up with boiled vegetables and leaped gladly to steamed vegetables and some form of frying to deliver flavor.  Welcome to chinese Wok cookery.  It looks like that it may be possible to prepare a large batch of vegetables in this manner to breakdown the fibers without losing a lot of water.  Again it is then a simple transition to the fry pan to caramelize up some flavor.

I suspect that this is how restaurants delver superior results themselves.  Now we know.  By the by,  the slow cooker could deliver this result set at 130 degrees F.  I do know that a perfect prime rib is at 125 F though you would still want to sear it before or after. ..

Give your meat a break today


No matter how you chop, slice, or butcher it, meat can be kind of gross. Blood, flesh, and viscera can kill your appetite, and that’s before you get to the uncertain process of searing it on a grill or roasting it to a crisp. Too little and it’s dangerous; too much and it’s disappointing.
Enter sous vide (“under vacuum”) cooking, a way of injecting scientific precision into the kitchen. Seal meat or fish (or eggs, or, sure, vegetables) in plastic with aromatics and a dab of your chosen fat, then simmer in water at a low temp over a long period of time. You’ll be rewarded with exquisitely tender morsels whose protein fibers have been gently massaged in their tiny jacuzzi to perfection.

Popularized in the early 21st century as another tool in the kits of liquid nitrogen-wielding molecular gastronomists, immersion circulators were once found mostly in rarefied fine-dining kitchens. But the past few years have seen them move into the home. It’s almost impossible to overcook something sous vide, so if you have to go pick up your kid from soccer, no worries: the pork chops will just bubble along at the same temperature as the water itself. Still, it takes much adjusting for some cooks, and others find it overly clinical. Time to dip in—slowly.



By the digits
129°F (54°C): Temperature to sous vide half a pound of flank steak to medium rare
90 minutes: Time it takes to cook said steak
1-2 days: Time it takes for a tough cut of meat, such as beef chuck, to become fork-tender through sous vide.
$180 million: Size of the sous vide market in 2017
$1.3 billion: Projected size of the sous vide market in 2023
$1,220: 2003 price of a Polyscience circulator, lab equipment that early home sous vide fans used
$449: 2009 price of the SousVide Supreme
$199: Price of Anova and Sansaire immersion circulators in late 2013, the “year of the inexpensive water circulator”
$80: Current retail price of the handheld Anova Precision Cooker Nano

Explain it like I’m 5!
How does sous vide work?


Start with this: Why do we cook? When it comes to meat, it’s largely about killing bacteria before they kill us. One way of doing that is making meat very hot—the US government recommends 145°F for steak, and even higher for chicken and ground beef. Sous vide might seem freaky since those numbers are seared into home cooks’ minds. But if you’re willing to wait longer, 130°F—Cooks Illustrated’s recommended minimum temp—will take them out slowly.
Over 140°F, the shrinkage of muscle fibers starts to push out a lot of water, which is why overcooked meat tastes dry. Sous vide lets you stay below that temperature, but still in the sweet spot where bacteria are killed. Finally, and most importantly to gourmands, cooking at 130°F converts tough collagen into gentle gelatin, which is why it can redeem a cheap, tough cut of meat. The obsessives at Cooks Illustrated have a thorough explanation of the process.

The birth of the warm



The promise of sous vide is that it’s convenient and foolproof yet delicious. And it came, almost simultaneously, from large-scale food prep and elite chefs.
As far back as 1806, Frenchman Nicholas Appert was boiling foods in sealed bottles, but sous vide needed the invention of food-grade plastic to work. In the 1950s, Cryovac created a plastic film to extend the shelf life of freshly slaughtered meat. Shortly after, plastic-sealed food found retail and commercial uses, like boil-in-bag curry in 1968 and hospital food in 1969. It went upscale in 1974, when French chef George Pralus invented a water-bath method for foie gras, which went from losing 30% to 50% of its weight in cooking to just 5%. (Cryovac soon hired Pralus to teach other chefs.)

Around the same time, Pralus’s fellow countryman Bruno Goussault, the chief food scientist at a cooking agency, was working on the opposite end of the spectrum: using the method to pre-prepare food for massive commercial kitchens. That’s why sous vide was “considered a technique suitable only to chains and factories,” as Amanda Hesser wrote in the New York Times in 2005, just as sous vide was starting to go mainstream. Eventually the twain would meet: Famous chefs rediscovered its qualities, and home cooks its ease.
Breakin’ the law


Cutting-edge chefs have given sous vide a ritzy reputation, but in the 1980s US law only permitted it for processing plants, which chilled its use stateside while Continental chefs were perfecting it. American barriers took a long time to fall: In the early 2000s, restaurants using sous vide techniques were routinely visited by their local health departments. As a relatively new technology, sous vide was not covered in municipal health codes or a restaurant’s HACCP plan. In the absence of regulation, the health department saw violation, and chefs like Momofuku’s David Chang were slapped with fines and forced to destroy thousands of dollars of sous vide-prepared meat.

You are what you eat
Our immersion cookers, ourselves


Now that sous vide has hit a saturation point, the food world is starting to figure out what it all means. Salt, Fat, Acid, Heat host Samin Nosrat recently noted that the cult of sous vide can be a wee bit sexist—after food legend Alice Waters got ruthlessly mocked for slow-cooking an egg over fire in a $250 custom spoon, Nosrat told the New York Times “is it any more practical to sous vide an egg? No. But it’s this amazing thing because a man is doing it.” 
More generally, some home cooks object to the very thing that aficionados embrace: its lab-like sterility. Cooking sous vide, they say, strips away the sensory pleasure of searing a steak, of sweating fragrant onions in a skillet of hot butter. The joy of dipping into a stock pot, adding a pinch of this or that, gives way to plastic bags of food drifting in plastic tubs.
Quotable
“I think sous vide in general is a very controlled, precise way to cook.… [I]t affords the home cook a higher level of accuracy. I look at it like the new slow-cooker.”

Pop quiz
Which meat is the dodgiest to cook sous vide?

If your inbox doesn’t support this quiz, find the solution at bottom of email.
Brief history
1985: Bruno Goussault, chef Joel Robuchon, and food critic Henri Gault team up to create a sous vide menu for French railroad SNCF.
1989: Food & Wine declares that sous vide—in precooked, heat-and-serve form from gourmet stores—will be one of the most important food trends in coming years.
1990s: “In America… sous vide still implied factory food,” according to famed chef Thomas Keller.
2005: “Cryovacking” makes Wired magazine’s Jargon List.
2006: WD-50 chef Wylie Dufresne uses an immersion circulator in his Iron Chef America battle against Mario Batali, the first time sous vide was seen on American TV.
2011: Nathan Myhrvold’s Modernist Cuisine: The Art and Science of Cooking is published. The four-volume, 2,438 page cookbook, with a retail price of $625, offered the first extensive explanation of sous vide and its culinary applications.
Watch this!
You don’t need to invest in a set of nice polycarbonate Cambro containers to sous vide your steak. Use an old beer cooler instead! If you want to get a little more MacGyver, here’s how to sous vide with a rice cooker and a Seal-A-Meal.
Fun fact!
Recently, sous vide innovators have encouraged cooks to immerse their food in a tub full of not just water but also plastic balls. Such “sous vide balls” help maintain an even water temperature and prevent evaporation. Don’t want to spring for fancy custom balls? Ping pong balls will work just as well.