Wednesday, January 22, 2014
Ancient Egyptian Machine Tooling
This item addresses the rich trove on machined stone that is present in Egypt partially associated with major works using less skillful methods. A cultural claim is made that this work arose as part of a pre dynastic culture that used clearly superior tools. Their application may well have been rather brief though. The development of the required tools is evolutionary and we have certainly created their equivalent and can thus recognize the tool marks.
I am hesitant to speculate on eras here because this expertise was plausibly imported to complete a task. The rich Atlantean world comes to mind. They had at least two thousand years to get it right before it showed up in Egypt.
As well all this tool work can be done using bronze and Emory dust, which was well within their limits. Again do not underestimate their talent. More telling is the appearance of a circular saw. That means a source of rotary energy. Hand work could do this also with a simple crank.
The Hidden History Of Egypt: Khemitology
Egypt is currently in the news, and not for the most pleasant of reasons. Political disturbances are being felt in isolated pockets of the country, yet are clearly overblown by western media, and some foreign governments. But this land, and especially the fertile areas that border the Nile River has been a vital part of human history for thousands of years. From the rise of Islam in the 7 century AD, and back through the Coptic Christians, Jews, Romans, Greeks, Persians and finally the so called dynastic Egyptians, each successive dominant culture has left their mark.
The clearest evidence of this is in the stone constructions they left behind. And it is through the study of these works that we can see the level of technology each culture had, through what tools they used. Limestone is and has been in great abundance in the country, especially near Cairo, due to the laying down of sedimentary deposits millions of years ago. In fact, the famous Giza plateau is more or less a massive outcrop of limestone.
Both the Romans and Greeks had the use of steel, and thus could shape limestone with ease, as well as marble. However, the archaeological record shows us that the dynastic Egyptians worked with mainly bronze tools, such as chisels, as well as stone hammers. These would have been fine for the shaping of limestone, as in the columns and flat surfaces which make up many of the palaces and temples that we think of as dynastic achievements.
Limestone averages 3 to 4 on the Mohs scale, which is an indication of the ability of harder minerals and materials to scratch softer ones. And bronze has a similar hardness, depending on what has been added to the copper base. The first bronze in any appreciable quantities was in use in Egypt starting in the 4 dynasty (2613 to 2494 B.C.) and this coincided, as most Egyptologists would have it, with the building of the three pyramids at Giza.
The stone often used for hammers and other tools was usually diorite, which has a hardness of 7, on average, on the Mohs scale. It was mainly in the form of ball shaped pounders which were used to strike the limestone as a way of removing material. And, flat stones could be employed, along with silica sand slurry to act as an early sanding process.
It is commonly believed that iron, let alone steel did not appear in appreciable quantities until at least the 8 century BC in Egypt, brought in by traders from lands farther to the east. So how was the harder stone shaped?
In order to shape stone, or wood, or practically any solid material, there is one simple principle; the tool material has to be as hard or harder than the material being worked. Also, a power tool, that which is energized by electricity, water or some other force tends to remove material faster and more efficiently than a tool operated solely by hand. As well, powered instruments tend to be more accurate in their execution than those which are solely human operated and energized.
This then leads to a true conundrum when we look, for example, at some of the shaped surfaces on the Giza plateau, because here, and many engineers can attest to this, we find evidence of the use of machine powered saws in deep antiquity. In order to get into any real depth about this, I will refer to the research of two great contemporary men, Stephen Mehler and Christopher Dunn, both of whom I traveled with in Egypt in April 2013.
Stephen Mehler is an oral tradition specialist and author of ancient Egyptian knowledge; much of his tutelage came from his relationship with Abd’El Hakim Awyan. The latter was an Egyptian tour guide and indigenous wisdom keeper. Christopher Dunn is a master machinist, born and raised in England who moved to the United States and worked in high technology establishments which make, for example, specialized parts for jet engines.
Conventional Egyptology has a tendency to either ignore, or insufficiently try to explain the machined saw marks I witnessed, as well as obvious examples of high speed core drills having been at work at such sites as Abu Sir, Abu Ghurob, and the Giza plateau. The important point is that the saw marks and drill holes that I and others have seen, in profusion in these and other areas were not so much in soft limestone, but in far harder rock like basalt, granite and diorite.
All three of the above mentioned types of rock are at least 6 to 7 on the Moh’s scale of hardness, and thus could not have been shaped using the copper or bronze chisels of the dynastic Egyptians, though many Egyptologists insist this is the case. As well, in many instances we can see the grooves that the saw blades and core drills left behind as they penetrated the stone. These marks tend to be very even in nature, with each succeeding one representing one revolution of the saw or drill bit; something which is very difficult to do if done with hand tools, due to muscle strain over time.
According to some engineers that I have interviewed, the 2 to 3 mm distance between each successive rotation of the tools mentioned above matches, if not exceeds modern day diamond tipped equipment. So if the dynastic Egyptians, as well as the succeeding cultures did not have access to what we in the 21 century would call “high tech” tools, who did?
To explain this, we use the knowledge of Christopher Dunn to explain the “how and why,” and Stephen Mehler for the “who and when.” Dunn has published two very revolutionary books; , and .
In the he explores his theory that the Great Pyramid, and perhaps others were harmonic resonance devices, used to actually generate and distribute vibratory power. And in he shows that ancient artisans left their marks all over that land, unique marks that reveal craftsmanship we would be hard pressed to duplicate today. Drawing together the results of more than 30 years of research and at least 9 field study journeys to Egypt, he presents a stunning stone by stone analysis of key Egyptian monuments, including the statue of Ramses II at Luxor and the fallen crowns that lay at its feet. His modern-day engineering expertise provides a unique view into the sophisticated technology used to create these famous monuments in prehistoric times.
Stephen Mehler has also written two books pertaining to ancient Egypt. The first, basically rewrites the history of the area thanks in large part to his decades long relationship with indigenous wisdom keeper Abd’El Hakim Awyan. In it, he explores the existence of a pre-pharaohnic civilization, called the Khemetians who were responsible for the creation of the Sphinx, pyramids of the Giza Plateau, as well as other monuments to the north and south. The name given to this area was Bu Wizzer, translated as meaning the Land Of Osiris.
In his second book, he explores the idea that the three great western religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam all evolved out of Egypt.
The work of both of these authors flies in the face of entrenched Egyptology dogma which insists that no defined culture preceded the dynastic Egyptians. However, by combining the works of Dunn and Mehler, a logical picture of ancient history arises which explains the hard stone artifacts found in the area displaying machine cutting marks.
To those that have not visited Egypt, you probably would be quite shocked at the amount of damage to the monuments which has occurred over the course of thousands of years. Casing stones of pyramids and other monumental refined works have been strewn about, shattered and harvested as building materials by later cultures. It is the remains of the hard stone artifacts which are of particular importance, as in basalt, granite and diorite because, again, these are stones which the dynastic Egyptians could not have shaped with the tools found in the archaeological record.
Outside the Great Pyramid, within the first half hour of our being there in April 2013, Christopher Dunn and Stephen Mehler both pointed out clear examples of black basalt that had been cut with a circular saw of some kind. And the best evidence, as far as I am concerned is at a site called Abu Sir, to the south of Giza. Here we saw many examples of core drilling in red Aswan granite, as well as saw cut marks in black granite and basalt.
And the most stupefying of all locations was the Serapeum, which is a subterranean passageway containing more than 20 large niches, and inside of each is an enormous granite box, with lid. The boxes are made of one piece of hollowed out granite, and the lid was originally part of that same stone. The surfaces are flat within a few ten thousandths of an inch of laser perfection, yet the inscriptions, commonly called hieroglyphs were of much inferior quality. What this suggests is that the inscriptions were made later, and by people of a lower technological prowess.
It seems apparent that the conventional historical accounts and interpretations of Egypt are woefully lacking. We have all been taught, and some would say indoctrinated from childhood that prior to the dynastic Egyptians, who arrived in the area at about 3100 BC that relatively primitive people inhabited the area. We have also been told that the dynastic people erected all of the pyramids, carved the Sphinx, and cut, shaped and transported multi-ton blocks from the Aswan quarry, some 500 miles from Giza.
Yet the presence of traces of advanced machining, such as core drill holes, high speed circular saw marks, and mortar free joinery of megalithic stones tells us that someone was present before the Pharaohs. These people, according to Stephen Mehler and others, especially those of the Khemit School of Ancient Mysticism, were called the Khemitians; a civilization of advanced capabilities whose existence is largely ignored, dismissed, or ridiculed by most academics.
However, evidence of their presence can still be seen at many sites, especially those on and near the Giza Plateau, and a tour of these locations will happen between March 30 and April 12, 2014, hosted by Yousef Awyan (son of the wisdom keeper Abd’El Hakim Awyan), his wife Patricia, Stephen Mehler, Gary Evans, Mohamed Ibrahim, and the author. View details .