Saturday, August 4, 2018

Ringmakers of Saturn chpt 11 - perspective and Interstellar Planet Ships


An interesting idea is presented in the possibility that a comet is actually such an EM device as well.  Perhaps.

However all this does support a massive inter stellar technological society essentially using rather basic ideas.  We are plausibly looking at planet sized objects able to gulp material from the atmosphere of a Gas Giant and transport that material into a higher orbit in order to flood the rings.

These rings are then used to reload reaction mass for interstellar population ships that are passing through to another destination.  These craft are so large that only Newtonian methods can apply.

An inter stellar population ship is exactly what we are seeing here.  I posted on this long since but the tech is simple enough.  You have a central axle from which suspension cables are hung to hold a square of the outer skin.  The larger the diameter the slower it is necessary for the cylinder to spin.  Thus the incentive to make large diameters and once that is done, it is no trick to stack them into long craft.

Knowing this, with our own limited technology, a cylinder is easily made that is only one mile across.  That provides a circumference of 3.14 miles.  Now we build out say 15 miles and we have a surface area of 45 square miles.   By adding 100 storys we get 4500 square miles.  Populating all this at 1000 folks per square mile gives us a population potential of at least 4,500,000.  They are all experiencing a gravity effect of one g

Doubling all this we easily climb up to a population of 20,000,000 and climbing.  We have only quoted a hundred levels which is only a thousand feet or so producing quite a variation in gravity.  Every doubling also allows a plausible doubling of the number of storys.  Thus the population then climbs to 40,000,000  Yet i have budgeted only 1000 population for one square mile of surface area.  As actual agriculture will also be super compact here it makes sense that what I just described could be jumped ten fold.  Thus a two mile wide cylinder that is thirty miles long could easily hold 500,000,000 people.

My real point in all this is that we could build all this ourselves today.  That we are seeing the equivalent is real confirmation of what is possible.  A whole planetary population can simply take to the stars while retaining contact with small ships using worm holes.....


A Perspective

Existence of extraterrestrial space vehicles of enormous size and power is a fact, the significance of which is difficult to grasp, let alone assess. Departing now from the tedious fact-development process, this chapter stands back and takes a philosophical look at findings.

In the foreground is an immediate question, "Are there extraterrestrial beings?" A short answer is, "Probably". All photograph negatives examined by the author have revealed no direct evidence of beings. However, a strong implication that extraterrestrials do exist arises from electromagnetic vehicles being positionable. A source of intelligence is required to accomplish stability and control for positioning.

This observation is a fall out from noting that the inner and outer diameters of Saturn's A, B, and C rings have remained substantially, but not identically, the same over a period of years. From a design viewpoint, electromagnetic vehicles represent ultrasuperlative achievements in nuclear physics, aeronautics, astronautics, magnetohydrodynamics and engineering. Inferentially, such attainments only could be achieved by a long-term, goal-oriented, non-self destructing society.

Electromagnetic vehicles possess obvious devastational capabilities which might evoke fear and anxiety in some people. These discomforting emotions can be alleviated upon realization that these powerful vehicles have been around for many, many centuries; and the human race still continues. In terms of a clear and present danger, man-made nuclear bombs pose more of an immediate large- scale threat to human life. In contrast, an apparent long-term commitment by electromagnetic  vehicles to the continuance of the human life chain is comforting.

To anticipate, though, a perpetually unmarred status quo in the character of our earthly habitat is really an unreasonable expectation. To illustrate, a sudden change in the surface of the Earth occurred 30 June 1908. On this day, a violent thunderous explosion rocked an area near Tunguska in Central Siberia, USSR. Twelve hundred square miles became devastated. Small villages and wildlife disappeared during this blast. A large forest was flattened. According to eye-witness accounts, a flaming cylindrical object was sighted in the vicinity just prior to the explosion. After years of intensive study and scientific research, a firm conclusion has been drawn that the devastation had been caused by an aerial nuclear explosion. Supporting this conclusion  is the Hiroshima nuclear-bomb destruction which produced a surface devastation pattern similar to that recorded at Tunguska. Some scientists go farther with an assertion that the devastation had been caused by an extraterrestrial spaceship which exploded. After all nuclear bombs had not been invented at the time of the 1908 explosion; and furthermore, they submit, there were eyewitnesses.

The Tunguska story affirms the existence of cylindrical vehicles and their nuclear character. This affirmation is quite important in that science now harbors bona fide repeat observations of these ultra-highenergy units in the solar system. A concentrated presence of them appears at Saturn, thereby introducing the interesting speculation that the planet serves as an operational base.

Ultra-superlative intellect is implied by the existence of these highly sophisticated electromagnetic vehicles. Not only do these units demonstrate mastery of nuclear power and massive electro-potential force fields, but also they show an ability to modify extensive surface areas of large celestial bodies.

Indeed, a realistic possibility is raised that goodsized celestial bodies can be moved about. These capabilities clearly place the human race at a comparative disadvantage. To cite a practical example, the Tunguska explosion demonstrates that an electromagnetic vehicle, should it elect to strike a densely populated area, could inflict massive human termination. While wide-spread catastrophic destruction in the past may have occurred, such as that which wiped out the dinosaurs, presently a compassionate policy of forbearance seems to be in effect.

Forbearance of catastrophic destruction does not imply forbearance of lesser destruction. That is, narrowly spread destruction might be occurring continually. Several possibilities present themselves. 

Quite conceivably, electromagnetic vehicles could be generators of tornadoes and hurricanes. In certain instances, inexplicable, sudden, intense fires also might be attributable to these space-craft. A likely simple example is transformer fires at the top of power poles. A much more subtle possibility might be electromagnetic alteration of human body tissues inasmuch as electrical fields attendant with vehicles can extend over thousands of miles. Of these possibilities, weather is the easiest with
which to relate.

With the advent of television, various components of weather have become common knowledge. For example, continental high- and low-temperature distributions, hot- and cold-air masses or fronts, barometric pressure variations, and dynamic cloud formations have  become terminology familiar to most newscast viewers. Wind, rain, snow, humidity, lightning and thunder showers are explained using the aforesaid terminology. Weather terminology permits dialogue concerning what is transpiring, but it does not get to the root of weather inception. Were weather inception understood, weather would be predictable. As is well known, weather is not predictable. Despite all the technical dissertations and theories over the years, inception of Earth weather remains a mystery.

At least part of Earth's weather no longer is a mystery. A new weather component termed "dry lightning" has crept quietly into weather descriptions. Prior to invention of this term, lightning had
been associated only with the presence of cloud formations. This situation has changed. Lightning is being reported in clear blue sky absolutely devoid of clouds. Thus, lightning in waterless sky is called
dry lightning. Categorically, illuminated electrical currents around Iapetus qualify as dry lightning in that these currents occur in absence of water clouds. Saturnian lightning shown in Plate 16 also qualifies.

Interestingly, electrical currents of Iapetus and Saturnian lightning bolts are generated by electromagnetic vehicles. These findings support a proposition that dry lightning in Earth's atmosphere is a proximity  indicator of one or more of these powerful bodies.

Electromagnetic vehicles might be viewed as superimposing their weather-making influences upon Earth's inherent weather components or alternatively, as weather instigators. Both concepts are regarded as posing no conflict with weather-model efforts. Rather, knowledge of vehicle presence can aid modeling efforts. For example, a reason becomes available for adding or subtracting energy in order to secure a global heat balance. Measured shrinking of the Antarctic ice cap is a case in point. Heretofore, a heat source has not been available to account for known melting. Long-term addition of heat by vehicular sources opens new avenues for modeling weather and global heat balance.

On each extremity of Saturn's rings, cylindrical bodies have been photographed spewing emissions. These emissions assume complicated patterns while contributing compositional material for the rings. A time-varying appearance of Saturn's disc is a natural consequence of this process. The B ring and inner- and outer-A rings are separate entities because different vehicles fabricate these rings, intervening spaces, such as the Cassini and Enke divisions, are safetybuffer regions to preclude vehicle collisions. Therefore, nothing needs to "scoop out" these divisions in order to create open space. Indeed the Cassini and Enke gaps may contain something or nothing at all depending on whether emissions are permitted to intrude.

A number of vehicles have been identified within Saturn's ring disc In a sense, Saturn's disc can be considered a huge, polluted parking lot or rendezvous, for extraterrestrial spacecraft. Density and thickness of this pollution can vary considerably according to the number of craft present, their positioning and modes of operation. Presence of electromagnetic vehicles near other planets is intimated by a finding of rings, the signature left by exhaust and emission products persisting in orbit. 

These sophisticated pollutants trigger a realization that manmade products and processes may not be the sole cause of Earth's dirty atmosphere. For example, electromagnetic vehicles might provide a partial answer regarding why acid rain sometimes occurs in regions having no terrestrial acid-rain-making capabilities. Quite possibly, a challenging new era may lie ahead concerning governmental management efforts to maintain environmentally clean air.

During the flyby of Saturn and its moons, Voyager 1 observed 15 satellites. Except for one, Titan, these satellites have been identified as being covered with water ice, either wholly or partially. Water ice even is postulated to be a major constituent of Saturn's rings. Such extraordinary prevalence of common ice is quite significant. Icy Iapetus is a case in point, as positive identification has been made of a cylindrical vehicle positioned nearby. This situation justifies an assertion that the icy surface may be a result of water having been generated by an electromagnetic vehicle and shaped later in a frozen state by directed heat applications. Ice-skate-rink smoothness could be attained by heat application from suitable body components such as axial exhaust flame. Icy constituency of Saturn's satellites possibly indicates that Earth obtained its polar ice caps by extraterrestrial means.

Some scientists claim that Earth is progressing into another ice age.

Others note definite increases in global mean sea level and receding glaciers and claim a significant warming trend which has caused massive discharge of melted polar ice. In observing these global changes, a reduction in Earth's rotational velocity also has been detected. Only three-fourths of this reduction in angular velocity can be accounted for. It is conceivable that the other one-fourth might be accounted for by a cylindrical vehicle flying within Earth's magnetic field. Such flight would give rise to electromagnetic drag operating on the craft. Then, in accordance with the Newtonian principle that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, a drag on Earth's rotation is imputed. Once again, a new variable exists which possibly might fill a gap in scientific thought.

Electromagnetic vehicles represent extreme, ultra-high technology.

Earth has nothing remotely comparable with which to compete. So far, development of a competing technology is not an obviously compelling need. What is compelling, however, is the need for a much deeper and broader understanding. To illustrate, on 22 September 1979 a U.S. satellite recorded a bright flash aloft between South Africa and Antarctica. After prolonged analysis of the data, federal laboratories concluded that the satellite saw a nuclear blast. During the study, the high-level White House blue-ribbon analysis committee ultimately became divided into believers and non-believers.

 Believers think that data from the event match known signatures of nuclear blasts. Nonbelievers think that some natural event induced the satellite to make an erroneous report. Both groups can be correct when the blast is attributed to action by an electromagnetic vehicle. A potentially grave hazard is posed. Specifically, an international nuclear exchange inadvertently could be triggered by nuclear events originated by an extraterrestrial third party. Electromagnetic vehicles will hold the balance of power for centuries to come. Lest extraterrestrial interlopers unsuspectingly induce nuclear warfare, a unified world should be a matter for serious consideration. Moreover, catastrophic extinction of the human race is a realistic threat which needs to be addressed.

Researchers have established that Earth has experienced catastrophic large-scale life extinctions about every 26 million years. One of these extinctions, that of dinosaurs, is theorized to have been caused by impact of a huge meteor striking Earth. Other possibilities are a comet or an electromagnetic vehicle. Had Comet 1979 XI, detected by U.S. Navy satellite F-78-1, hit Earth instead of the sun on 30 August 1979, a catastrophic extinction no doubt would have occurred.

Close inspection of the before-collision photographs suggests a long body having emissions closely resembling those pictured in Plates 7 and 8!

Comets actually may be directed electromagnetic vehicles traveling at high speed. This assertion is supported by a satellite picture of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983). One equilibration is that the nucleus of this comet can be construed to have a fineness ratio of about 12 to 13. Another equilibration is that the nucleus possesses features similar to the body shown in Plate 6. To wit, part of the slender-body nucleus is intensely white, and the remainder a darker color. Moreover, other comets, specifically Kohoutek (1973-74) and Bennett (1970) can be interpreted as an electromagnetic vehicle projecting a fire-ball ahead of the body. As has been shown, electromagnetic vehicles have fire-ball generating capability. These bodies most certainly are suitable mechanisms for causing catastrophic extinctions, with an attendant possibility that their missions are controlled. Collisions may not be a necessary condition for catastrophe; a near-miss might well be sufficient.

Planetary rings are an indicator of past, or current, presence of  electromagnetic vehicles. Jupiter and Uranus both are known to have rings. The sun has been discovered to have a ring of globular matter surrounding it. Our own asteroid belt is a ring. Even a ring around the solar system is believed to exist. Discovery of others practically is a certainty. For example, no surprise should occur if planetary nebula NGC 6781 were found to emanate from, and be a property of, a superbly large electromagnetic vehicle. This concept poses no conflict with the notion that the nebula ring results from radial expansion of matter from a central source.

Jupiter, Uranus and NGC 6781 are far away.  Therefore, one might submit that events at such remote places have no importance to human beings. Maybe. Though also far away activity at the sun more readily is acceptable as a concern. An example might be that some solar flares are highly correlatable with anomolous terrestrial weather. Generally,  any major interference with solar functioning, such as by object 1979 XI, operates temporarily to alter Earth weather. These occasions are marked on the sun by abnormal electrical-field patterns which interact with those of Earth. 

Anomolous sun activity, by triggering weather changes, in turn can occasion severe down-stream socio-economic impacts. Electromagnetic vehicles also may operate quite remotely from the sun, yet directly exert significant physical effects on Earth.

Severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, flooding, droughts and certain types of fires all might be symptomatic. Even less obvious might be subtle effects exerted on the human body by innocent exposure to focused electro-potential fields.

Photographic data recorded impersonally by satellite stand on their own without having to doubt a human photographer. No need exists for a protective requirement that several independent cameras witness the same thing as a condition precedent to credibility. For a sighting of an unidentified flying object, an analyst may require three or more observers of the same object as a condition precedent to credibility- Information output, though small and tending toward high quality, still is inadequate compared with hard data provided by remotely procured photographs. Unidentified flying objects (UFO's) being on a soft data base incomparable with a hard base for the electromagnetic vehicles (E.M.V.'s) reported herein, they necessarily must be, and are, excluded from discussion.

As a practical matter, technical discussion of UFO's virtually is never possible even with absolutely valid information. The fact is that there are, and there always will be, UFO's. The reason simply is that substantially all witnesses are equipped inadequately to describe or interpret what they see in terms of a physical discipline. Consequences of this limitation can be illustrated by an hypothetical early 1940's scenario. In this scenario, a German pilot and an American pilot are flying adversarial combat missions against one another. Piloting the first operational jet-powered airplane, the German forces the American into escape maneuvers. Fortuitously returning from the engagement, the American reports to headquarters that he had encountered a UFO. He substantiates his position by stating that the high-speed object matches nothing he had been briefed on or taught to recognize. His account documents that the object had no propellers.

He notes that engine-driven propellers are the only known method for sustaining aerial flight. The point is that insufficient information is available to the pilot for resolving identity. In contrast, identity of the propeller-less object quite likely would have been resolved as a jetpowered airplane had the encounter been experienced and reported by Sir Frank Whittle. Sir Frank is the Englishman knighted in 1948 for his invention of the jet engine.

That identification and resolution capability lags behind developed knowledge is exemplified by the first-jet-airplane scenario. This lag is substantiated by the 1908 Tunguska, Siberia explosion. Terrible
destruction of the land, extraordinary human-tissue burns and widespread obliteration of wild life could not be explained at first.

Knowledge gained years later from the 1945 Hiroshima explosion shed light on a myriad of puzzlements. Similarity of topographical destruction in the two events clinches conviction that the Tunguska blast came from a nuclear explosion aloft. Terrestrial nuclear-explosion knowledge, coming as it did 37 years later, inescapably pinpoints the source to one of extraterrestrial origin.

Though the Tunguska analysis is substantial and thorough some scientists, without cause, choose not to recognize the conclusions. By doing so, in effect they position themselves to promulgate their own
party line. Substituting for years of painstaking investigation, an unsubstantiated allegation is made that the Tunguska event results from impact of a huge meteor. A meteor impact simply does not fit all
known facts sufficiently well to render the allegation credible. This incongruent situation serves to focus attention on a possible need to interrogate vigorously perpetuated explanations for certain aspects of the solar system and the universe. Repetitious publication tends to cause unqualified explanations to become accepted without challenge The role of science, starting with Copernicus and Galileo, has been to ascertain physical truth. This long-standing scientific approach should continue to be pursued. Pursuance of the approach may lead to devaluation of personal property, such as that represented by publications; but unfortunately, such abrogation is a hazard of the scientific process of correcting and updating understanding.

M ore aeronautical history of the 1940's will serve to illustrate some lessons pertinent to advancing state-of-the-art in astronomy and aerospace science.

A theory exists which says that a physical body can never reach the speed of light because an infinite force is required. The same theoretical argument was made for airplanes relative to the speed of sound in the 1940's. Aerodynamic theory holds that for a finite wing inclined in an airstream, lift and drag approach infinity near the speed of sound. 

With drag infinitely large, "breaking-the-sound-barrier" theoretically is impossible because, again, an infinite force is required.

Despite a theoretical limit on the speed of flight in air, Frank Whittle believed that were sufficient finite force applied to an object, it would move faster than the speed of sound. Application of Sir Frank Whittle's jet engine to airplanes confirmed this belief. The same contention that Sir Frank made for exceeding the speed of sound also can be made for exceeding the speed of light. After all, the basic electromagnetic equations are identical to the aerodynamic equations, except for magnitude of the constants of proportionality. In this context, the speed of light simply is a reference speed analogous to, and greater in magnitude than, the speed of sound. Speed of light is very close to six orders of magnitude greater than the speed of sound under standard atmospheric conditions.

Considering the evidenced ultra-high nuclear technology, flight speeds for E.M.V.'s greater than the speed of light technically is a realistic expectation. Successful operational achievement is keyed fundamentally to development of a low-weight engine in relation to the propulsive force delivered. This development is exactly the same one Sir Frank Whittle attained on behalf of supersonic flight. With supersonic flight as a comparable historical precedent, superlumenal flight definitely should be regarded as being within the domain of reality.

Potential reality of superlumenal flight permits ideas to be considered which heretofore have been excluded. For example, the universe is believed to contain much more mass than can be accounted for visually. A simple explanation might be that the "missing" mass has superlumenal speed and, therefore, cannot be seen. The situation can be considered analogous to an observer being unable to hear a supersonic airplane approaching. In this aerodynamic analogy, a mass indeed is present; but in terms of a sonic reference, the mass is "missing".

Presence of electromagnetic vehicles in the solar system introduces likelihood for analogous similarities in the universe. When an enlightened attitude is taken toward E.M.V.'s advancement of not only the Sciences but also the Arts and Humanities appears to be filled with new excitement.


The Status

Frontiers of knowledge are endless. While knowledge has carried the world far in generally favorable directions, only a short segment of the exciting frontiers has been explored. Electromagnetic vehicles, because of their huge size and powerful electrical capabilities, are in a far-out class of their own. Consequently, they must be regarded as an ultraforce which transcends race, creed, color, national boundaries and forms of government. Implicitly, Earth is granted conditions for sustenance of life by the grace of an identifiable superior power.

Conversely, this same power has definite capability to reduce Earth suddenly to a barren waste land like the moon.

An emotion frequently expressed by astronauts on returning to Earth is a feeling that Earth is a very special place. Yet there are those who are willing to risk terminating Earth's special processes - processes which have taken billions of years to attain. The trend is dangerous and foolhardy.

Already an extraterrestrial nuclear explosion aloft has been demonstrated at Tunguska USSR, and perhaps again in 1979 near South Africa and Antarctica. That electromagnetic vehicles are real and
awesome can be attested to by the author from a sighting experience backed up by photography and collaborative witnesses. The now confirmed presence of an extraterrestrial nuclear power poses a hazard never contemplated heretofore. Specifically, an extraterrestrial interloper could initiate a nuclear blast which might well be confused by concerned terrestrial nuclear powers for an adversative first strike. A nuclear exchange would ensue mistakenly, resulting in catastrophic destruction on Earth. The risk of nuclear exchange between terrestrial adversaries is escalated hazardously because of this unpredictable interloper capability. Unless nuclear warfare is abandoned, the task of preserving Earth and its inhabitants becomes enormously difficult technically besides being inordinately costly.

A concept which widely pervades the scientific literature is what might be termed "dogmatic Darwinism". This expression connotes single-minded tenure to only the concept of evolution. Make no mistake, change and hence "evolution" has occurred and still is occurring. Electromagnetic vehicles have played, and continue to play a role in effecting change. Electromagnetic vehicles, however, also create. They create rings of different types and compositions. They create satellite surfaces, such as that of Iapetus. Is there any reason to think creation stops at this impressive level of achievement? Not at all Just around Saturn, there are fairly ideal chemical broths containing life-form building blocks. Dry-lightning strikes from electromagnetic vehicles should be able to initiate life-form chemical reactions. Hence it can be reasoned that the two concepts, evolution and creation, are both correct.

Although inanimate creation has been shown, animate creation has not. Extraterrestrial life forms have yet to be positively identified  though their presence is implied. Owing to the strange character of electromagnetic vehicles, communicative language is likely to be obscure as well as subtle. Obviously, a data base needs to be developed which is oriented specifically toward pin-pointing extraterrestrial life. 

The SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) land-basedreceiver project is a cognitive start in this direction. Monitoring equipment, however, is geared technologically to identify intelligence signals at the sophisticated human level. Hopefully, signals from higher-than-human-intelligence sources will neither bypass nor slip undetected through the selected filters.

Many excursions into space by the USA have been made with broad, exploratory flight objectives. Consequently, except for entertainment, the public has not been able to identify specific benefits from huge taxdollar expenditures for space flights. In turn, space programs then are criticized for diverting funds from allegedly needed humanistic projects. Reluctance to fund open-end space exploration is not likely to change. Critically needed is a space program designed especially to define functions served in the solar system by electromagnetic vehicles.

Their role with respect to Earth and its populace should be given particular attention. For example, the source of terrestrial lightning should be understood physically rather than accepted piously as a
fathomless property of Nature.

Electromagnetic vehicles most likely originate outside the solar system. Hence, new avenues of inquiry can be considered concerning observed phenomena in the universe. The universe is laden heavily with nuclear energy; and apparently some societal intelligence has mastered its application on a large scale. Accomplishments include massively large engines, controlled nuclear fusion, planetary-satellite surface modification, lengthy transmission of huge electrical currents, and immensely high-power electro-potential fields.

Large-scale events almost beyond comprehension are taking place in the universe. Saturn, its rings and moons, is a definite hub of activity within the solar system. Because Saturn is relatively close to Earth, this region is focally a good one to monitor. Adequate monitoring might prove difficult owing to the highly-charged and nuclear character of the environs. Further, a question is raised whether humans in proximity will be tolerated by electromagnetic vehicles. Past events, notably the Tunguska explosion and a collision of a large body with the sun, pose questions of serious concern to everyone. All in all, compelling reasons are present for outmoding war and re-directing all war-related effort toward the preservation of humanity.



Telemetry from Voyager 2 on its outward journey through the solar system shows that planet Uranus has a number of rings. One of the published photographic transmissions indicates that the rings are
formed mechanistically the same as for Saturn. The ring-makers even lie within the ring at about the same angle as the ones shown for Saturn.

Interestingly too, the Uranus moon, Miranda, has a combination of geological land forms found separately on various moons of Saturn.

Unusual terrain forms include square corners, nestled circular grooves, parallel straight-line grooves, and regions evidencing former viscous flow. Craters still are being explained by meteor impacts; but unorthodox terrain patterns simply do not fit this time-worn theory!

Neither do these patterns fit conventional geological concepts. In contrast, strange surface shapes and contours and recent modification thereof readily are explicable in terms of observed electromagnetic vehicle capabilities.

Presence of electromagnetic vehicles (E.M.V.'s) in the outer solar system forces attention on an extraordinary potential hazard of manned space flight not considered heretofore. E.M.V.'s can be expected to pose an extreme hazard to manned space flight in the vicinity of Saturn and Uranus, and probably even as near to Earth as Mars. Some pictures of Mars suggest visitations by E.M.V.'s The massive power of E.M.V.'s means neither that humans absolutely should forgo space flights, nor that a Mars landing should never be undertaken. However, known presence of E.M.V.'s serves a substantial warning to space travelers at least to stay their distance. Failure to heed this warning could result in catastrophe and emotional unpleasantness much worse than that which resulted from the explosion of space-shuttle Challenger.

As precursors to committing humans to remote space, the special jurisdiction claimed by E.M.V.'s should be ascertained. Meanwhile, all nations of the world should unite to meet the challenges and
opportunities that these prodigious forces present.


Equating a "body having physically inherent mobile capability" to the term "vehicle" possibly may be considered as too abrupt a step in nomenclature development. The potential problem lay in various
connotations for the word. Multiple connotations do not lead to a focused idea concerning what is meant.

To illustrate, an automobile has inherent mobile capability; and reference to an automobile as a vehicle is quite common. On the other hand for example, an ape also has inherent mobile capability; but reference to an ape as a vehicle is uncommon in the sense that an automobile is a vehicle. That the former is inanimate and the latter animate is not the intended distinction. The significant distinction is that an automobile does not occur directly in Nature, whereas an ape is regarded as a direct product of Nature.

For purpose of the subject matter, the term "vehicle" is meant to be something not occurring directly in Nature, but rather something occurring as a by-product of Nature. Early introduction of "vehicle"
as a descriptor is considered by the author to be, at worst, premature but not an inaccurate usage.

The reason for the belief in descriptor accuracy is independent of the non-personal photographic evidence presented herein. In 1971, the author had the exciting experience of having sighted and photographed a mobile slender body fitting the specific properties of the two bodies shown later in Plates 5 and 6. This sighting at the time was experienced by the author's wife and daughter. Through binoculars, this body appeared to be large and incorporated fine aerodynamic features at the fore and aft exhaust ends. That is, the ends did not terminate squarely cut-off as would result when a pole is sawed in two.

Rather, the ends were rounded much the same as are cowls of jetengine intakes. Bulbar streamers were emitted from locations along the body. Control over these streamers was demonstrated by the modulation of their activity, and also by introduction of additional streamers which moved with definite periodicity.

Drawing upon many years of aerospace experience, the author has no reservation about labeling the sighted body a vehicle. The numerous and unique properties of the sighted vehicle also are evident variously in the micro-photographs presented. Until more research is performed to demonstrate otherwise, the bodies discussed in Plate 3 and subsequently shall be considered vehicles rather than objects of Nature.

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Jack J. Lissauer, 'Saturn's Rings' (Vol. 218, No. 4572, 5 November 1982) p 521.
Carl Sagan, 'Extraterrestrial Intelligence: An International Petition' (Vol. 218,No. 4571, 29 October 1982) p 426.
Richard A. Kerr, 'Planetary Rings Briefing: New Outer Rings for Saturn?: The FRing Becomes a Little Less Baffling; Spokes, SKR and SED - A Connection.;The Uranian Rings Get Stranger and Stranger' (Vol. 218, No. 4569, 15 October1982) pp 276-277.
Richard A. Kerr, 'Planetary Rings Explained and Unexplained' (Vol. 218, No.4568, 8 October 1982) pp 141-143.
R. S. Westrum, 'Explaining Meteorites' (Vol. 217, No. 4563, 3 September 1982)p 884.
Richard A. Kerr, 'Saturn Briefing: Caged Argon: A Clue to the Birth of Titan;Rings, Rings, What Makes the Rings? Lightning on Saturn or Ring Discharges? What Battered the Satellites of Saturn?' (Vol. 216, No. 4551, 11June 1982) pp 1210-1211.
R. Ganapathy, 'Evidence for a Major Meteor Impact on the Earth 34 MillionYears Ago: Implications for Eocene Extinctions' (Vol. 216, No. 4548, 21 May1982) pp 885-886.
P. G. Kamoun et al., 'Comet Enke: Radar Detection of Nucleus' (Vol. 216, No.4543, 16 April 1982) pp 293-295.
P. J. Michaels et al., 'Observations of a Comet on Collision Course with the Sun'(Vol. 215, No. 4536, 26 February 1982) Cover photograph and pp 1097-1102.
Reports on Voyager 2 Flyby of Saturn (Vol. 215, No. 4532, 29 January 1982).
(1) E. C. Stone and F. D. Miner, 'Voyager 2 Encounter with the SaturnianSystem', pp 499-504.
(2) B. A. Smith et al., 'A New Look at the Saturnian System: The Voyager 2Images', pp 504-537.
(3) A. L. Larse et al., 'Photopolarimetry from Voyager 2: Preliminary Resultson Saturn, Titan and the Rings', pp 537-543.
(4) R. Hanel et al., 'Infrared Observations of the Saturnian System fromVoyager 2', pp 544-548.
(5) B. R. Sandel et al., 'Extreme Ultraviolet Observations from the Voyager 2 Encounter with Saturn', pp 548-553.
(6) G. L. Tyler et al., 'Radio Science with Voyager 2 at Saturn: Atmosphere and Ionosphere and the Masses of Mimas, Tethys and Iapetus', pp 583-558.
(7) N. F. Ness et al., 'Magnetic Field Studies by Voyager 2: PreliminaryResults at Saturn', pp 558-563.
(8) H. S. Bridge et al., 'Plasma Observations Near Saturn: Initial Results fromVoyager 2\ pp 563-570.
(9) S. M. Krimigis et al., 'Low-Energy Hot Plasma and Particles in Saturn'sMagnetosphere', pp 571-577.
(10) R. E. Vogt et al., Energetic Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere:Voyager 2 Results', pp 577-582.
(11) J. W. Warwick et al., 'Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations fromVoyager 2 Near Saturn', pp 582-587.
(12) F. L. Scarf et al., 'Voyager 2 Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn',pp 587-594.
M. Mitchell Waldrop, 'The Puzzle That Is Saturn' (Vol. 213, No. 4514, 18 September 1981) pp 1347-1351.
M. Mitchell Waldrop, 'Saturn Redux: The Voyager 2 Mission' (Vol. 213, No.4513, 11 September 1981) pp 1236, 1237 and 1240.
Phillip H. Abelson, 'Voyager Mission to Saturn' (Vol. 212, No. 4491, 10 April 1981) p 125.
Reports on Voyager 1 Flyby of Saturn (Vol. 212, No. 4491. 10 April 1981).
(1) E. D. Miner, 'Voyager 1 Encounter with the Saturnian System', pp 159-162.
(2) B. A. Smith et al., 'Encounter with Saturn: Voyager 1 Imaging Science Results, pp 163-191.
(3) S. P. Synnott et al., 'Orbits of the Small Satellites of Saturn', pp. 191-192.
(4) R. Hanel et al., 'Infrared Observations of the Saturnian System from Voyager 1', pp 192-200.
(5) G. L. Tyler et al., 'Radio Science Investigations of the Saturn System with Voyager 1: Preliminary Results', pp 201-206.
(6) A. L. Broadfoot et al., 'Extreme Ultraviolet Observations from Voyager 1 Encounter with Saturn', pp 206-211.
(7) N. F. Ness et al., 'Magnetic Field Studies by Voyager 1: Preliminary Results at Saturn', pp 211-217.
(8) H. S. Bridge et al., 'Plasma Observations Near Saturn: Initial Results from Voyager 1', pp 217-224.
(9) S. M. Krimigis et al., 'Low-Energy Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Results from Voyager 1', pp 225-231.
(10) R. E. Vogt et al., 'Energetic Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Voyager 1 Results', pp 231-234.
(11) D. A. Gurnett et al., 'Plasma Waves Near Saturn: Initial Results from Voyager 1', pp 235-239.
(12) J. S. Warwick et al., 'Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations from Voyager 1 Near Saturn', pp 239-243.
Eliot Marshall, 'Navy Lab Concludes the Vela (Satellite) Saw a (Nuclear) Bomb' (Vol. 209, No. 4460, 29 August 1980) pp 996-997.
Reports on Pioneer Flyby of Saturn (Vol. 207, No. 4429, 25 January 1980).
(1) J. W. Dyer, 'Pioneer Saturn', pp 400-401.
(2) A. G Opp, 'Scientific Results from the Pioneer Saturn Encounter:Summary', pp 401-403.
(3) J. H. Wolfe et al., 'Preliminary Results on the Plasma Environmentof Saturn from the Pioneer 11 Plasma Analyzer Experiment', pp 403-407.
(4) E. J. Smith et al., 'Saturn's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere', pp 407-410.
(5) J. A. Simpson et al., 'Saturnian Trapped Radiation and Its Absorption by Satellites and Rings: The First Results from Pioneer 11, pp. 411-415.
(6) J. A. Van Allen et al., 'Saturn's Magnetosphere, Rings and InnerSatellites', pp 415-421.
(7) J. H. Trainer et al., 'Observations of Energetic Ions and Electrons in Saturn's Magnetosphere', pp 421-425.
(8) W. Fillins et al., 'Trapped Radiation Belts of Saturn: First Look', pp 425-431.
(9) D. L. Judge et al., 'Ultraviolet Photometer Observations of the Saturnian System', pp 431-434.
(10) T. Gehrels et al., 'Imaging Photopolarimeter on Pioneer Saturn', pp 434-439.
(11) A. P. Ingersoll et al., 'Pioneer Saturn Infrared Radiometer: Preliminary Results', pp 439-443.
(12) D. H. Humes et al., 'Impact of Saturn Ring Particles on Pioneer 11*. pp 443-444.
(13) M. H. Acuna and N. F. Ness, 'The Magnetic Field of Saturn: Pioneer 11 Observations', pp 444-446.
(14) A. J. Kliore et al., 'Vertical Structure of the Ionosphere and Upper Neutral Atmosphere of Saturn from Pioneer Radio Occulation', pp 446-449.
(15) J. D. Anderson et al., 'Pioneer Saturn Celestial Mechanics Experiment', pp 449-453.
Richard A. Kerr, 'Rings Around the Solar System' (Vol. 206, No. 4414, 5 October 1979) pp 38-40.
R. H. Thomas, 'West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Present-Day Thinning and Holocene Retreat of the Margins' (Vol. 205, No. 4412, 21 September 1979) pp 1257-1258.
Astronomy (Astromedia, Kalmbach Publishing Co., Milwaukee, WI) Richard Berry, 'Uranus: The Voyage Continues' (Vol. 14, No. 4, April 1986) p 10.
Edward J. Ciaccio, 'Atmospheres' (Vol. 12, No. 5, May 1984) pp 6-22.
Michael A. Sposito, 'A Conversation with Astronaut Joseph Allen' (Vol. 12, No. 4, April 1984) p 24.
Robert Burnham, 'IRAS and the Infrared Universe' (Vol. 12, No. 3, March 1984) pp 6-22.
Jeffrey K. Wagner, 'The Sources of Meteorites' (Vol. 12, No. 2, February 1984)pp 6-16.
Michael Carrol, 'A New Mission to Saturn' (Vol. 11, No. 12, December 1983)pp 6-15.
David Morrison, 'Return to the Planets: A Blueprint for the Future' (Vol. 11, No.9, September 1983) pp 6-15.
Donald F. Robertson, 'Mystery Gap' (Vol. 11, No. 6, June 1983) pp 60-61.
David Swift, 'Voyager: Technological Totem' (Vol. 11, No. 1, January 1983)pp 24-26.
Jack R. Schendel, 'Looking Inside Quasars' (Vol. 10, No. 11, November 1982)pp 6-22.
Francis Reddy, 'Backtracking the Comets' (Vol. 10, No. 8, August 1982) pp 6-17.
Edward J. Ciaccio, 'Landscapes of the Solar System' (Vol. 10, No. 7, July 1982)pp 6-23.
Van Kane, 'The Little Big Missions' (Vol. 10, No. 5, May 1982) pp 16-17.
The Planetary Report (The Planetary Society, Pasadena, CA.)
Jeffrey Taylor, 'Moon Rocks' (Vol. 4, No. 2, March/April 1984) pp 4-6.Thomas R. McDonough, 'The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)'(Vol. 3, No. 2, March/April 1983) p 3.
Paul Horwitz, 'Searching for Signals from Extraterrestrial Civilizations' (Vol. 3, No. 2, March/April 1983) pp 4-5.
Samuel Gulkis and John H. Wolfe, 'The NASA SETI Program' (Vol. 3, No. 2,m March/April 1983) pp 6-7.
John Spencer, 'The Viking Legacy' (Vol. 11, No. 5, September/October 1982) pp 12-14.
Richard J. Terrille, 'Return to the Rings' (Vol. 1, No. 6, October/November 1981) pp 4-5.
Von R. Eshleman and G. L. Taylor, 'Radio Science at Saturn' (Vol. 1, No. 6
October/November 1981) pp 6-7.
Michael C. Malin, Ice Worlds' (Vol. 1, No. 4, June/July 1981) pp 8-10.
Dennis Matson, 'Gallery of the Moons' (Vol. 1, No. 2, February/March 1981)pp 6-7.
Jeffry Cuzzi, 'Saturn's Rings; A Voyager Update' (Vol. 1, No. 2, February/March1981) pp 8-10.
David Morrison, 'The Mysteries of Saturn' (Vol. 1, No. 1, December 1980/January 1981) p 4.
Sky and Telescope (Vol. 59, No. 4, April 1980).
'Pioneer Saturn Pictorial', pp 292-293.
'Saturn Sightings', p 296.
Astronautics and Aeronautics, AIAA (Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1969).
Homer J. Stewart, 'Lunar Exploration-The First Decade Raises More Questions Than It Answers', pp 32-36.
Harold C. Urey, 'The Contending Moons', pp 37-41.
Harold Masursky, 'Lunar-Exploration Targets', pp 42-49.
Albert Hibbs, 'Surveyor Results', pp 50-63.
J. E. Conel, 'What the Rangers Revealed about Lunar Geology', pp 64-68. Lectures
Center for Space Science and Astrophysics
Peter Goldreich, 'The Dynamics of Planetary Rings' (7 November 1983), Physics Lecture Hall, Stanford University, California.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (AIAA)
Astronaut Rusty Swiekert, 'Experiences in Orbital Flight' (10 May 1984), San Francisco Section, Sunnyvale, AIAA, California.
News Presentations
Campus Report
Diana Diamond, 'Scientists Discover Saturn Rings To Be Amazingly Thin (Stanford University, California, 25 January 1984) p 1.
Joel Shurkin, 'Saturn's Rings Are Made of Red Ice, Says Latest Study' (Stanford University, California, 25 August 1982) p 7.
The Stanford Daily
'"El Nino" -The Century's Unequaled Natural Catastrophe' by the Los Angeles
Times. (Stanford University, California, 19 August 1982) p 2.
San Jose Mercury News
John Noble, New York Times, 'Scientists Baffled by Earth's Cycle of Extinction Every 26 Million Years' (San Jose, California, 12 December 1983) p 8A.
KQED-TV Channel 9 San Francisco
'Voyager 2 at Saturn', 26 August 1981 (closest approach).
'Voyager 1 at Saturn', 12 November 1980 (closest approach).
*This bibliography has been compiled in accordance with 'Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford', thirty-eighth edition, completely revised 1978 at the Oxford University Press.

List of Plates

1. Rings and spherical satellites of Saturn. Radius of Saturn is 60,330 km (37,490 mi).
(a) Rings
(b) Spherical satellites
2. Saturn, second largest planet in the solar system, exhibiting circularly complete rings.
3. A luminous source appears in the A-ring of Saturn.
4. Conceptualization of the incomplete A ring in a polar view of Saturn's northern hemisphere, using Earth as a comparable reference measure.
5. Efflux from along the length of a slender body, exhausting at both ends, generates the A-ring.
6. A slender vehicle forms an A-ring trail which includes a luminous source.
7. Formation of the Enke division.
8. A second vehicle substantiates the process by which the outer A-ring and the Enke division are formed.
9. Partially developed ring system exhibiting a transversely positioned cylindrical vehicle in the B-ring.
10. Emitting vehicle stationed outside the A-ring encompasses the F-ring location.
11. Saturn, five Saturnian moons and an unexpected luminous image.
12. Pictorialization of luminous image in positional relationship to Saturn, the A, B and E rings, six near moons and their orbital paths.
13. Enlargement of luminous image revealing a nearby slender vehicle within the E ring.
14. Sector of southern hemisphere of Saturn showing cloud strata, a luminous point,location of a lightning source and a slender vehicle. (Picture exposure has beenn made to favor dark region at planet horizon.)
15. Luminous point of plate 14 essentially is an arc light whose apparent power sourceis a remote vehicle capable of generating paths carrying electricity.
16. Two lightning bolts appear in and above Saturn's cloud tops. Photograph is an enlargement of plate 14 in the area labeled "lightning location".
17. A colorful, large-scale narrow-band disruption in Saturn's rings extending across the entire ring system.
18. Luminous sources provide clue to presence of electromagnetic vehicles as a causative mechanism for a filled Cassini gap and an apparent ring shift.
19. Vehicle and ejecta in the Cassini gap in relation to an A-ring discontinuity, an apparent ring shift and a luminous source.
20. Apparent ring shift and band discontinuity in relation to two electromagneticvehicles in the Cassini gap.
21. Braided strands, a braiding unit and cross flow between discontinuity boundariesat the B-ring inner edge.
22. B-ring emissions become C-ring constituents.
23. Non-uniformly luminescent F ring in positional relationship to A-ring componentsand a shepherding satellite.
24. Segments of F-ring close-up showing that luminosity derives from emissivelyactive core material.
(a) Region (1), plate 23
(b) Region (2), plate 23
25. Non-uniformly luminescent F-ring of plate 23 exposed to reveal inter-connectionsbetween the F-ring and A-ring outer edge.
26. Photograph of braided F-ring exposed to reveal a large coupled object.
27. Three fineness ratio 13 vehicles having multiple unit sizes of 1, 2 and 4 closelysatisfy the planar dimensional requirements for forming the A, B, C and DSaturnian rings. View is perpendicular to the ring plane.
28. A simplified electromagnetic vehicle in different attitude angles for two positionsduring formation of the inner-Enke A ring.
29. A dark blue latitudinal stripe in Saturn's atmosphere emanates from an objectidentifiable as a probable electromagnetic vehicle component.
30. Salient features of an operational electromagnetic vehicle.
31. Front-end appearance of an electromagnetic vehicle as rendered from plate 30.
32. Luminescently active landscape on Dione.
33. Dione's narrow-band illuminated topography showing various types of emission.
34. Dione's narrow-band illuminated topography evidencing widespread emissiveactivity.
35. Macro-views of Dione showing curvi-linear surface markings and duality insurface lighting.
(a) Photographic identifications
(b) Pictorial identification aids
36. Macro-scopic composite view showing Dione amidst an impinging electromagneticflow field.
37. Iapetus exhibiting dichotomous facial topography adjacent an active zone populated with circular and elongated light sources.
38. Composite photograph of Iapetus showing illumination by, and a peripheral linking to, an electromagnetic vehicle.
39. Micro-photographic montage showing Iapetus subjected to an electro-potentialfield created by an electromagnetic vehicle.
40. Electro-potential flow field for a conducting sphere located between bi-level voltage sources.
41. Network of electrical current and equi-potential paths calculated for a sphere in ideal flow.
42. Illustration of Iapetus constrained by the electro-potential field of an electromagnetic vehicle as rendered from plates 38 and 39.
43. Mare Orientale as portrayed on an official NASA moon globe.
44. Configuration interpretation of lunar markings at Mare Orientale utilizing an official NASA moon globe.
45. An electromagnetic vehicle and a NASA moon globe co-scaled and positioned to illustrate formation of Mare Orientale.
Mare Orientate, anciently imprinted on Earth's moon by an "E.M.V.", remains a demonstrative statement of awesome power. Photograph, which includes only part of the affected area, is a mosaic assembled by NASA from circumlunar flights.

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