Thursday, June 23, 2011
Fastest Sea Rise in Two Millennia
This is interesting work. However, I note that they make no note of a decline in sea level during the little ice age. Thus we must presume no such decline actually took place which I think is actually correct.
The four hundred year medieval warm period from 1000 AD to 1400AD generated a 200 mm rise in the sea level, if this calculation is correct. It is also claimed that the past century added another 200 mm of sea level rise.
The total area of the ocean is approximately 3.6 X 108 sq km and this means we are talking of 7.2 X 107 cu kms or 72,000,000 cubic kilometers of ice has been melted to supply this water each time. This volume is equivalent to the present volume of the
ice field. That field is thought to be
around half its size in recent times, so we may well be looking at part of the
It is not too hard to imagine additional reductions in Greenland and even
although that looks more like a counter argument.
What we have learned though is that the Holocene is not making ice faster than it is losing it even when we have serious cold spells.
We have now entered another warm spell that I have good reason to think will last until 2700 AD with the best period running from 1900 AD through 2300 AD.
I suppose the good news is that will give us enough time to fully complete the terraforming of Earth itself and this will then cushion us from cold spells because of the restoration of the Sahara to Bronze Age conditions.
Fastest Sea-Level Rise in Two Millennia Linked to Increasing Global Temperatures
by Staff Writers
Rising seas lap at the house in "Nights in Rodanthe," filmed during the field work. Credit: Andrew Kemp,
The rate of sea level rise along the
Atlantic coast is greater now
than at any time in the past 2,000 years--and has shown a consistent link
between changes in global mean surface temperature and sea level. U.S.
The findings are published this week in the journal Proceedings of the
of Sciences (PNAS). National Academy
The research, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), was conducted by Andrew Kemp, Yale University; Benjamin Horton, University of Pennsylvania; Jeffrey Donnelly, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Michael Mann, Pennsylvania State University; Martin Vermeer, Aalto University School of Engineering, Finland; and Stefan Rahmstorf, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
"Having a detailed picture of rates of sea level change over the past two millennia provides an important context for understanding current and potential future changes," says Paul Cutler, program director in NSF's Division of Earth Sciences.
"It's especially valuable for anticipating the evolution of coastal systems," he says, "in which more than half the world's population now lives."
Adds Kemp, "Scenarios of future rise are dependent on understanding the response of sea level to climate changes. Accurate estimates of past sea-level variability provide a context for such projections."
Kemp and colleagues developed the first continuous sea-level reconstruction for the past 2,000 years, and compared variations in global temperature to changes in sea level over that time period.
The team found that sea level was relatively stable from 200 BC to 1,000 AD.
Then in the 11th century, sea level rose by about half a millimeter each year for 400 years, linked with a warm climate period known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly.
Then there was a second period of stable sea level during a cooler period called the Little Ice Age. It persisted until the late 19th century.
Since the late 19th century, sea level has risen by more than 2 millimeters per year on average, the steepest rate for more than 2,100 years.
"Sea-level rise is a potentially disastrous outcome of climate change," says Horton, "as rising temperatures melt land-based ice, and warm ocean waters."
To reconstruct sea level, the scientists used microfossils called foraminifera preserved in sediment cores extracted from coastal salt marshes in
The age of the cores was estimated using radiocarbon dating and other
techniques. North Carolina
To test the validity of their approach, the team compared its reconstructions with tide-gauge measurements from
for the past 80 years, and
global tide-gauge records for the past 300 years. North Carolina
A second reconstruction from
confirmed their findings. Massachusetts
The records were corrected for contributions to sea-level rise made by vertical land movements.
The reconstructed changes in sea level over the past millennium are consistent with past global temperatures, the researchers say, and can be determined using a model relating the rate of sea level rise to global temperature.
"Data from the past helped calibrate our model, and will improve sea level rise projections under scenarios of future temperature increases," says Rahmstorf.