Monday, May 25, 2015

BM 7 Earth's Creation

When we get over the shock of understanding the data, we must accept the implied conclusion.  The Earth has been fully Terraformed and a key engine happens to be the moon.

A secondary conclusion is that the cultural information that a non human species gave us a leap up with tools and all that is also confirmed merely by the existence and nature of the Megalithic yard.  There were alternatives and in fact the weight of time pushed measurement digressions in many separated cultures.  Yet the Megalithic Yard is found in the background. 

It is only in the current era that we tried to produce a similar global solution and actually did a slightly poorer job of it although using much the same sources. 

Something imoportant to note here.  It is the ignored conjecture that Jupiter produced the heavy interior planets by sweeping up material until it needed to shed angular momentum and then ejected a planet.  We can presume that Earth could have been engineered into existence as Venus was more recently.  This allows a whole bunch of convenient tweaking.  This makes the engineering problem explainable during the early formation of the solar system when something went back and triggered it all.  This was likely the moon itself.

What i am saying is that one can go into a barren system and produce a moon by lifting material from any convenient mass using gravity control.  When ready this moon can pass through a worm hole to the beginnings of the solar system and there engineer an Earth body out of Jupiter by throwing in the proper mass and set things in motion.

The evidence is all there and sitting in broad daylight and moonlight.

Only two advances are necessary to do all this.  One is gravity control and the other is true wormhole manipulation.  I have seen sufficient evidence for both and we have changed gravity as well in the laboratory setting. Then all becomes possible and plausible and this means that every star will have a living planet as well if not several.

Whether or not the suggestion put forward by Davies has any merit, it was the second time in a month during which perfectly respectable and serious scientists had published articles dealing honestly with the possibility that we are not alone in the Universe and that other species may be trying, or might have tried in the past, to contact us. Whilst we are delighted with the open-minded attitude that seems to be developing with regard to this subject it is our profound belief that the message, for which SETI, Paul Davies and Rose and Wright are seeking, is right in front of our eyes. It has been there as long as humanity has existed and what it has to tell us is breathtaking in its implications.

A Potential Message?

At this point we asked ourselves what would a message look like that had been planted on Earth or in its immediate environs and which was intended to survive for a huge period of time. Firstly, we reasoned, it would have to be recognizable, so it could be clearly interpreted as a message before its contents could be deciphered. Secondly, it would need to be either extremely large or else very small in order to survive the destructive power of Earth’s geology and weather systems.

In Clarke and Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey, the technique used by the unknown aliens was to have a major anomaly that could only be detected by a technically competent species. By placing objects with huge mass under the surface of the Moon the aliens knew they would be easy to spot in a place where there was little else to distract. But in that story the purpose of the gravitational anomalies was not to communicate with the new species – it was to send a message back to the aliens that the local creatures had reached a specific level of intelligence.

So, an anomaly of this sort might be enough to alert an unknown species, such as our own, that there is a message waiting. The next step would be for those planting the message to ensure that the target species understood that it was addressed to them.

It has long been agreed that numbers are the best way to communicate with intelligent creatures from another world. Hieroglyphs or any kind of marks are unlikely to be understood without any point of reference, just as there was no way to understand ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs until the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799. This inscribed artefact from the second century BC gave the same text in both Greek and hieroglyphs; thereby providing the key to understanding a lost language.

If numbers are used in such a message they need to have a discernable pattern, however they are communicated, so that they stand out against the background ‘noise’ of number values that surround us everywhere. Even then, it is extremely challenging to think of numbers that are certain to be spotted once they are planted in our own environment. The safest method would be to use ratios that stand out, because ratios are not dependent on units of measurement or any chosen base (e.g. base ten in everyday usage or base two [binary] as used in computing).

But it occurred to us that we were examining this process backwards, because we started out by being alerted to major anomalies specifically related to the Moon. Not only does it appear very unlikely that the Moon could have occurred naturally in the first place, it also turns out that it has been the incubation machine that so perfectly nurtured life.

We now needed to go back to our starting position and look at the numbers that had fallen out of the Earth–Moon–Sun relationship in terms of ratios and to those measurements that stood out so well when we applied Megalithic units to them.

The first and most obviously strange thing about the Moon is how it appears to be the same size as the Sun when viewed from Earth. It is 400 times smaller and 400 times closer to the Earth than the Sun. Assuming for a moment that this might be the first part of a calling card from an unknown source rather than just a bizarre coincidence, we have to note three factors: 

1. It is designed to be meaningful only to intelligent creatures living on the Earth’s surface. 
2. It is designed to be noticed at this specific point in time, give or take a million years or so each way, because the Moon only behaves in the way it does at this time. 
3. It appears to be addressed to a species with ten fingers, because the ratio relationship of that between the Moon and the Sun is such a round number when expressed in base ten (e.g. in base eight the ratio would be one to 620). 

Now we will speculate that the ratio of the Moon and the Sun just might be pointing to a deliberately created message. In order to do so, we must suspend all preconceptions of what seems sensible and consider instead what under normal circumstances might be judged unthinkable.

We will therefore temporarily accept that points 1, 2 and 3 above are valid and that someone or something is trying to direct the attention of Earthlings, sporting ten digits and living during this particular point in time, to look at the Moon as a potential message.

So, here we go!

In the beginning there was neither existence nor nonexistence; there was no atmosphere, no sky, and no realm beyond the sky. What power was there? Where was that power? Who was that power?

Rig Veda 10:129.1-7 (circa 4000 BC)

At this point we had decided that we could not continue to gather further facts without having some plan in place. The way forward seemed to be to develop a hypothesis so that we could see how the component parts of the puzzle may fit together. We agreed to suspend all negative comments for a time, so that we did not miss a point by rejecting something that challenged our preconceptions. Only when we had a complete model for our hypothesis, would we critically appraise it and compare it to other possible explanations.

So, we are now entering the modelling world by temporarily accepting the following three concepts as real: 

1. The Moon was engineered by an unknown agency circa 4.6 billion years act ago, as to an incubator to promote intelligent life on Earth. 
 2. The unknown agency knew that humanoids would be the result of the evolutionary chain. 
 3. That unknown agency wanted the resulting humanoids to know what had been done and they left a message indicated by the dynamics of the Moon.

We were well aware that there were some issues with these assumptions, which, if we forced ourselves to reconcile them simultaneously, would inhibit lateral thinking. One such problem was the issue of motivation: Why would any agency want a grand plan that spanned a period that was equal to around fifty per cent of the age of the Universe at that astronomically distant time? This would be long-range planning beyond all comprehension. Even then, how did such an agency know that the resulting life form would have ten digits? We would try and deal with these issues but it might be necessary to tackle them at a later stage.

[This problem goes away the moment we acdept using a worm hole through time and making adjustments while looking at the outcome happen in front of you. - arclein]

Another problem that had to be put to one side for the moment, was the issue of how Stone-Age builders came to be using units of measurement that are the key to decoding the message. These issues, amongst others, will have to be dealt with in due course, but now we will review the basis of the message.

At the root of our hypothesis is the idea that the very dimensions and movements of the Moon are designed to alert us to the fact that this is not a natural body. We therefore need to go back to the beginning of the solar system itself. No one knows for sure how the solar system came into existence but, despite all of the ideas about the Moon being made from the Earth, everyone agrees that the Sun, Earth and the Moon were all formed around 4.6 billion years ago. It is thought that the Earth and the Moon were formed very soon after the Sun became a star.

Theories come and theories go, but it is likely that it all began when a vast cloud of dust and gas in an empty region of our galaxy became compressed by starlight and gravitational forces, thereby causing an accumulation process. Otto Schmidt first put the theory of ‘accretion’ forward in 1944 and as more and more evidence has become available, competitor theories have withered away.

In some way, that astronomers do not yet understand, the Sun was formed and produced light and heat much as it does today. The cloud of dust and gas that was wheeling around the new star, kept on cooling and shrinking and whirling faster and faster before separating into rings. Each of these rings also kept on cooling and shrinking and is thought to have gradually gathered together into a sphere of fiery gas, in the case of the terrestrial planets, before cooling so much that the main part of it became liquid and, eventually, solid.

Until quite recently there were two principle theories to explain the Moon’s existence. One was that it was an object that had formed elsewhere and was somehow taken into Earth’s orbit; and the other was a theory called ‘coaccretion’ or the ‘double planet’ hypothesis. This second theory supposed that the Earth and the Moon simply grew together as twins, born out of the primordial swarm of small ‘planetesimals’. However, when lunar rocks were brought back to Earth it was realized that the Moon has no substantial metallic iron core and that its rocks have oxygen isotopic ratios that are identical to the Earth’s.

The theory that the Moon had originated elsewhere died instantly because it was obvious that the rocks had formed in exactly the same region of the solar system as those of the Earth. But the worrying point was that the only alternative theory was as effectively debunked as the ‘capture’ hypothesis. The ‘co-accretion’ could not be correct because the type and proportion of materials should be pretty much the same for both bodies if they were twin planets.

Suddenly there was no theory of the Moon’s origin in existence. Scientists tell us that nature abhors a vacuum – but scientists abhor a vacuum even more. Something had to be found to explain the inexplicable.

It took some years, but in 1984 an idea that seemed to explain the facts was put forward. The original Big Whack theory was an attempt to explain how the Moon could be made of selected Earth materials. For reasons already covered, it is a theory that simply does not work and we are still in a position where there is no watertight explanation for the Moon being where it is.

So let us return to what is generally held to be true about the early solar system. The process of making the Earth was not especially quick, as Stein B Jacobsen, a professor of geochemistry at Harvard University says: ‘Within 100,000 years of the formation of the Sun, the first embryos of the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars had formed… Some grew more rapidly than others, and within ten million years, about sixty-five per cent of Earth had formed.’ 25

Let us now consider a theory of the Earth–Moon system that does work. The thrust is that it is the result of intelligent design. We do not know who or what this hypothetical intelligence was, so we will designate it UCA (Unknown Creative Agency) for the time being.

In the Beginning

The young star was shining out, and the clouds of matter that had recently circled around it in a series of rings had begun the process of accreting into spheres at differing ranges from the star. One of these proto-planets was some 150,000 kilometres distant from the mother star and the UCA realized that it had the potential to produce intelligence.

The UCA may believe that the Universe is destined to die, maybe by becoming a smooth and static soup of incredibly thinly dispersed matter, just a tiny fraction above absolute zero. A nothingness that would essentially be the end of everything – even time.

The goal of the UCA was to seed life wherever possible, to create intelligent beings that could flourish and go out and seed more life themselves. In this way the very fabric of the Universe would be turned into self-aware matter that would slowly halt and reverse the mindless spiral into entropy and eternal chaos. They had a model to use for this location – one that would produce a specific type of intelligent creature, based on carbon and enabled by liquid water.

But it would take several billion years for the tumbling sphere to stabilize and go through a process of evolution of life forms that would result in a species with the intelligence and, more importantly, the imagination to understand their role of striking out into the cosmos to shape and form swirling stardust – and then give it the spark of life.

It was important that when this fledgling planet spawned its thinking and technologically able offspring, the creatures would understand exactly what had happened to bring them into existence, so that they could eventually repeat the process themselves. In this way, a self-aware Universe would continue to replicate itself across the massive span of space and time.

The engineering requirement was demanding.

The proto-planet was completely unstable and it was destined to develop a surface that would be far too rigid to create the necessary conditions for life to begin and to thrive. It required a regulator – a gravitational presence close by, that would tip it over just enough to cause the surface to have a tiny temperature range that would oscillate gently to evenly distribute the energy radiated from its mother star. This also had to be a regulator that would initially use its gravity to plough the surface so that essential minerals could be released for the life-development process to continue.

It was clear that the planet needed to have a loosened surface and the obvious conclusion was to manufacture the regulator from the surface material. This would reduce the tendency of the surface to form one continuous crust and would allow movement within the crust itself. Judging the required mass, size and orbital characteristics of the regulator was a stupendously complex calculation, because it not only needed to have a changing relationship with the planet over time – it also had to contain the message addressed to the resulting intelligent life form.

The equilibrium point was calculated and it was found that seventy-four quintillion tonnes would have to be removed from the planet to manufacture the regulator. To meet all requirements it was going to need a mass that was only 1.234 per cent of the revised planet yet its physical size had to be a relatively large, being 27.322 per cent of its parent. It would therefore have to be made with the barest minimum of heavy elements such as iron and, even then, it would need to either be partially hollow or have the consistency of a sponge.

Mechanisms were then put in place to remove a stream of material from the young planet, that would be spun into a new planet in close Earth orbit. The design was such that the regulator would slowly increase its orbital distance until it reached an average range of around 384,500 kilometres at the expected time of the arrival of intelligent life. This would mean that to the creatures on the planet’s surface, the disc of the regulator would appear, with the naked eye, to be the same size as the star at the centre of the system – which would be the first line of the message to make the developing Earth creatures become curious about the regulator. The realization that the factor for each was precisely 400 would also indicate that the message would be delivered in base-ten arithmetic.

Perhaps the UCA used something like black-hole technology to carefully strip only lighter elements from the infant planet. A black hole is a superdense entity with so much gravity that even light is jsucked into it, like dust into a vacuum cleaner. A black hole with the mass of Mount Everest would have a miniscule radius – roughly the size of an atomic nucleus – and current thinking is that it would be hard for such a black hole to swallow anything, although it would certainly attract material like a giant magnet. Such an idea might explain the mascons (the regions of high gravity) still found on the Moon.

However the engineering job was undertaken, the biggest challenge was to communicate the message that the intelligent creatures endemic to the Earth would spot, because the very familiarity of seeing the regulator in the night sky would cause them to take it for granted. And the UCA knew that intelligence sometimes leads to a dulling of imagination, resulting in confusion between ‘describing’ and ‘understanding’. Contrary to what some intelligent individuals consider, the ability to describe something does not equate with understanding it.

The next levels of the message needed to be more difficult to ignore. The decision was made to create number patterns that stand out as very strange.

The UCA realized that it needed to draw further attention to the artificial nature of the regulator by building on a truly fundamental number that represented the planet. The number that was chosen was the planet’s spin rate per orbit of the star, which would have to be instantly recognizable as a value that was unique to the planet – a natural PIN (personal identification number) for an entire world. So, in this case it was a Planetary Identification Number that was required.

At the required time window, the planet would be rotating at a rate of 366 revolutions for each orbit around its mother star, and the use of the number value 366 would therefore be easily spotted as the Planetary Identification Number. The intelligent creatures would recognize the PIN number from an early date as it requires only very basic astronomy to appreciate that this three digit number is the most fundamental of all numbers that are unique to the planet.

Surely these Earth-dwelling creatures would be very surprised when they calculated the relative size of their planet to the orbiting regulator and discovered that the one is 366 per cent larger than the other.

The regulator was also engineered with a PIN number that was meaningful to the intended intelligent creatures. That number would be the reciprocal of the planet’s PIN number – the mirror image of 366.

The mathematics was simplicity itself. The regulator’s PIN number would be arrived at by considering its size as 100 per cent and dividing it by the relative size of the planet, namely 366 per cent. Working to five decimal places the result is: 100/366 = 0.27322

The regulator was then carefully engineered so that at the key point in time it would be orbiting the planet at a rate of once every 27.322 planetary days.

Surely, the creatures would notice that? And as an extra layer, if they looked at the issue the other way around, the size of the regulator compared to the planet has precisely the same number value – being 27.322 per cent of its parent.

Surely the intelligent Earth creatures could not fail to be alerted by such an unbelievably improbable number matching? There is absolutely no reason why the regulator’s orbital period in planetary days should numerically echo the relative size relationship it also enjoyed with the Earth.

The consequence of these arrangements would not be lost on the new life forms because they would easily realize that for every 10,000 of their planetary days, the regulator would complete exactly 366 orbits of the planet. Surely they would spot the use of round base-ten numbers and the PIN number 366 being echoed by the regulator?

But then, if they did not recognize these message patterns it would mean that they still lacked the intelligence or imagination to be considered mature.

Fitting the Moon into the Earth–Sun Model

It struck us as extremely likely that the UCA must have had some control over the Earth’s rate of spin and its orbital speed, so that they could ensure that it got to the magic 366 rotations at the required time. From everything that is known about the Earth, its orbital speed has been steadily decreasing for a long time but to the astonishment of scientists at the National Institute for Science and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, it suddenly stopped this deceleration in 1999. CNN reported the story on January 2nd 2004 saying:

‘Experts agree that the rate at which the Earth travels through space has slowed ever so slightly for millennia. To make the world’s official time agree with where the Earth actually is in space, scientists in 1972 started adding an extra ‘leap second’ on the last day of the year. For twenty-eight years, scientists repeated the procedure. But in 1999, they discovered the Earth was no longer lagging behind.

At the National Institute for Science and Technology in Boulder, spokesman Fred McGehan said most scientists agree the Earth’s orbit around the sun has been gradually slowing for millennia. But he said they don’t have a good explanation for why it’s suddenly on schedule.’

This caused us to look up the actual speed that the Earth has settled at in its circumnavigation of the Sun, and we were surprised to find that its mean orbital velocity is almost exactly one ten thousandth of the speed of light in a vacuum. At 29,780 metres per second, the variance is less than two-thirds of one percent.

We thought that this was probably a coincidence – but we could not pick and choose which factors are, and are not, significant. And we had to remember that the value 10,000 had already shown up in the number of Earth days for every 366 lunar orbits.

We next turned our attention to the Sun. The diameter of the Sun is estimated at 1,392,000km and as the average diameter of the Earth is 12,742km, so it follows that 109.245 Earths could be placed side by side along the diameter of the Sun. This is not a number that stands out for any reason – at least not immediately. But when we looked at the number of Sun diameters in the Earth’s aphelion (its greatest distance to the Sun) we found that there are 109.267, effectively an identical value because the estimate of the Sun’s diameter is within this tiny margin.

How strange. There are the same number of Earth diameters in the Sun’s diameter as there are Sun diameters between the Earth and the Sun. This is a near perfect echo that does not work for any other planet in the solar system.

These numbers are ratios and are therefore real and independent of units of measurement. But the number also stood out because there are 10,920.8km n the Moon’s equatorial circumference. At the time we noticed this, we considered that it really did have to be a coincidence because the number of kilometres in anything just could not be relevant since the metre is a unit that is an invented human convention.

But then we realized that the Moon turns at a rate of precisely one kilometre every second at its equator and that did strike us as very odd. Maybe we had been too hasty in rejecting the role of the metric system.

Our observations about the patterns inherent in the size and movement of the Moon, in terms of ratios, stand out as being beyond mere accident. Although we accept that the apparent patterns that rely on units of measurement, such as kilometres, are far harder to accept without an explanation of how this could have come about. Any ‘reasonable’ person would immediately reject such factors as meaningless – but then we think there is a great deal in the old adage that ‘all progress is dependent on the unreasonable person’.

And some people would not even get to the point of recognizing the patterns in the ratios within the Sun– Earth–Moon system. A scientifically trained person looking at any one of these points would almost certainly respond by saying that ‘all numbers are equally valid’. A value such as 100 or 40,000 dropping out of the mix is just as likely as any other number.

We absolutely agree with this view and we would ignore such results if they were only happening once or even twice, but we are confronting a whole list of non random-looking values that add up to create what would otherwise be the most unlikely series of chance events in the history of the cosmos. And, in our view, anyone who dismisses all of these points as coincidence is being either very illogical or downright dishonest.

It is absolutely true that if someone tosses a coin 100 times and it comes out heads every time, the chance of the next toss resulting in another head is exactly 50/50. However, if this ever happens to you in the real world, we would suggest that, before you let them toss the coin again, you check that it is not double headed. Only a fool would not be suspicious.

Scientific discovery has always been a process of identifying patterns that stand out from the chaos of random events. For example, identifying areas where there are more cases of a specific illness is likely to point to a local factor such as radioactive bedrock, a leakage of harmful industrial effluence or a contaminated food plant. When something varies markedly from the norm there is usually a reason.

If we look at the available information logically, and without preconceptions of what is and is not possible, the Moon appears to have been inserted into the Sun–Earth relationship with the accuracy of the proverbial Swiss clockmaker!

A Recent Interaction

It appears that no one has previously spotted this message and we only came across it because of our findings relating to Megalithic units. We suspect that the problem is one of too much knowledge and a loss of the ability of experts, in our super-technological world, to think simply. Perhaps if Galileo or Isaac Newton had access to the information that we have today they would have noticed these issues concerning the Moon, but, alas, they did not have the accurate measurements that we have today and therefore they could not observe the patterns. Today we have the necessary information, but astronomers are understandably more interested in quasars, pulsars and all kinds of deep space objects rather than the fundamentals of the Earth–Moon relationship.

We now needed to consider a scenario that would explain how the Megalithic Yard came to be involved in this ultra-long-distance message.

Maybe the UCA was aware of the potential problem of the message headline being missed due to over-sophistication and took steps to inject extra information near to the key moment when the message needed to be interpreted. Perhaps, we mused, the UCA had stepped in at a number of key points throughout the process of human development.

These thoughts were more complex than the set-and-forget scenario of an unknown agency building a planetary regulator that was, in effect, an incubator for life. The idea that some entity, probably an advanced species from another galaxy, established a mechanism to foster life and then moved on seemed reasonable in the face of such evidence. But to have an agency that has maintained a periodic involvement with humankind across several billions of years is much harder to reconcile.

However, we decided to stick to our methodology of viewing the reasons ‘why’ ahead of dealing with the reasons ‘why not’. We needed to review the material from ancient history and prehistory that had brought us to look so hard at the Moon.

Firstly we had to remember that it was because the stone structures from the fourth millennium BC were apparently created to study the Moon, that Alexander Thom began his lifetime quest to investigate them. Could these large standing stones be pointing deliberately at the Moon and the Sun? 

The orientation of the Megalithic structures certainly led him to identify the Megalithic Yard as being a unit of 82.96656cm – give or take 0.61cm. And this in turn led us to the findings laid out in this book.

As stated earlier, we had discovered that the Megalithic Yard was merely the starting point of a holistic measuring system that dealt with linear distance, mass, volume and time. It was an utterly brilliant system and we found that many modern units had descended from it, such as the imperial pint and the pound. We had been unable to imagine how the pound and the pint could have survived across so many millennia but it is a fact of mathematics that they are directly related, either by design or by an incredible series of coincidences.

To recap, the most intriguing fact about the Megalithic Yard lay in the way it had been ingeniously devised to fit accurately into the circumference of the Earth. Megalithic geometry was slightly different to the 360-degree geometry invented by the Sumerians, which is still in use more than four thousand years later. It had been based on 366 degrees, apparently (and very logically) because the Earth revolves once on its axis whilst it travels in its great orbital circle around the Sun. Under this Stone-Age system of geometry, each of the 366 degrees was split into sixty minutes of arc and each minute of arc into six seconds of arc.

The incredible beauty of the system is that when the globe of the Earth was treated as a huge circle, the polar circumference of the Earth is exactly the right size to give 366 Megalithic Yards to a polar second of arc.

We had been very surprised at the way the Megalithic Yard bisected the circumference of the Earth, but what we didn’t expect to discover was any direct connection between the Megalithic Yard and other bodies within our solar system. And there are none – apart from the Moon and the Sun.

The Moon has a beautifully neat 100 Megalithic Yards to each second of arc, which could be a very odd coincidence if it were not for all of the other facts we discovered which point to a whole range of round numbers. And of course the Sun has an incredibly round 40,000 Megalithic Yards to each Megalithic second of arc. What a perfect way to announce an awareness that the Moon is exactly 400 times smaller than the Sun.

We also noted that whilst the Sun has 40,000 Megalithic Yards to a Megalithic second of arc, the metric system was designed so that the Earth’s polar circumference would be 40,000 kilometres.

It had struck us as quite amazing that anyone more than 5,000 years ago could have created a unit of measure that worked as a perfect integer of the planet within such an elegant system of geometry – starting and finishing with the Earth’s PIN number of 366. Whilst this was impressive, we were perplexed at the apparent impossibility of creating a unit and a geometry that produced beautifully round integers on the Earth, Moon and Sun. To do so should be as close to impossible as anything can get.

Units that are integer, within the same geometry, for two heavenly bodies would be very difficult – but three?

That’s ridiculous! And yet the sums spoke for themselves. The fact that the approach did not work for any other body in the solar system pointed to a very special relationship for the Earth, Moon and Sun. 

The apparent impossibility of the Neolithic inhabitants having had the skills to develop such a marvellous system is now resolved when we introduce the unknown creative agency because, if it started with knowledge of the dimensions of the two original bodies (the Sun and the Earth), it could have engineered the Moon to made it fit the same rules. Our hypothesis was, therefore, to assume that the UCA somehow instructed the Stone-Age builders to adopt the system we call Megalithic geometry.

In our previous book, Civilization One, we speculated that the earliest records of the Sumerians and the ancient Egyptians were actually correct when they claimed that their own civilizations had been instructed in the arts and sciences by an external agency. In these records there are references to people called ‘the watchers’ who taught geometry, mathematics, astronomy, agriculture and other sciences. The indigenous population did not know where these people had come from and they described them as having superhuman powers, although they were clearly human beings and not gods.

In around 3100 BC, ancient Egypt became a united kingdom and its period of recorded history began. At the same time, the Sumerians were building their great cities and developing sophisticated techniques of metalworking, glass manufacture and agriculture. In the Indus valley of the Indian subcontinent, the Harappa and Mohenjodaro civilizations were also constructing huge cities and in the British Isles, superb megalithic structures like Newgrange, Maes Howe and the Ring of Brodgar were being built. Is it not very strange indeed, that within such a precise period of time the whole world suddenly decided to step up a gear and enter into a period of true civilization?

We found it more than odd that these unconnected peoples should all take such a large step forward at exactly the same time. And we have recently come across very new information that made our suspicions even greater. On December 23rd 2004, new findings were published that markedly revise the dating of the first American civilizations. It reported that evidence now shows that the oldest civilization in the Americas dates back far earlier than previously thought – in fact right back to 3100 BC, at which time complex societies and communal building suddenly appeared in Peru. This emerging culture was the first in the Americas to develop centralized decision-making, formalized religion, social hierarchies and a mixed economy based on agriculture and fishing.

One member of the team that has reported these findings in the preeminent scientific journal, Nature, is Jonathan Haas of the Department of Anthropology at the Field Museum in Chicago. He said:

‘The scale and sophistication of these sites is unheard of anywhere in the New World at this time, and at almost any time. These dates push back the origins of civilization in the Americas to something more parallel to those of the other great early civilizations.’ 26

Some of the settlements that are believed to have had at least 3,000 inhabitants included platform mounds, thought to be pyramids, central plazas, temples and housing. The largest pyramid at Caral, known as the Primade Mayor, is contemporary with the earlier Egyptian pyramids, dating from 2627 BC. From this data, the archaeologists have concluded that there was large-scale communal construction and population concentration across the entire area.

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