This arsenic strain arose naturally through phosphorous replacement in the lab and was then shown to have also occurred in
conditions existed. The obvious
conclusion is that replacement experiments should be run for all likely alternative
It was certainly unexpected, but widens life’s envelope of adaptability into far more chemically hostile conditions. Clearly slow shifts in chemistry give the bacteria the time to test out successful replacement protocols that they can exploit. This is a level of adaptability that was surprising.
As I have posted, bacterial life will find a life zone on just about any planet. It just will not be our life zone. I have little doubt now that the balance of probability is heavily weighted for life on every planet in the solar system now. We have plenty of evidence that life carrying material is out in space and such material can deliver living spores.
The adaptation to arsenic and also surely antimony as the two are totally similar and annoy miners no end lets life operate in mineral rich hydrothermal environments associated with hot spots.
We also now have a new protocol that can explore cellular variability for a range of environmental modifications for a wide range of unlikely and even unnatural chemical protocols.
Dec. 2, 2010: NASA-supported researchers have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. The microorganism, which lives in
substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in the backbone of its DNA and other cellular
components. Mono Lake
"The definition of life has just expanded," said Ed Weiler, NASA's associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at the agency's Headquarters in
. "As we pursue our efforts
to seek signs of life in the solar system, we have to think more broadly, more
diversely and consider life as we do not know it." Washington
This finding of an alternative biochemistry makeup will alter biology textbooks and expand the scope of the search for life beyond Earth. The research is published in this week's edition of Science Express.
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are the six basic building blocks of all known forms of life on Earth. Phosphorus is part of the chemical backbone of DNA and RNA, the structures that carry genetic instructions for life, and is considered an essential element for all living cells.
Phosphorus is a central component of the energy-carrying molecule in all cells (adenosine triphosphate) and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Arsenic, which is chemically similar to phosphorus, is poisonous for most life on Earth. Arsenic disrupts metabolic pathways because chemically it behaves similarly to phosphate.
"We know that some microbes can breathe arsenic, but what we've found is a microbe doing something new -- building parts of itself out of arsenic," said Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA Astrobiology Research Fellow in residence at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., and the research team's lead scientist. "If something here on Earth can do something so unexpected, what else can life do that we haven't seen yet?"
The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria. In the laboratory, the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a diet that was very lean on phosphorus, but included generous helpings of arsenic. When researchers removed the phosphorus and replaced it with arsenic the microbes continued to grow. Subsequent analyses indicated that the arsenic was being used to produce the building blocks of new GFAJ-1 cells.
The key issue the researchers investigated was when the microbe was grown on arsenic did the arsenic actually became incorporated into the organisms' vital biochemical machinery, such as DNA, proteins and the cell membranes. A variety of sophisticated laboratory techniques was used to determine where the arsenic was incorporated.
The team chose to explore
because of its unusual chemistry, especially its high salinity, high alkalinity,
and high levels of arsenic. This chemistry is in part a result of Mono Lake 's
isolation from its sources of fresh water for 50 years. Mono Lake
The results of this study will inform ongoing research in many areas, including the study of Earth's evolution, organic chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, disease mitigation and Earth system research. These findings also will open up new frontiers in microbiology and other areas of research.
"The idea of alternative biochemistries for life is common in science fiction," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the agency's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. "Until now a life form using arsenic as a building block was only theoretical, but now we know such life exists in Mono Lake."
The research team included scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University in Tempe, Ariz., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Penn., and the Stanford Synchroton Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, Calif.
NASA's Astrobiology Program in Washington contributed funding for the research through its Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology program and the NASA Astrobiology Institute. NASA's Astrobiology Program supports research into the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth.
Editor: Dr. Tony Phillips | Credit: Science@NASA
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