We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Monday, December 6, 2010
Gene Duplication and Depression
This is unexpected again,
although hindsight tells us that the pattern is certainly prospective of
This does not apply to
depression caused by physical exhaustion which is the common form and that
includes emotional exhaustion which surely disturbs the metabolism in the same
way as physical exhaustion.
I suspect the genetic
triggered depression also has a similar metabolic pathway.
In the event, real
depression is a dangerous malady and a sufferer often needs medical
treatment,I suspect all forms of
depression can generate the maximum symptoms and those are surprising the first
time encountered.I had one such
encounter in my life when young and that was scary enough to ensure tight
personal control over any driving circumstances.When a person realizes that your own mind and
biochemistry can play you it is not too hard to impose discipline that prevents
Unfortunately many look to
chemical solutions.Getting annoyed is a
better solution as well as simply engaging in social activity to distract the
mind.Yet it is hard to query your own
responses to stimuli objectively and more so to learn how to do so.
Just as you must ask why
you are suddenly angry, when in another circumstance no such thing would have
occurred, you must ask why you are unhappy.The reality is that we are hugely affected by blood sugar balances in
particular and that is controlled by sleep and cumulative wok and cumulative
It would be wonderfully
beneficial if we could devise a monitoring device on our cell phone that
tracked our biochemistry and informed us when we increasingly vulnerable and to
take evasive action.It may well be
possible and it may be readily applied to others on demand.I think this is one toy our civilization
actually could use.
--Finding by CHOP Researchers Points to Disruptions in Brain Signaling
Newswise — A large
genetic study of people with major depression has found that a duplicated
region of DNA on chromosome 5 predisposes people to the disorder. The gene
involved plays an important role in the development of nerve cells, adding to
evidence that disruptions in neurotransmission networks form a biological basis
“The copy number
variations we discovered were exclusive to people with depression, and were
located in a gene region important in signaling among brain cells,” said study
leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Center for Applied
Genomics at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. “This finding extends work
by other researchers suggesting that disruptions in neurotransmitter networks
in the brain are an underlying cause of major depressive disorders.”
The study appears
online today in Public Library of Science One (PLoS One).
The current research is
the first large-scale genome-wide study of copy number variation (CNV) in major
depressive disorder (MDD), a major psychiatric and behavioral disorder
affecting an estimated 16 percent of the U.S. population. CNVs are deletions
or duplications of segments of DNA. While a specific CNV is relatively rare in
a population, it often exerts a strong effect on an individual who harbors the
CNV in their genes.
conducted a whole-genome scan of DNA from 1,693 patients with MDD, mainly from
a European database, and from 4,506 control subjects.
identified 12 CNVs exclusive to MDD cases. Their most notable finding was a
large duplication of DNA segments on chromosome 5q35.1, a CNV shared by five
unrelated patients and not observed in healthy controls. Residing at that
location is the gene SLIT3, which is involved in axon development. The axon is
the portion of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
Hakonarson added that
he plans follow-up studies with more refined sequencing technology, in which he
expects to identify many more CNVs and possibly other types of mutations in the
SLIT3 gene, as well as in other functionally related genes that may predispose
to depression. Further studies may also reveal how strongly CNVs at SLIT3 and
other related genes contribute to the risk of depression.
for our discoveries are still in the future, but it may be possible at some
point to incorporate these findings into personalized medicine,” Hakonarson
said. “Identifying causative genes may suggest future targets for drug
development, and may also help us predict a person’s future risk of developing
depression,” he added.
Hakonarson’s group used
genotype data from the Genetic Association Information Network and from the
database of Genotype and Phenotype (dbGaP) of the National Institutes of Health.
Funding for the study came from an Institutional Development Award from The
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and from a Research Development Award from
the Cotswold Foundation.
“Duplication of the SLIT3 Locus on 5q35.1 Predisposes to Major Depressive
Disorder,” PLoS One,
published online Dec. 1, 2010.
About The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia:
The Children's Hospital
of Philadelphia was
founded in 1855 as the nation's first pediatric hospital. Through its
long-standing commitment to providing exceptional patient care, training new
generations of pediatric healthcare professionals and pioneering major research
initiatives, Children’s Hospital has fostered many discoveries that have
benefited children worldwide. Its pediatric research program is among the
largest in the country, ranking third in National Institutes of Health funding.
In addition, its unique family-centered care and public service programs have
brought the 460-bed hospital recognition as a leading advocate for children and
adolescents. For more information, visit http://www.chop.edu