We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Saturday, May 23, 2015
Tiny Cellular Bubbles Enable Brain Drug Delivery
This is impressive and takes the whole idea of nano technology a step forward. As suggested it can be applied to a wider range of drugs as well. and this suggests exceptional targeting.
We are also reaching a critical milestone in the evolution of medicine itself. The technology is maturing swiftly to allow intelligent drug application to the damaged tissue itself. This will be huge and it will make obsolete the whole apparatus of commercial medicine.
This may not be too obvious to you, but our present system is based upon largely naive protocols for establishing 'scientific truth' that has failed us miserably in far too many cases. We can now think of migrating to a system that allows all disease factors to be treated on a one on one basis with computer assistance to supply options. Put another way, the library has now begun to expand rapidly and has be come far too large for conventional human memory to attempt to tackle..
Tiny cellular bubbles enable delivery of Parkinson's drugs straight to the brain
Exosomes (shown in red) deliver catalase to protect
neurons (shown in black) from the effects of Parkinson’s disease.
(Source: University of North Carolina)
A natural enzyme called catalase may prove hugely significant
in treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson's. These extremely
potent antioxidants can tackle neuron-killing inflammation with an
effectiveness unparalleled by small molecule drugs. But there's a
problem, they are big. So big that getting them through the blood-brain
barrier for delivery straight to the brain is nearly impossible.
researchers have now discovered that loading them into tiny, naturally
occurring bubbles allows them to sneak past the brain's defenses,
pointing to the possibility of improved treatments for such conditions.
Led by Dr Elena Batrakova at the University of North
Carolina, scientists extracted what are called exosomes from human
immune cells. These microscopic bubbles have a role to play in
conditions like AIDS and cancer, as they are hijacked to facilitate the
spread of diseases around the body. In this case, the researchers were
able to load them with catalase with the intent of sneaking the protein
into the brain to battle the destructive molecules that cause
"Exosomes are engineered by nature to be the perfect
delivery vehicles for proteins and genetic material," says Batrakova.
"Catalase is a huge protein, and it is almost impossible to deliver
across the blood-brain barrier alone. We use exosomes from white blood
cells, which are invisible to the immune system and easily interact and
fuse with the blood-brain barrier to deliver their cargo across it."
The researchers say that a single molecule of catalase
can neutralize around one million destructive molecules every second.
Furthermore, the effect is ongoing because the catalase doesn't
disappear as a result of the reaction.
Batrakova and her team are hoping to eventually develop
personalized treatments that load a patient's own exosomes with catalase
to allow entry to the brain. Ultimately, she says a nasal spray is the
most likely delivery mechanism.
The research was published in the Journal of Controlled Release.