Getting some of the first and best is that most famous of “early adopters,” the military. OXIS, PolyPlus and Sion are working on bleeding-edge projects. For example, PolyPlus has already demonstrated disposable Li-Air batteries with 800 Wh/kg and all are in process of delivering Li-S.
• An anode of lithium metal, protected by a lithium sulfide passivation layer;
• A sulfur-based cathode – the sulfur combines with the lithium as the electrochemical reaction, but as sulfur has a low conductivity, carbon is also added. Polymer is then used to bind the cathode together;
• Separator and Electrolyte. The choice of electrolyte is critical for ensuring the safety of the cell. For a safe cell, it is important to formulate an electrolyte which has high flash point and thus a low flammability.