Wednesday, December 22, 2021
Richard Feynman 1918-1988, World Renowned Physicist, Quantum Man, Nobel Prize Winner.
For the talented, there is some grear guidence here. This item is well worth been read carefully and then picked up and reread years later as a reminder.
The world is not a mystery if we have the right attitude to avoid been caught up in trivia.
Learning More About The Universe
Richard Feynman 1918-1988, World Renowned Physicist, Quantum Man, Nobel Prize Winner.
Submitted on December 16, 2021
Nature cannot be fooled. Although we know very little about physics, this physics is not for beginners. QED quantum electrodynamics. Antiparticles are particles going backwards in time. Fundamental particles. Path integrals. Feynman, a no bullshit Nobel Prize winner and New Yorker with interest in physics, strip bars and bongo drums among other things. He changed the way we think about physics. He was one of the most important physicists of the 20th Century. As part of the NASA investigatory panel on the Challenger space shuttle explosion, Feynman determined that Rubber O-rings used to seal the rocket could fail under very cold temperatures. He had a talent for mathematics (I read somewhere that Feynman did the math for the atom bomb while working with Einstein on it), a strong energy, a strong intuition, and a fascination for women. In his work, he had a willingness to investigate a problem from every vantage point until all possibilities were considered. He needed to start from scratch with every problem he encountered i.e., not relying on others’ works. For him, it was part of the fun to do it all himself yet that limited his ability to do more since it took longer to accomplish things than would someone who much relied on the previous works of others. He loved to play and joke but with science he was deadly serious. He urged originality by creating our own ideas to problems. Light behaves like a wave which travels slower in dense media. Light doesn’t know it is taking the shortest path…least action, it only acts like it does. There are two kinds of energy 1) kinetic which is related to the motion of objects, and 2) potential which may be hidden ability of an object to do work later. Newton’s laws of motion as determined by action which is the sum over a path of the differences between kinetic and potential energy = Lagrange. Feynman believed real physics lay in identifying all forces and resolving them into components. Nature, like life, takes twists and turns.
Princeton. Electromagnetism, the force between two like charges is repulsive, and therefore it takes work to bring them closer together. Self-energy, the energy builds up by the work bringing the charge together. It takes an infinite amount of energy to bring all the charge together at a single point. Wave-particle duality, both light and matter (electrons, which have infinite self-energy) sometimes behave as if they were particles and sometimes as if they are waves. Quantum mechanics: 1) Multitaskers – are in different places and doing different things simultaneously e.g., an electron is in a superposition of states of both spin up and spin down. Two slits experiment (again)… sometimes the electron interferes with itself after both slits at the same time…electrons and other quantum objects can perform classical magic by doing several different things at the same time when we do not observe them (the observer changes results of experiments just by observing). 2) Heisenberg uncertainty principle – there are certain combination of physical quantities, such as the position of a particle and its momentum (speed) that we cannot measure at the same instance with absolute accuracy; implies photons is reabsorbed by either the original electron or another electron within some fixed time. Planck’s constant, multiplying the uncertainty in position by the uncertainty in momentum never results in zero but always bigger than some number. Heisenberg pairs, energy and time. In order to measure the energy accurately, measure the object over a long-time interval. Virtual particles, an electron can absorb many photons before we can measure them. Electrons have a cloud of virtual particles surrounding them, and they change the way we think of electric and magnetic fields and the forces between particles. Electric and magnetic forces can be thought of as being caused by the exchange of virtual photons. It takes more work to accelerate a charged particle than a neutral one. Charged particles emit radiation and dissipate energy, thus it seems to act on itself by producing an extra resistance. Particles can react backwards in time.
Feynman had a playful, childlike excitement about the world. He worked hard at ridding classical electromagnetism of the infinite self-interaction of charged particles via backward-in-time interactions with external absorbers located out in an infinite universe. He presented his ideas to Einstein etc. Einstein believed the microscopic equations of physics should be independent of the arrow of time. Disorder arises from macroscopic probabilities not microscopic physics as they all agreed. Electrons do have self-interactions and electromagnetic fields. Feynman’s wife, his soul mate, died within a short time from TB. He later again married a much younger woman, had children and a nice family life. He played his bongo drums on the streets in Rio ;-). He and Wheeler completed their work demonstrating that classical electromagnetism could involve only direct interactions, forward and backward in time between different charged particles… past/present/future. The next challenge was to bring this theory into quantum mechanics, quantum theory of electromagnetism. Problem, interactions between particles at different times…present conditions affect the future etc. If the particles’ positions and motions are known then the state of any given particle can be determined…consider all possible paths then determine which one has the smallest average value for the action…probability not predicting exact. The focus was on the path of particles…an action principle through space and time to try to determine nature.
We need to link physics and biology to understand the universe. Particles can appear to be in many different places at once while doing many things at the same time in each place. (A particle can be both here and at the opposite end of the universe simultaneously.) Schrodinger’s wave function of an object, derived quantum mechanics which broke classical rules; all particles behave in some sense as waves and vice versa. A particle is said to be at one point whereas a wave is spread over some region. Describing the probability of finding the particle at any given point (place) in space at a specific time; if the probability is nonzero the particle is in many different places at one time (interesting). Newton’s laws of classical motion in time. Maxwell’s equations describe how electromagnetic waves evolve. The square of the function gives the probabilities…explains why particles behave as waves…QM predicts positive probabilities as the square is always positive. Waves can interfere with each other (particles do this also) e.g., nodes = waves on a string; waves can cancel each other out i.e., negative interference with each other. When waves interfere the height or amplitude is affected i.e., depending on peak (positive) or through (negative). So, another name for the wave function of a particle is its probability amplitude. Double slit (again), electrons shot at scintillating screen then electrons can interfere. Feynman’s primary focus was QM for it allows for all possible paths to be chosen at the same time. Can QM be such that paths associated with probability amplitudes rather than probability amplitudes themselves?
Feynman was trying to come up with a way to develop QM around an action principle. Dirac, of the Lagrangian in QM, proposed use the quantity from which the action is calculated…Dirac merely made an analogy between the QM classical action principle and standard formulations of the evolution in time of a QM wave function of a particle. Feynman took that one step further and made an important discovery; he had established explicitly how QM could be formulated in terms of a Lagrangian, to completely reformulate Q theory with a constant of proportionality that made the analogy exact. The Lagrangian and the action function: in classical mechanics assigns a probability of essentially unity for the path of least action, and in QM they can be used to calculate the probability amplitudes (not merely probabilities) for transitions between a and c; and in QM many different paths can have nonzero probability amplitudes. Planck’s constant, the total action for any path in QM must be some multiple of a very small unit of action.
Feynman’s method allows a beautiful pictorial way of thinking about QM. His paper is named “The Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic QM”. Feynman re-derived QM in terms of an action principle involving a sum over different paths. But they did not contain any comparison with experiments, which he regarded as the real test. Next was QED to incorporate relativity…making a connection between the temporally spread-out paths and probability amplitudes… One cannot separate the observer from that which is being observed. But in practice that is exactly what is needed to make predictions and compare them to experimental data. When we make a measure, we collapse the wave function i.e., we reduce the probability amplitude to zero; therefore, it has a 100% probability of being in only one configuration without interference. How does a measurement collapse the wave function, and what is special about such a measurement? Is a human needed to make the observation? Feynman argued that we must consider the system plus the observer as a single Q system. Not consciousness, but rather must combine the experiment and the observer by way of a measurement. The observing system has to be large and classical and correlated with the Q system via a measurement. He believed that since QM underlies reality, it should be consistently incorporated throughout instead of making ad hoc separations between an observer and the observed. Measurement theory in QM still remains a mystery yet to be discovered. We are yet to find a complete description of how our classical world experience results from an underlying Q reality. Feynman’s path-integral formalism enabled us to separate systems into parts which seems central to the idea of measurement. His paper is “The Principle of Lease Action in QM”. Note that modification of present theories to encompass present experiments is needed.
PhD Princeton 1942. His lightning computational abilities, mathematical wizardry, physical intuition, appreciation for experiment, disrespect for authority, breadth of physics knowledge from nuclear physics to materials. He was a famous war hero atomic scientist as he worked on the nuclear atomic bomb by being the supervisor for all the mathematics, so he greatly contributed to its success; code named the Trinity bomb, the Manhattan project. He assembled a new generation of electromechanical computing machines to perform the complex modeling calculations. He had an obsessive need to undo what is secret.
Feynman wanted to stay with Bethe’s group of best physicists at Cornell. He became a professor there. He liked the adventure of solving nature’s puzzles. He searched for a QEM and relativity theory. It took extreme measures to get him to write anything because it did not come easy for him. Electrons spin because they carry intrinsic angular momentum (this spin is quantized – small units only) e.g., electrons that orbit nuclei in atoms possess angular momentum just like planets orbit a sun. The internal angular momentum of electrons has a value of one-half of the smallest unit of orbital angular momentum, so they are called spin ½ particles. Exclusion principle, no 2 electrons or any spin ½ particle (protons and neutrons are also such particles) could coexist in exactly the same quantum state at the same place at the same time. Particles with no spin are bosons. Negative energy has energy less than zero electrons (positive electric charge), an electron has positive energy (negative electric charge), and no electrons has zero energy (zero electric charge). But a proton particle has a positive charge equal and opposite to the charge of the electron; a proton is 2,000 heavier than an electron. Transitions…energy of the electron changes from a positive to a negative…the surplus energy 2mc2 is emitted as radiation. Positron is an anti-electron i.e., antiparticle found in cosmic rays. Feynman searched for a space-time-sum-over-paths QM theory i.e., reinvent physics.
At least 2 photons (radiation particle) are produced when an electron and positron annihilate, as they travel away in equal and opposite directions. A virtual photon can spontaneously transform into an electron-positron pair. Vacuum polarization, a photon momentarily splits up into an electron-positron pair. Special relativity tells us that one person’s now may not be another person’s now – observers in relative motion have different notions. Bethe understood the magnitude and origin of the frequency shift known as the Lamb shift.
Oppenheimer, perhaps the source of the frequency shift might be QED itself, if anyone could actually figure out how to tame the unphysically infinite higher-order corrections in the theory. Bare mass…the sum of this term and the infinite self-energy correction could be made to cancel, leaving a finite residue (measurable). Normalization. Renormalization. Bethe, if there is a god experimental number you’ve got to figure it out from theory. Bethe, if the effects of electrons and holes and relativity seemed to tame infinities somewhat, then perhaps one could do a calculation with the nonrelativistic theory…ignore virtual photons higher than an energy equal to approximately the measured rest mass of the electron.
Schwinger…taming precisely the same infinities that resulted in a finite and calculable Lamb shift also allowed a calculation of…the measured magnetic moment of the electron. An electron acts like it is spinning since it is charged, EM tells us it is also a tiny magnet; the strength of its magnetic field should therefore be related to the magnitude of the electron’s spin. Feynman calculated the Lamb shift, tamed the infinities, great mathematics skills and intuition, reformulated QM with a new way of calculating the theory based on diagrammatic space-time pictures which were founded on a sum-over-paths approach. His space-time approach allowed him to write down mathematics in a manner in accord with relativity, thereby combining relativity and QM = Quantum Field Theory i.e., a theory of infinitely many particles. He did away with the need to think of particles and holes as separate entities. Feynman’s unified treatment of positrons and electrons…depict the space-time processes that arose in his sum-over-paths. Diagram 1 of two electrons while traveling exchange a virtual photo (forward in time). Diagram 2 same as 1 but backwards in time because virtual photons are faster than light. In QM, in the time between measurements, anything is consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is allowed. Relativity says if faster than light, then backwards in time. Diagram 3 one electron traveling between two points undergoes a delay, but Diagram 4 when going faster than light it goes backwards in time again. Diagram 5, one electron on its travel may create an electron-positron pair from empty space, and a virtual positron travels forward in time. These simple diagrams have been critical to the advancement of Q physics. His theory of positrons… Particle number in a relativistic Q theory must be indeterminate. With one particle a particle-antiparticle pair can appear out of the vacuum, making it 3. Diagram 6, self-energy (natural)…an electron interacting with its own magnetic field. Diagram 7, vacuum polarization (unnatural)…splitting of a virtual photon into electron-positron pair. We now have a theory of electrons and photons with which one could calculate finite and accurate predictions for all processes. Feynman’s paper A Space-Time Approach to QED outlined these diagrams.
Feynman lectured an idea “Alternative Formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics”. He emphasized mathematics associated with his space-time sums rather than physics. Unitary, the calculated sum of the probabilities for all possible physical outcomes in any situation must equal unity. He introduced positrons as acting like electrons going backward in time; the different electrons were not really different particles, just the same particles going forward and backward in time. His sum over paths made it explicitly clear that many different trajectories must be considered simultaneously when calculating physical results. He was asking too much of his audience, they could not have been expected to adjust in a single lecture to this totally new and still incomplete way of thinking about fundamental processes. Feynman/Schwinger neither could fully understand what the other was doing, but both knew and trusted the others’ abilities. He had to get his idea to print so he could properly explain what he was doing. His works “The Theory of Positrons” and “Space-Time Approach to QED”. Dyson papers (1) “The Radiation Theories of Tomonaga, Schwinger, and Feynman”. Once the problems of infinities in the simplest self-energy and vacuum polarization were resolved, then there were no other infinities…a proof of…(2) renormalizability of the theory…all infinities, once first controlled by mathematics, can be incorporated in the unmeasurable bare mass and charge terms in the theory. With these two papers QED was tamed and it became a theory, which subsequently were proved with experimentation. So, the first Feynman diagram in print was Dyson’s. Dyson had great appreciation for Feynman’s methods that allowed mortals to perform the complex calculations of Q field theory. Physicists had begun to see through the fog of infinities to understand ED as a workable Q theory. Feynman created a new type of calculus. He had developed an efficient methodology for working around infinities to obtain results that could be compared with experiments. In 1965 Feynman was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work.
Physics = physical world (not spiritual, biological etc.), is but one piece of the puzzle, thought. Intensely curious. Mesons (strongly interacting elementary particles) and the confusion and the confusion they bring to nuclear physics. Rio Carnival, Copacabana beach, samba, drumming, partying, soccer and girls. He was captivating to women as he gave them his full attention. Look for patterns in nature. He shifted to experimental of the very cold. Onnes, discovered superconductivity…he reached less than one degree from absolute zero…transition in mercury which electrical currents appeared to flow without resistance; in such a state the electric current would not stop. Superfluidity, liquid helium when cooled sufficiently – the helium flows with no friction. Condensed matter physics = superconductivity and superfluidity. Feynman’s approach: use QM at a microscopic level to directly derive the general properties of the transition of liquid helium from a normal state to a superfluidity state. In classical EM, electrons orbiting protons lose energy by radiation, so the electrons quickly spiral in to the nucleus. Bohr/Schrodinger wave equation, electrons could exist in stable energy levels with no dissipation in energy. Absolute zero is the temperature where all motion ceases; no heat energy exists for atoms to vibrate or jostle one another. Helium is unique for it does not solidify. Bose-Einstein condensation, for an ideal gas, particles have no interactions with each other. Sum over paths for each particle in Q liquid; two key factors: independent of which boson is where, and motion of any one helium atom in the background…any helium atom…could reach any other point without getting closer to another helium atom…as long as the neighboring helium atoms simply rearranged themselves to make room. Helium atom…when it moved, more than one helium atom would have to also move out of the way to minimize the action…the trajectories that had minimum action would be those in which each particle moved along acting like a free particle…if the particles were acting like free particles, then a Bose-Einstein transition was possible. Feynman demonstrated that strongly interacting particles could behave as if they were free particles. He helped transform the way we understand the Q behavior of materials.
Feynman had explained how the transition that led to superfluid helium could be understood as a Bose-Einstein-like condensation where all the atoms condensed into a single macroscopically visible quantum state. But…can be destroyed quickly by interactions with the environment. Q coherence…but why doesn’t the smallest disturbance destroy this state? What keeps superfluid helium superfluid? Heisenberg uncertainty principle tells us that confining the atom to a smaller space raises its energy. The energy of the system will be lowest when all of the atoms are as far apart as they can be with nearly uniform average density. A low-state density that always exists involves sound waves; sound waves are density waves… QM = all particles as probability waves…energy associated with a wave is determined by its wavelength; wave functions that wiggle a lot over small regions have higher energies than those that don’t. Rotons, energy of excited states. Feynman did not attempt to fully follow previous works in the field, a characteristic that would cause him to miss out on a number of key discoveries; he always wanted to understand the physics of what he was working on. He still yearned to discover a new law of nature.
Neutrino, Italian for little neutron, Fermi described the nuclear process of decay of the neutron into a proton. Feynman dominated particle physics in the immediate postwar era. Gell-Mann was of the next generation, PhD at 21, uncovering symmetries of nature on its smallest scales. A sphere is more symmetric than a tetrahedron; symmetries in physics tell us that objects or systems do not change when we change our perspective. Noether, mathematical implications of symmetries for physics…for each symmetry in nature there must also exist a quantity that is conserved (parity) – does not change with time e.g., the conservation of energy and the conservation of momentum. Strangeness, mesons whose production was very strong but decay was very weak behave this way because some quantity was conserved in the strong interaction. As strangeness is conserved, the new particles are produced in pairs, particles and antiparticles, with equal and opposite values of this new quantum number. Gell-Mann wanted to work with Feynman at Caltech. They worked together at the forefront of physics to twist the tail of the cosmos. Feynman cared about whether he was right or wrong, not who got the credit. Decay of mesons called K-mesons decay into lighter particles called pions. Even arity…odd parity…Two types of kaons are the tau and the theta which have the same mass and lifetime. Feynman postulated that perhaps the two particles may actually be the same, and the weak interactions might not respect parity – that nature may distinguish right from left. He wanted to unify all weak interactions/decays of particles into a single picture. Neutrinos, beta decay, interact solely by weak interaction i.e., are left-handed. Mathematics classified for interactions of a neutron, proton, electron and neutrino are scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector and tensor. Two kinds of mesons are pion and muon. Feynman-Gell-Mann paper (the two greatest physics minds of their time) had Feynman’s two-component neutrino formula that accommodates beta decay and Gell-Mann’s conserved quantities and symmetries associates with weak currents. It was Feynman’s proudest moment, for he knew how nature worked, it was elegance and beauty; it would take him another decade to write it.
Weinberg, Nobel Prize for a full theory of the weak interaction, unifying it with electromagnetism. Reines, Nobel Prize for verifying the existence of neutrinos. Feynman moved to Switzerland, married a twenty-four-year-old woman and had children. Making new connections in the unraveling the mysteries of the physical universe is what science is all about. Hard work. As a professor he did not teach out of a textbook. Many students could not pass his exams. His lectures were recorded then were transcribed into a three-volume set of red books called Feynman Lectures on Physics. These books became a staple for all physics students. This material was demanding and revolutionary. The Character of Physical Law is a book on his six of his lectures that canonized him as playful, brilliant, excited, charismatic, energetic, and no nonsense. Feynman, Tomonaga and Schwinger shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for their fundamental work in QED with deep ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles. He considered refusing the prize, for the real prize was the pleasure of finding things out. Feynman was one of the best-earned Nobel Prizes there ever was.
Strip joints and bongo drums (got to have some fun). Blaze new paths, mostly disregard what others were doing. Physics is a human social activity. Schwarzschild radius, infinite results at a finite radius from the center of distribution. Einstein had seemingly demonstrated that gravity was completely different from all other forces of nature; it resulted from the curvature of space itself. The Feynman Lectures on Gravitation. Feynman Lectures. Gravity might not be so special or self-contained. Gravity as weaker than EM. In EM, forces result from the interaction of charged particles and electromagnetic fields, the quanta of which are called photons. Could someone instead derived Einstein’s equations just by thinking about the classical limit of Q particles interacting with Q fields? If one considers the exchange of a massless particle (just as a photon is a massless particle that conveys the electromagnetic force), then if the massless particle has quantized spin 2 instead of spin 1 as a photon does, the only self-consistent theory that results will, in the classical limit, be Einstein’s general relativity. An electric charge is the source of the electromagnetic field. Einstein, mass is the source of gravity…if mass is moved in just the right way, a new type of wave will be emitted – a gravitational wave, which is literally a wave in which space compresses and expands along the wave, and will travel out at the speed of light, just as photons do. Taylor, Nobel Prize for demonstrating that a pair of orbiting neutron stars was losing energy at the exact rate predicted by general relativity. Gravity is weak. Quadruple radiation. Graviton is the quantum of gravitational waves. Feynman did not find that a consistent Q theory of gravity interacting with matter, without infinities, could be derived by simply treating general relativity as he had electrodynamics. Black holes and Hawking radiation. String theory and beyond. We are in 4D not 3D. Branes are high dimensional objects, are the key objects in string theory. More than one way to get rid of infinities. Path Integrals in Quantum Gravity and Quantum Cosmology; gravitational effects as being primarily due to the exchange of single gravitons moving in a fixed background space (where space is strongly curved, is where gravitational fields are strong). The path-integral approach has already been applied, most strongly by Hawking (whom is overly hyped if you ask me) to develop a Q mechanics of the entire universe…baby universes…wormholes. The field is in its infancy especially without a well-defined understanding of quantum gravity. Cosmology, Flatness and Gravitational Waves. Total energy of a system of particles might be precisely zero. It costs nothing to create a new particle. The total energy of the universe might be precisely zero. It began from nothing. Inflation is the current best model for the evolution of the universe. A universe with zero total gravitational energy is spatially flat…light travels in straight lines…positive kinetic energy of the expansion of the universe was roughly balanced by the negative gravitational potential energy. QM tells us the smaller the scale, the higher the energy the virtual particles can briefly exist can have.
Zel’dovich, all energy gravitates, even the energy of empty space. The most astounding discovery of the last fifty years: empty space does contain energy – the energy of empty space is currently dominating the expansion of the universe. Why? This is probably the biggest mystery in physics if not in all of science. Gravity is forty orders of magnitude weaker than electromagnetism! Although Feynman failed to resolve the answers to many of nature’s fundamental mysteries, he shed light on the very questions.
Onnes discovered a field like low temperature that seems to be bottomless. Nanotechnology has a bright future. The Physics of Star Trek…transporting… Writing All of the Books on Earth on a Dust Spec. Memory stick. Biology on the Atomic Scale. Observing and Manipulating Single Atoms. Electrons are heavy; light is massless. Scanning-tunneling microscopes and atomic force microscopes are allowing images of single atoms. Quantum Engineering. Condensed matter physics devote much effort to understanding the electronic and mechanical properties of materials based on the laws of QM. Feynman helped create what could be called the first parallel-processing human computer. Ne might need to change the algorithms for a computer to simulate a quantum mechanical system rather than a classical one; to appropriately follow its time evolution, calculate the probability amplitudes (not the probabilities) of many different alternative paths at the same time. Would it be possible to invent a computer that was quantum mechanical in nature? Shor, an applied mathematician at Bell Labs, demonstrated a quantum mechanical computer could efficiently solve mathematical problems impossible for classical computers to solve in an appropriate amount of time i.e., an algorithm could be developed for a quantum computer to explore the space of prime factors of any number and derive the correct decomposition. In order for the computer to behave quantum mechanically, the quibits must be carefully isolated from all outside interactions. Quantum coherence is the preservation of the quantum mechanical configuration of the separate components of a system; this QC is destroyed in less than a second.
Gell-Mann paper…eightfold way as a fundamental classification for all strongly interacting particles if the fundamental constituents were three different fractionally charged objects called quarks. Elementary particles might be made up of combinations of other elementary particles – up, down, and strange quarks. Aces are fractionally charged objects. Particle accelerator accelerates electrons on a two-mile track and smashes them into nuclei. Hadrons are strongly interacting particles. Partons as constituents.
Phenomenological – is just a way to make sense of the data, to probe for regularities to get clues of the underlying physics. Inclusive processes. Scaling properties are regularities of sorts. Electron-proton collisions as easier to analyze. Deep Inelastic Scattering was where the action was. Were partons real? Were partons quarks? Three of the four known forces in nature were understood. Feynman’s work helped make this revolution possible; his work contributed to a new understanding of the very nature of scientific truth. This in turn implied that his own work on QED was not a kluge but provided a fundamental new physical understanding of why sensible theories of nature on scales we can measure produce finite results. Yang and Mills, different types of photons could be exchanged between many types of charges and some of the photons could themselves be charged which means they would interact with themselves and other photons. The strong force didn’t seem to distinguish between protons and neutrons. Faddeen-Popov ghost photons – to get consistent Feynman rules for the Q theory, one had to add a fictional particle to internal loops to make the probabilities work out correctly. Feynman also discover a new general theorem about Feynman diagrams in Q field theories, relating diagrams with internal virtual particle loops to those without such loops. A new internal Q number called color. QCD quantum chromodynamics – quarks might combine together to form hadrons. Gross, Wilczek and Politzer’s Asymptotic freedom – the color charge of quarks would not get larger at short distances but smaller, Nobel Prize. QCD gets so strong at large distances that the force between quarks remains constant with distance, and therefore it would take, in principle, an infinite amount of energy to pull two quarks fully apart. Path integrals, asymptotic freedom, and the renormalizability of the strong and weak interactions have pointed physicists in a new direction. Feynman’s path-integral methodology allowed physicists to systematically examine how the predictions of the theory change as one changes the distance scale at which one chooses to alter the theory to remove the effects of higher energy virtual particles in order to renormalize the theory. “I’m just looking to find out more about the universe, nature.” All the known forces might become unified in a single theory, grand unification. The easiest person to fool is yourself. Excitement and hubris that naturally follow the rare privilege of uncovering even a small slice of nature’s hidden mysteries need to be tempered. More surprises are in store for us; for the fearless and brilliant adventurer that Feynman was, this was the reason for living.
Richard Feynman, Physicist
Feynman’s path-integral methodology allowed physicists to systematically examine how the predictions of the theory change as one changes the distance scale at which one chooses to alter the theory to remove the effects of higher energy virtual particles in order to renormalize the theory. “I’m just looking to find out more about the universe, nature.” All the known forces might become unified in a single theory, grand unification. The easiest person to fool is yourself. Excitement and hubris that naturally follow the rare privilege of uncovering even a small slice of nature’s hidden mysteries need to be tempered. More surprises are in store for us; for the fearless and brilliant adventurer that Feynman was, this was the reason for living.
Werner Heisenberg, Father of Quantum Physics
Feynman was a Quantum Physicist
Royel Madison is a Contributing Writer and a Lightworker here for the human experience and for The Great Transformation On Earth. What an honor it is to be here at this very special time. Thank you and God Bless you.