Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Industrial Revolution Launched

This is continuing coverage of the Rossi Focardi Energy Catalyzer (RFEC) – may as well give it an acronym.  Confirmation is falling into place and we are seeing possible explanations emerging.  Those explanations will need to be confirmed by careful experimentation and it is way too early for any of that.  Way more importantly, we can immediately produce a cell that generate an enormous amount of heat yet is completely controlled and can be shut down safely while not producing dangerous radiation.

No one needs the science to understand what this means today.  Every thermal power plant today can start planning to replace their conventional heat production with these cells.  I am sure it will not be easy, but the fact is that the main effort will be to salvage the plumbing from the soon to be decommissioned reactor or burners.

It also means that the wind energy industry also became obsolete as did just about every other method.

It appears that a small fraction of nickel is upgraded to copper by an electron joining in to a proton.  The heat is absorbed by the surrounding nickel to be drawn of.  Both ends are safe and the metal is cheap and usable afterward.  There is no realistic fuel cost to the system and we have an energy protocol that establishes a new cost floor while immediately combining with the new superconducting cables on the way.

The only thing as cheap is a paid for hydro dam and we will never build any more of those except as a flood control measure.

What is hard to countenance is that this makes all other power production scrap metal.  It also paves the way for a swift conversion to electrical vehicles.  We now have all the best tools and a collapsing cost base to drive the market.  Unbelievably, I can now look forward to a power industry and electrical transport rollout that will look like the electronics rollout of the past forty years.

The take home is pretty serious.  This is an industrial revolution and a huge amount of legacy capital must be stranded.  Do not allow your investment portfolio to be exposed.

Swedish Researchers confirm Rossi and Focardi Energy Catalyzer as a Nuclear Process

APRIL 06, 2011

Three E-cats without insulation and one insulated. Text in blue indicates hydrogen inlet, main heater, auxiliary heater and water inlet. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

“In some way a new kind of physics is taking place. It’s enigmatic, but probably no new laws of nature are involved. We believe it is possible to explain the process with known laws of nature,” said Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics and a lecturer at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and chairman of the Swedish Skeptics Society.

Essén and Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University Sven Kullander, also chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee, both participated on 29 March as observers at a new trial in Bologna of the so-called ‘energy catalyzer’, which could be based on cold fusion, or LENR, Low Energy NuclearReaction.

Essén and Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University Sven Kullander, also chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee, both participated on 29 March as observers at a new trial in Bologna of the so-called ‘energy catalyzer’, which could be based on cold fusion, or LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

Participants included the inventor of the device, Andrea Rossi, his scientific advisor Professor Sergio Focardi, and physicists Dr. David Bianchini and Dr. Giuseppe Levi from Bologna University who both supervised the first public demonstration of the E-cat on 14 January 2011 in Bologna, Italy.

The new trial was conducted in much the same way as the trial in January, and lasted for nearly six hours. According to observations by Kullander and Essén, a total energy of about 25 kWh was generated.

In a detailed report (download here), they write:

“Any chemical process should be ruled out for producing 25 kWh from whatever is in a 50 cubic centimeter container. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production.”

The power output was estimated to about 4.4 kW. It’s barely half the power compared with the two previous documented experiments in January and February 2011, because the trial was made with a new and smaller version of the energy catalyzer.

The new trial was the first officially documented with the smaller version which, according to Rossi, is more stable.

“With the smaller version we avoid the power peaks that occurred at ignition and switching off,” Andrea Rossi told Ny Teknik.

He also stated that the smaller version will be used for the planned installation of about one megawatt for the pilot customer Defkalion Green Technologies in Greece.

According to Rossi, a total of 300 reactors connected in series and parallel, will be used in the installation. Originally 100 reactors of the version that delivered 10 kW of power during earlier trials, were supposedly planned for the one-megawatt installation. Rossi still expects the inauguration to take place in October 2011.

At the trial in Bologna, Kullander and Essén could investigate the energy catalyzer with the surrounding insulation and the lead shielding stripped away. The exterior design is described in their report.

The reactor itself, which is loaded with the nickel powder and secret catalysts pressurized with hydrogen, has an estimated volume of 50 cubic centimeters (3.2 cubic inches). The reactor is made of stainless steel.

A copper tube surrounds the steel reactor. The water to be heated flows between the steel and the copper. In operation, the construction is also surrounded by insulation and a lead shielding with a thickness of approximately two centimeters (0.8 inches).

Before starting, Kullander and Essén calibrated the water flow and estimated it at 6.5 kg per hour. The power required to heat the flowing water from 18 degrees and convert it completely into steam was calculated to 4.7 kW.

They also filled the reactor with hydrogen at a pressure of about 25 bars. The reactor was according to Rossi loaded with 50 grams of nickel powder.

As in previous trials the process was ‘ignited’ with an electrical resistance. Input power was 330 watts, of which about 30 watts were required to operate the electronics.

A phenomenon that Kullander and Essén noted was that the curve for the water temperature at the output showed a steady increase up to about 60 degrees centigrade, after which the increase escalated.

“The curve then became steeper, it clearly had a new derivative. At the same time there was no increase in power consumption, it rather decreased when it got warmer,” said Essén.

In their report they note that it took nine minutes to go from 20 to 60 degrees centigrade, which corresponds to the heating from the input electrical power. Going from 60 to 97.5 degrees centigrade, by contrast, just took four minutes.

Throughout the experiment Kullander and Essén had the opportunity to examine the equipment.

“We checked everything that could be checked, and we could walk around freely and have a look at most of the equipment,” said Essén.

“We looked specifically into the big control unit (with electronics) and it contains mostly rectifiers and passive components – there was nothing of interest in it,” said Kullander, which is in line of what Dr. Levi previously noted.

Kullander and Essén had their first contact with Rossi in mid February, at the time of a discussion of the physics in the energy catalyzer, organized by Ny Teknik. After getting answers from Rossi to several questions, they expressed a cautiously optimistic opinion about the technology.

At a first meeting with Rossi at the end of February they were given access to a sample of the pure nickel powder, intended for use in the energy catalyzer, and another sample of nickel powder which, according to Rossi, had been used in the reactor for 2.5 months.

Their analyses showed that the pure powder consists of essentially pure nickel, while the used powder contains several other substances, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron.

“Provided that copper is not one of the additives used as catalyst, the copper isotopes 63 and 65 can only have been formed during the process. Their presence is therefore a proof that nuclear reactions took place in the process,” Kullander said (see further details below).

The meeting in February in turn led to their involvement in the new trial in Bologna.

“My belief that there is an energy development far beyond what one would expect has been strengthened significantly as I have had the opportunity to see the process for myself and perform measurements,” said Kullander.

“Everything that we’ve found so far fits together. There is nothing that seems to be strange. All people seem to be honest and competent,” Essén added.

In line of what they expressed during the discussion in February, they believe that the physics of the energy catalyzer may possibly be explained by a combination of atomic, molecular, nuclear and plasma physics. At the same time they are skeptical of detailed and hypothetical theories suggested at this stage, and stressed instead the need for more data.

They describe that Focardi and Levi have the same approach, and support their viewpoint.

Analyses of the nickel powder used in Rossi’s energy catalyzer show that a large amount of copper is formed. Sven Kullander considers this to be evidence of a nuclear reaction.

For copper to be formed out of nickel, the nucleus of nickel has to capture a proton. The fact that this possibly occurs in Rossi’s reactor is why the concept of cold fusion has been mentioned – it would consist of fusion between nuclei of nickel and hydrogen.

A term that many consider to be more accurate, however, is LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

Ny Teknik: For how long has the powder supposedly been used in the process?

Kullander: The powder has reportedly been used for 2.5 months continuously with an output of 10 kW (according to Rossi). It corresponds to a total energy of 18 MWh, with a consumption of up to 100 grams of nickel and two grams of hydrogen. If the production had been done with oil, two tons of oil would have been required.

If Rossi and Focardi can Deliver

APRIL 07, 2011

A recent theory for cold fusion is that deuteron stripping reactions (1935 discovery by Oppenheimer) are occurring with Nickel-64 isotope. This would produce 8 MeV for each reaction for the 1% of the nickel that is nickel-64. 80,000 eV for each atom of nickel. 1250 times more energy density by weight than any chemical reaction. 

Rossi has claimed that they will make a one megawatt power plant by the end of this year and a 300,000 unit a year manufacturing plant in Xanthi will follow in 2012-2013. Assuming those are the smaller units which need 300 for each MW, then they would have a 1 gigawatt/year plant. A 1 gigawatt/year plant could not have any reliability issues that have plagued prior LENR work. If they are real then there would be fairly rapid scaling up from the 1 gigawatt/year plants. There would be major energy delivery impact by 2015-2017.

Lewis G. Larsen developed a theory of LENRs (WLT) that explains ALL the evidence and along with Dr. Alan Widom published their theory in Eur. Phys. J. C (2006)

• WLT is the 1st theory to not require “New Physics”.
• It relies on the Weak Nuclear force which:
* Produces a neutron via electron capture
* Does not have a Coulomb barrier to overcome
• The theory combines QED, Condensed Matter, Nuclear, and Plasma Physics

LENR (low energy nuclear reactions) IS NOT “COLD FUSION”

New Aviation Missions with Successful LENR

All transportation and energy would be hugely impacted. Planes, cars, space travel, world economic growth and everything else.

• Increase in capability results in new applications

Mini -Micro -Nano air vehicles

• Sensor swarms/meshes
• Package delivery
• Huge implications for ATC

Personal Air Vehicles

• Performance equates to increased safety
• Performance fully enables true point-to-point
• Greatly extended range (Local -> Global!)
• Huge implications for ATC


• Unlimited loiter
• Enhanced mobility with a reduction of supply logistics
• Horizontal take-off access to orbit

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