Tuesday, August 31, 2010
Oldest Evidence of Arrows Found
This places stone arrow making technology around 64,000 years ago in the key locale fro the rise of modern humanity. Perhaps a little too coincidental but we have rich marine environment to act as an incubator that was not obviously too dangerous. Recall sea levels were then three hundred feet lower providing broad marine plains in an ice age climate that was most likely temperate in nature here at this time.
Arrow making is as advanced as stone age technology pretty well got. Thus we have the likelihood of a full stone age tool kit emerging here first. That tool kit was then spread out throughout the world. Remember my comment that a given tool kit can be distributed globally in around ten millennia and actually be ubiquitous within a few millennia thereafter to allow its appearance in the archeological record.
Thus the establishment of this tool kit likely began 75,000 years ago and was globally common by fifty thousand years ago. This could even include the
and there is some evidence of all that but scant. Americas
Yet wooden arrows came much sooner and certainly preceded the stone arrow. In fact observation of such tribesmen suggests that this weapon form arose possibly simultaneously with modern humanity. It was just too obvious an invention needing only the ability to shape wood and to twist fiber to make something useful.
Stalking easily brought the hunter into a short bow range while at a difficult throwing range. It was too powerful an assist to not be used quickly. The question is whether it was used by earlier forms of humanity who did have the spear.
Oldest evidence of arrows found
By Victoria GillScience reporter, BBC News
26 August 2010
** The stone points are approximately 64,000 years old
have revealed the earliest direct evidence of human-made arrows. South Africa
The scientists unearthed 64,000 year-old "stone points", which they say were probably arrow heads.
Closer inspection of the ancient weapons revealed remnants of blood and bone that provided clues about how they were used.
The team reports its findings in the journal Antiquity.
The arrow heads were excavated from layers of ancient sediment in
Sibudu Cave in . During the excavation, led by Professor Lyn Wadley from the University of the South Africa Witwatersrand, the team dug through layers deposited up to 100,000 years ago.
Marlize Lombard from the university based in
led the examination of the findings. She described her study as "stone age forensics". Johannesburg
"We took the [points] directly from the site, in little [plastic] baggies, to the lab," she told BBC News.
"Then I started the tedious work of analysing them [under the microscope], looking at the distribution patterns of blood and bone residues."
Because of the shape of these "little geometric pieces", Dr Lombard was able to see exactly where they had been impacted and damaged. This showed that they were very likely to have been the tips of projectiles - rather than sharp points on the end of hand-held spears.
** Closer inspection revealed remnants of blood (left) and bone fragments (right)
The arrow heads also contained traces of glue - plant-based resin that the scientists think was used to fasten them on to a wooden shaft.
"The presence of glue implies that people were able to produce composite tools - tools where different elements produced from different materials are glued together to make a single artefact," said Dr Lombard.
"This is an indicator of a cognitively demanding behaviour."
The discovery pushes back the development of "bow and arrow technology" by at least 20,000 years.
Researchers are interested in early evidence of bows and arrows, as this type of weapons engineering shows the cognitive abilities of humans living at that time.
** The arrows were excavated from
Sibudu Cave in South Africa
The researchers wrote in their paper: "Hunting with a bow and arrow requires intricate multi-staged planning, material collection and tool preparation and implies a range of innovative social and communication skills."
Dr Lombard explained that her ultimate aim was to answer the "big question": When did we start to think in the same way that we do now?
"We can now start being more and more confident that 60-70,000 years ago, in
Southern Africa, people were behaving, on a cognitive level, very similarly to us," she told BBC News.
Professor Chris Stringer from the
Natural History Museum in London said the work added to the view that modern humans in Africa 60,000 years ago had begun to hunt in a "new way".
Neanderthals and other early humans, he explained, were likely to have been "ambush predators", who needed to get close to their prey in order to dispatch them.
Professor Stringer said: "This work further extends the advanced behaviours inferred for early modern people in
"But the long gaps in the subsequent record of bows and arrows may mean that regular use of these weapons did not come until much later.
"Indeed, the concept of bows and arrows may even have had to be reinvented many millennia [later]."