Wednesday, May 10, 2023
Primary water: And why we are never running out of water
I am startled that i did not pick up on this decades ago. Of course it is true. The surface of the earth is wet and we can trace a clear hydraulic cycle that includes the oceans and definately excludes geological water. Add that fresh water itself is a rarity in terms of the hydraulic cycle. what rain we get then spends itself washing salts and other soluables into our ocean.
Then understand that our rocks are all deeply oxidized. This means that they are tightly bound. Deep enough though the temperature will begin to break up those bonds and release oxygen which will combine with readily available hydrogen to make highly mobile water. so of course, our planet outgasses water, and CO2 and SOx. It is usually all three at the surface.
Understand that that the removal of the upper crust forming the Pacific Basin allowed rapid water escape from the mantle and the actual creation of our oceans. this has not happened on Venus or Mars, though water involvement has been shown there. This has reduced the engineering problem down to using the moon to remove the crust only.
The mantle consists of mostly silicates or silicon oxide. Hot enough to break down those bonds should induce water production in the mantle. Thus simple reduction in the mantle should produce a flood of water ,particularly if you peel half the overlying crust away to speed it all up.
To terra form Venus, we need to produce a gravity ship perhaps the size of our moon and then use it to peel back the crust of Venus. This produces a crust covered moon just like ours. likely even looks like ours as well. molten rock would form marias like ours and a trash heap on the other side like ours.
I do think that the Moon went back in TIME in order to do this by dropping into our gravity well to lock in location..
Primary water: And why we are never running out of water
Cultivate Elevate on Jun 26th 2022
“It’s hard to get the point across to many people in the U.S. that the Earth makes water. We can access it and solve our problems. Clean, virtually infinite sources of water are right under our feet.” --- Pal Pauer
What is primary water and how is it different from other water sources?
“Primary water, the original source of our oceans, is still being created by geological forces. That water, usually in a potable form, comes to the Earth's surface in thousands of places, some well known like Jericho and Bahrain where it has provided drinking water for thousands of people for thousands of years. It pours into deep mines all over the world. The hallmark of new, or primary, water springs and wells is that they provide water at constant temperature and flow. But this worldwide source of “new water” has been ignored by geologists and laymen in most countries including the United States.
Primary Water (PW) is Earth-generated water. When conditions are right oxygen combines with hydrogen to make new water. This water is being pushed up under great pressure from deep within the Earth. It finds its way towards the surface of the Earth where there are fissures or faults. Depending on the geology, PW can be close to the surface, or even flow out as a spring. PW is new water that has never been a part of the hydrologic cycle until it finally arrives at the surface.
How can we access primary water if it is so deep? The origins of PW are deep, but because it is under great pressure it moves upwards where possible. If PW confronts a blocking geologic structure it will remain deep. If PW moves up into weak areas of the Earth’s crust, it continues moving upward until it is blocked or finds its way to the surface. These weaker areas are often associated with mountain ranges where faults are common.
Is there a way to prove that primary water really is separate from water cycle water? The proof for PW is to have the water tested for tritium (a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used as a fuel in thermonuclear bombs). If tritium is detected then it is not PW. If there is no tritium, then the water has never been involved in the hydrologic cycle (our solar generated water cycle).
What are some well-known locations of primary water? Undoubtedly PW flows out or is being pumped out all over the world. PW even flows out of vents below sea level. These fresh water vents are well known around the world. There are PW wells associated with the Rift Valley of Africa that are being established in Kenya and Tanzania, the eastern source of the Jordan River, in California, Oregon, and other states of Western U.S. There are hundreds of examples of PW sources, but one is the Ain El Figeh Spring, a remarkable source of water, supplies over a million people of Damascus, Syria, and is also the principal source of the Barada River.
A report on the spring states: “ …….. has been enclosed in a structure since the Roman times, resembles an underground river several meters across which flows up and out of the limestone formation of the mountain. The total flow has averaged 8.63 cubic meters per second (about 132,000 gpm).” It is important to consider that many mines in the world have been washed out before they could be worked out, and many working mines are pumping out thousands of gallons per day. Two examples are the Comstock mine in Nevada, and the Tombstone mine in Arizona. Eventually both had to be abandoned. At 3,200 feet down the Comstock mine encountered a washout. Several hydraulic pumps were employed finally lifting 5,200,000 gallons every 24 hours, or 3,600 gallons a minute. Within 36 hours after the pumps were stopped the water had risen, filling the entire lower workings of the mine.
What makes PWI so qualified to source primary water? Pal Pauer, our chief hydrologist studied and worked for over 40 years with the pioneer of the art and science of PW, the geophysicist, Stephan Riess. Mr. Pauer has successfully located many hundreds of PW wells in various parts of the world.
How does Pal find primary water and how is this different from how other people find water sources? Mr. Pauer uses a combination of methods to locate PW. He begins by analyzing a variety of maps (more variety the better) starting with an expanded view, then becoming more and more specific. This is followed by a physical site analysis and the identification of the exact location of the well site (if one exists). Hydrologists usually locate water sources within the context of the hydrologic cycle, while we locate water knowing that PW exists under pressure from below in relation to hard rock structures.
What are the benefits of using primary water sources versus using traditional water sources? Primary Water is constantly being manufactured within the Earth so is a virtual endless source of water. Its use does not normally affect ground water levels. Hydrologic water, on the other hand, is finite and fluctuates in relation to available rain and/or snowmelt. PW is also of high quality, unless it comes in contact with contaminants as it rises toward the surface.
If El Nino weather conditions are expected later this year, why should we care about primary water sources? Won’t the drought be relieved? Any society needs a dependable, long-term supply of good quality water. Predicted El Nino weather conditions do not always materialize. PW is abundant and is not affected by periods of drought.
Why do so few people, including geologists and hydrologists, know about primary water? PW is understood by very few. It is only relatively recent that the mainstream scientific community has started to discover and publish articles regarding some aspect of PW. It is only a matter of time before PW will be understood and accepted as an important aspect of geo-hydrology.
Can primary water be found in flat areas? Yes, there are still fault lines that cross “flat” areas. However, it is often more difficult to locate such structures.
Is there any potential harm to the environment if we drill for primary water (e.g. fracking)? No, and because PW is continually being generated, subsidence (the gradual caving or sinking of an area of land), is not an issue. Thus pumping out PW does not create a void.
Where did the term ‘Primary Water’ come from? The term “Primary Water” was coined by Stephan Riess, the geophysicist who independently discovered the existence of PW, pioneered its development, beginning in the 1930s until his death in late 1985.
How much Primary Water is available? There is an endless supply of PW as long as there are the elements that constitute water: hydrogen and oxygen.
How does Primary Water and water of the hydrologic cycle stay separate? PW and hydrologic water do not always remain separate. As is the nature of geology, there is every possible combination of geologic structures which under certain conditions can allow for the comingling of PW and hydrologic water.
What is the proof that Primary Water exists? Isn’t it all part of the hydrologic cycle? If it is necessary to know if the water is Primary or not, the water can be tested for tritium. From the time when atomic testing began in the Pacific, hydrologic water has had traces of tritium in it. PW does not contain any tritium.
Will I be taking away from my neighbor’s water if I drill for primary water? No, the pumping of PW does not affect local aquifers unless the same structure providing the PW is also recharging the local ground water.
Solutions to a drought? - Primary Water Institute
How Primary Water Can Solve the Global Water Crisis - Link
M. Salzman, New Water for a Thirsty World - download pdf file
Earth Generated Water - Modern Energy Research Library - Link
Marianna King, Primary Water Research - download pdf file
Primary Water for a Thirsty World - Greg O'Neill download pdf file
Magmatic (Primary) Water - Wiki