Tuesday, May 11, 2021

Attosecond Resolution

Our ability to advance technology is completely the function of whatever scales we can handle.  This item shows cwhere we are today.

Now understand that my Cloud Cosmolgy provides a second tier of matter scaled by an imagined neutral electron pairing.  All the decay photons are way smaller than anything here.  And that is the second tier.

this construction can work with non neutral elctrons but at huge comparable energies.

It shoul be pretty clear that empirical methods may never get us much closer than what you see here.  This is still great.

Attosecond Resolution

May 9, 2021 by Brian Wang


Researchers demonstrate an on-chip, optoelectronic device capable of sampling arbitrary, low-energy, near-infrared waveforms under ambient conditions with sub-optical-cycle resolution. The detector uses field-driven photoemission from resonant nanoantennas to create attosecond electron bursts that probe the electric field of weak optical waveforms. Using these devices, they sampled the electric fields of ~5 fJ (6.4 MV m−1), few-cycle, near-infrared waveforms using ~50 pJ (0.64 GV m−1) near-infrared driving pulses. Beyond sampling these weak optical waveforms, our measurements directly reveal the localized plasmonic dynamics of the emitting nanoantennas in situ. Applications include broadband time-domain spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints from the visible region through the infrared, time-domain analysis of nonlinear phenomena and detailed investigations of strong-field light–matter interaction.

This work is very significant for investigating a lot of processes and technologies.

Attosecond streaking spectroscopy has been used to study the role of optical-field-controlled coherent electron dynamics in the control of chemical reaction pathways and the investigation of petahertz-level electrical currents in solid-state systems. It was also recently shown that sub-cycle field sampling of the free-induction decays of biological systems can provide an order of magnitude reduction in the limits of detection and improved molecular sensitivity compared to traditional frequency-domain spectroscopic methods. Despite these compelling results, scaling such techniques into the near-IR and visible spectral regions has remained challenging. Manipulation of short electron wave packets and attosecond streaking in the visible to near-IR spectral regions have proven to be viable paths towards direct optical-field sampling in the time-domain. However, these techniques require high-energy optical sources and complicated optical apparatus, with no compact and integratable sampling technology with the bandwidth and field sensitivity required for real-world applications of interest.

To address this lack of compact and integratable tools for optical-field sampling in the visible to near-IR, researchers have developed and demonstrated an on-chip, time-domain, sampling technique for measuring arbitrary electric fields of few-fJ optical pulses in ambient conditions. The enhanced local electric field surrounding plasmonic nanostructures has been used to generate strong electric fields in nanometer sized volumes creating a new regime for exploring attosecond science. This work leverages the sub-cycle optical field emission from plasmonic nanoantennas to achieve petahertz-level sampling bandwidths using only picojoules of energy. Furthermore, by electrically connecting the nanoantenna arrays via nanoscale wires, the field samplers we demonstrate here are amenable to large-scale electronic integration.

Beyond demonstrating the feasibility of sub-cycle field sampling of petahertz-scale frequencies, this result reveals in situ dynamical properties of the interaction of the driving optical-field waveform with the plasmonic nanoantennas. This work will enable the development of new tools for optical metrology that will complement traditional spectroscopic methods and unravel linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions as they occur at their natural time and length scales.

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