We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Wednesday, April 25, 2012
Early Farming Site In Albania
The problem that I have with founding dates is that they mislead.The vast majority will be clustered around a
date that is late in the formation process simply because of the nature of
growth and compounding.However, it is
also reasonable to presume that the active population was capable of doubling
every generation as it occupied an empty land.
A single starter village of a couple hundred people can easily be a
thousand similar villages in about two centuries.Thus an early date of say 6500 BC strongly
implies that the tool kit arrived perhaps three centuries earlier.
The good news is that the gap does not appear to be large and certainly
mirrors American experience in the settling of the USA.It also swiftly clarifies what happens to
indigenous peoples who do not have the tool kit.They are simply hugely outnumbered and then
Again we are seeing this happen in the Americas and the USA in
particular.The pressure of natural
inter marriage is unrelenting and pure strains are disappearing before our
eyes.This is not a bad thing although
it is broadly and futilely opposed. The truth is that we are all becoming
For that reason the historical integration of first nations into the
modern world will become total inside of just a few more generations.In fact it is mostly complete and that is why
the claimed populations are actually quite small.In Canada an economic incentive exists to
claim what are effectively inheritance rights and our population is growing of
course and we have several million.
In time all will be proud of the multiple strands of their humanity.
UC Research Reveals One of
the Earliest Farming Sites in Europe
University of Cincinnati
research is revealing early farming in a former wetlands region that was
largely cut off from Western researchers until recently.
The UC collaboration with the
Southern Albania Neolithic Archaeological Project (SANAP) will be presented
April 20 at the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA).
Susan Allen, a professor in
the UC Department of Anthropology who co-directs SANAP, says she and
co-director Ilirjan Gjipali of the
Albanian Institute ofArchaeology created the project in order to
address a gap not only in Albanian archaeology, but in the archaeology in
Eastern Europe as a whole, by focusing attention on the initial transition to
farming in the region.
Allen was awarded a $191,806
(BCS- 0917960) grant from the National Science Foundation to launch the project
"For Albania, there has
been a significant gap in documenting the Early Neolithic (EN), the earliest
phase of farming in the region," explains Allen.
"While several EN sites
were excavated in Albania in the '70s and '80s, plant and animal
remains - the keys to exploring early farming - were not recovered from the
sites, and sites were not dated with the use of radiocarbon techniques,"
"At that time (under
communist leader Enver Hoxha), Albania was closed to outside collaborations and
methodologies that were rapidly developing elsewhere in Europe, such as
environmental archaeology and radiocarbon dating.
"The country began
forming closer ties with the West following Hoxha's death in 1985 and the fall
of communism in 1989, paving the way for international collaborations such as
SANAP, which has pushed back the chronology of the Albanian Early Neolithic and
helped to reveal how early farmers interacted with the landscape."
The findings show that
Vashtemi, located in southeastern Albania, was occupied around 6,500 cal BC,
making it one of the earliest farming sites in Europe.
The location of early sites
such as Vashtemi near wetland edges suggests that the earliest farmers in
Europe preferentially selected such resource-rich settings to establish pioneer
During this earliest phase of
farming in Europe, farming was on a small scale and employed plant and animal
domesticates from the Near East. At Vashtemi, the researchers have found
cereal-based agriculture including emmer, einkorn and barley; animals such as
pigs, cattle and sheep or goats (the two are hard to tell apart for many bones
of the skeleton); and deer, wild pig, rabbit, turtle, several species of fish
and eels. What seems evident is that the earliest farmers in the region cast a
wide net for food resources, rather than relying primarily on crops and
domesticated animals, as is widely assumed.
Allen and Gjipali's research
team included graduate and undergraduate students from UC's departments of
anthropology and classics. SANAP is an international collaboration with
researchers representing the U.S., Spain, France, Greece and Albania.
The Society for American
Archaeology is an international organization that is dedicated to the research,
interpretation and protection of thearchaeological heritage of the