Monday, March 6, 2023

Theory-Breaking Galaxies Bury the Big Bang Hypothesis

Cloud Cosmology infers that every galaxy can be best thought of as a separate creation with its own TIME independent of each other.  We do not know if there even exists a TIME for the universe of Galaxies at this point.

He is quite right though, the Big Bang is untenable now.  Considering what it originally drew from ,this is not surprising ,but really, until I came up with the SPACE TIME pendulum and Cloud Cosmology, we had nothing except those doubts.

It is good to know that our undertstanding of TIME is now local TIME for this galaxy.  I wonder just what effect this has on incoming photons from other gsalaxies?  This is likely a difficult problem and i am no longer in a rush to jump through a wormhole into another galaxy.

Theory-Breaking Galaxies Bury the Big Bang Hypothesis

Once again, images from the James Webb Space Telescope(JWST) have caused alarm and consternation among cosmologists. “We found something so unexpected it actually creates problems for science”, exclaimed Dr. Joel Leja, assistant professor of astrophysics at Penn State, one of the authors of the new paper in Nature causing the latest cosmic kerfuffle. “We’ve been informally calling these objects universe breakers”, he continued in a statement released Feb. 22 by the Penn State university.

LPPFusion’s Chief Scientist Eric J. Lerner, who, with colleagues, has been putting forward a different take on JWST’s results, commented in a statement, ”Actually, these new results are just fine for science and the universe won’t be hurt by a few new images. Not to worry! What these objects can rightly be called is “theory-breakers” because they deliver more big blows in breaking up the theory of the Big Bang, and the idea of an expanding universe. I congratulate Dr. Leja, Dr. Ivo Labbe, first author of the paper, (Swinburne University of Technology) and their co-authors on their discoveries, but they were to be expected and in fact we predicted them -- on the basis of rejecting the Big Bang hypothesis.”

Dr. Leja and colleagues, and many other cosmologists around the world were shocked because the properties of these remote galaxies are similar to the ones of the Milky Way and other big nearby galaxies. According to the Big Bang hypothesis, no such galaxies should exist at such an early epoch, only hundreds of millions of years after the supposed birth of the universe. Only extremely young tiny proto-galaxies should exist, according to that theory. But the new JWST images show “mature” galaxies, made of billions of stars similar to the one observed in our own galaxy, including lots of yellow and reddish stars which had been shining for billions of years. (See Figure 1 for how the images indicate how old the stellar populations of the galaxies are.)

But Lerner and colleagues, basing their published predictions on the hypothesis of a non-expanding universe, with no Big Bang, were not surprised at all. In fact, in a paper published online in June, 2022 before the release of any of JWTS’s images, Dr. Riccardo Scarpa of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and Lerner correctly predicted that with JWST as with its predecessor the Hubble Space Telescope, images would show that “distant galaxies are found to be similar to local galaxies”.

Fig. 1 The spectrum of massive galaxy JWST 38094 (black points) does not at all look like that of a 400 million year-old galaxy (blue line, top graph), blazing with ultraviolet stars. (UV is to the left, green to the right in these spectra). But it does look a lot like a 2 billion-year old galaxy (green line, bottom graph) glowing with yellow stars. For comparison, the sun’s spectrum is brightest at 500 nm, almost the same green wavelength as the JWST 38094 peak. Light at 450 nm looks blue to our eyes, 400 nm violet and shorter wavelengths are ultraviolet. JWST data from new Nature paper, 400 million year model from Bruzal and Charlot and 2 billion-year model from Vazdekis .

Why then did these perfectly ordinary, but very distant, galaxies generate such surprise and consternation among most cosmologists? Exclusively because, once again, they contradicted the clear, repeated, published predictions of the Big Bang hypothesis. According to that hypothesis, the entire universe sprung into being in an extreme dense hot state 13.7 billion years ago and remained for 400 million years too hot and chaotic to form even stars, let alone large galaxies. Thus, according to Big Bang formulae, the galaxies in the new JWST images should not exist at all. Large mature galaxies at these distances would imply the existence of objects older than the Universe itself and therefore are “impossible galaxies”. But the new observation showed that not only did these “impossible galaxies” exist, they are common at these great distances. Hence the great surprise at…. the wrong predictions of the Big Bang hypothesis.


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