Wednesday, January 16, 2019

The Monster In Our Woods

What we have here is the tell of a Giant Sloth.  Then we finally see the creature and while it has the upright stature provides something much more intimidating and even other worldly.

Yet recall this is the one creature able to make you see what it wants you to see. There is plenty of indication that this creature creates lures as well.  In this case it wants to drive the witness out of its caching area.  After all this is a maggot farm.

I now think that there is one giant sloth that is responsible for much of our supranational woodland reports.  The tell is the smell of rotting meat and animal scraps lying around.

The Monster In Our Woods

Saturday, January 05, 2019

I recently found the following account. I'm not sure of the location, but I do believe it was from the U.S. Upper Midwest:

It all started out a few months ago when we moved into our new home. I grew up in a rural community, but there were plenty of neighbors, and mostly fields around — no woods. Given that I am the youngest child, my parent waited until I was done with high school to move, as to not affect my already established life.

Although we had always lived in a small, rural community, my parents were ready for something a little more secluded — something with a lot of acreage, woods, and a place to shoot.

They put my childhood home up on the market, and soon found their dream home, which is where I am currently, and desperately writing this story. The house and the property are beautiful. It’s a large, turn-of-the-century house facing 15 acres of land, the majority of which, are woods, and a nice half-acre pond. The best part, or so I thought, is that there are no neighbors within a mile of us.

At first I really enjoyed it. Being out in the woods was very much a cathartic experience for me. It helped shed the stresses of school and studying. Being among the tall trees and the surrounding nature made all of my problems seem totally insignificant, so I made a habit of going on regular walks through the woods.

As the weeks went on, I started noticing strange things as I went on my walks. I would find partially-eaten deer scattered along the leaf-littered ground, accompanied by a putrid, rotting smell, which I attributed to the carcass in front of me. At first, I thought nothing of it. “It was probably coyotes”, I would tell myself. Other than that, I thought nothing of it, but starting carrying a gun with me on my walks in case I encountered the animal that was responsible for the carnage I saw in front of me.

As the days went on, I started noticing more and more mutilated deer scattered across the floor of the woods, still accompanied by the rotting smell, which I again attributed to the animals.

If the increasing number of mutilations weren’t enough, I started to notice a change in the sounds coming out of the woods. What was once a cacophony of sounds was now mostly dead silence, minus the low, guttural growl that seemed to be becoming more prevalent, more pronounced, and more insidious each day.

By this point, I had stopped going on my little walks. Gun or no gun, I didn’t want to risk the chances of facing whatever was causing these events. That being said, my curiosity eventually got the best of me one night as I heard its growls. I decided that I was going to go get a trail cam, and set it up out in the woods the following day, in hopes of finally seeing what was out there.

The next evening, after work, I gathered up what little courage I had left, and, camera in hand, went walking out into the very woods I had promised myself I would stay out of.

I never did get to set up the trail cam. I lost it somewhere in the woods while I was in a panic, running for my life.

I made it about 100 yards past the tree-lines into the woods, where I decided to stop and set up the camera. I thought it was a good place to set it up, and, quite frankly, I was too scared to go any further. After all, I wanted to spend as little time out there as possible given the ongoing events, and the fact that it would be dark soon didn’t help.

Already on edge, every creak of the wood, and every crunch in the leaves sent me into a panic. Rushing to set the camera up, I drop it, sending it to the leaf-ridden ground with a thud.

Murmuring under my breath, cursing myself for being out there, I bent down to pick the camera up, when I started to smell that putrid smell of rotting flesh again. I carefully looked around, checking my surroundings to see if anything was out there. I could feel something watching me, but I couldn’t see anything.

Just as I was finishing picking my supplies off of the ground, I heard that low, guttural growl again, as well as the snap of a branch to my right. I quickly turn, seeing a human-like creature standing there, staring at me. I was completely frozen with fear. It had human features: standing on two legs, and it had feet and hands. The two things that threw me off, however, was the fact that it’s skin was charred black, as if it had been burnt in a fire, and, most disturbingly, it had no upper or lower lips. Although mostly bald, a few thin, straggling hairs stuck every which way out of its scalp.

It’s sharp teeth were hanging out like hypodermic needles. With the absence of lips, it’s raw, red gums hung out in the open. Thick strings of what appeared to be saliva dripped off of its chin in a persistent stream.

For one single, brief moment, the world around me seemed to stop. I quickly went through options on what to do. There were really only two viable options: either stay exactly how I was, and get attacked, and most likely killed by this thing, or I could get the f*ck out of there. I chose the latter.

I quickly scrambled to me feet, and ran as fast as a could, throwing my camera, in vain, at the creature behind me. In the chaos of what had just occurred, I found myself to be momentarily lost after running in what I thought was the right direction for what felt like 20 minutes, but I’m sure was only 30 seconds. Looking around and not seeing the spawn of hell that I had just encountered, I stopped to collect myself, and try to find the way back to the house.

I finally decided on the general direction in which I should head, when I heard a commotion that almost sounded like a horse pounding its hooves on the dirt. I look behind me and saw that thing, whatever it was, running at me on all fours, mucous-like spit flying out of the corners of its mouth, like a rabid dog.

I ran as quickly as I possibly could without daring to look behind me. Although I would not look at it, I could hear it galloping behind me, and smell it’s rotted flesh.

Tears ran down my eyes, as I thought that there was no way possible to make it out of the woods alive, when I finally saw the lights of my house out of the clearing. Using what little adrenalin I had left to sprint the 200 yards or so to my back porch, I quickly opened the door and slammed it shut, not daring to look out the window.

It’s been about a month now since that happened. I haven’t told anyone, and I will not dare to go back out in those woods. I’ve been doing a lot of research to see if I could find any clues as to what that thing might have been. I’ve exhausted myself, but I think I may have come to a conclusion. The closest thing I could find was possibly a skinwalker. I know my sighting doesn’t entirely match up with the stories I’ve heard, but it’s the closest thing I’ve found. ST

NOTE: may possibly be a Wendigo or Fleshgait. Lon

Was Prayer to the Ancient Solar Gods enough to Change the Renowned Irish Weather?

Solar gods were worshiped in prehistoric Ireland.
Ireland’s history is rich in dramatic myth and mysterious legends. The significance of the natural world, and most importantly the sun, was obvious in the daily lives of the pre-Christian Irish. 

Solar gods are found around the world, but, was the solar symbolism strong in the damper, colder climates because it was (and remains) so physically welcoming?  Did the ancients of Ireland worship the sun gods to try and improve the well-known foggy Irish weather in the hope for more time in the blessed sun? 

As Above, So Below 

The brilliance and warmth of the sun was replicated on earth with fires – sometimes loud, roaring fires that could be seen from afar. These bonfires were likely not just a way to keep warm or illuminate the night sky, but also served as a conduit between those on the ground and the gods of the sun – and weather – in the sky, who, by their physical manifestations on earth such as thunder, lightning, fog, rain, now, clouds, and even eclipses, seemed very much in charge! 

Irish sun gods, as in other mythologies, are usually portrayed as strong and successful during the summer but will lose out to forces of winter when their radiance and power is on the downswing. They are often depicted with shining, golden hair, and fly across the sky in horse-drawn chariots, shooting arrows of light at their quarry. They are friends or helpers to mankind, and champions against darkness and demons of the night. 

The Mysterious Origins and the Birth of Celtic Solar Gods 

Modern archaeologists and historians continue to piece together the prehistoric puzzle of ancient sites, ancient gods, and solar worship of the Celtic world. How did worship of the solar gods come to be in a land with a reputation of seeing so little? A complication in the quest for answers, says writer and researcher of prehistoric sites of Ireland, David Halpin, is that the solar gods and goddesses we are familiar with today came after many of the solar-aligned sites were already constructed. Halpin says that, unfortunately, after Ireland’s ancient monuments were constructed, something happened, and the original builders seemed to have disappeared. When people arrived years later, they likely associated their own gods with these places. That leaves many questions unanswered about the genesis of the solar gods – and the creation of the incredible monuments found across the landscape. 

That being said, Halpin notes there are many sites in Ireland which begin with the word Bal/Baal/Bel (such as the Baltray standing stones, or Beltany Tops stone circle) which have sunrise and sunset alignments, and names to suggest they were sites originally dedicated to a sun god. 

Beltany stone circle in Ireland. (Public Domain)

Beltany stone circle in Ireland. ( Public Domain )
Belenus/Bel is a sun god often associated with the Baal of the Fertile Crescent (the region in the Middle East which curves from the Persian Gulf, through modern-day southern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and northern Egypt) and Anatolia. In Margaret Anne Cusack’s examination of sun worship in An Illustrated History of Ireland , she too connects the name Bel, still present today in the Celtic Beltane, to a Phoenician origin. 

Greencastle Sunrise, County Donegal, Ireland. (Andrew Hurley/CC BY-SA 2.0)

Greencastle Sunrise, County Donegal, Ireland. (Andrew Hurley/ CC BY-SA 2.0 )
With the coming of St. Patrick, a missionary credited with converting Ireland to Christianity in the AD 400s, old gods, solar gods and sun worship was denounced, and quashed.

St. Patrick is recorded to have said of the sun, “All who adore him shall unhappily fall into eternal punishment. Woe to its unhappy worshippers, for punishment awaits them. But we believe in and adore the true Sun, Christ!” 

It was not a complete transition, as belief in the old gods and elements of solar and nature worship in Ireland can still be seen to this day. 

Gods and Goddesses 

In Irish, the sun is given a feminine name, Grian, even as there are both male and female deities connected with the sun in today’s Celtic mythology. Perhaps originally there were only solar goddesses, and the male gods were later attributed as sun gods by their identification with the Roman Apollo, god of sun, light, and knowledge. 

Grian is the winter sun, and her sister or dual nature is Áine, the summer sun. Áine is the goddess of wealth, with power over crops and animals, and she is sometimes represented by a red horse. 

Followers, even as recently as 1879, would hold rites in honor of Áine involving fire and blessings at the the hill of Knockainey ( Cnoc Áine ), County Limerick. 

Brighid appears as a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann , a supernatural race containing the main gods of pre-Christian Ireland. 

The Tuatha Dé Danann as depicted in John Duncan's "Riders of the Sidhe" (1911). (Public Domain)

The Tuatha Dé Danann as depicted in John Duncan's "Riders of the Sidhe" (1911). ( Public Domain )
She is a ‘triple goddess’ associated with an early spring equinox, light, and fire. It is believed she may be a continuation of an Indo-European dawn goddess. As many of the stone circles across the country have an alignment at this time of the year, it suggests the sites may have a female association. Good weather, and an early spring, would serve the people well, so Brighid’s festival day, Imbolc is traditionally a time for foretelling or forecasting the weather. 

Brighid is celebrated with fire at a festival. (Mike Wright/CC BY-ND-2.0) 
Brighid is celebrated with fire at a festival. (Mike Wright/ CC BY-ND-2.0 )
Other female Celtic gods bear solar traits, such as the British Sulis, who was worshipped as a life-giving mother at the thermal spring of Bath. For being a sun-god, her followers seemed to have dealt in the dark, as about 130 curse tablets wishing misery upon foes, and addressed to the powerful lady, were found at the sacred spring. Offerings like money or clothing were left to Sulis at the baths, and her popularity as an agent of change for worshippers continues among Wicca and Pagan communities. 

Gilt bronze head from the cult statue of Sulis Minerva from the Temple at Bath. (Hchc2009/CC BY-SA 4.0)

Gilt bronze head from the cult statue of Sulis Minerva from the Temple at Bath. (Hchc2009/ CC BY-SA 4.0 )
A skilled and youthful warrior, Lugh (Lug) is also king and savior. He is sometimes believed to be a lightning/thunder god, or sun god, and so powerful by nature that mountains are named after him. A member of the Tuatha Dé Danann , he is linked to many famous legendary figures, including his son, the ultimate Irish warrior hero Cú Chulainn. His solar-god status seems to be a Victorian-era connection, as his name derives from the Proto-Indo-European words “flashing light”. Lugh was worshiped throughout the Celtic world and was popular among all classes of people from farmers to kings.  

Belenus, the ‘Fair Shining One’, or ‘Shining God’, was a widely-worshipped ancient solar deity. 

Associated with the horse and the wheel, he rides across the sky in a wild, horse-drawn chariot. 

Solar Doorways and Fires for the Gods 

Older than the Egyptian pyramids of Giza, older than Stonehenge, Ireland’s Newgrange ( Sí an Bhrú ) has prehistoric roots and a fascinating mythology. The massive monument in County Meath, and seated near the River Boyne, dates to 3200 BC. It is identified as a passage tomb; an earthen mound with a long passageway and chambers, with a stone circle ringing it. 

Newgrange at a distance. County Meath, Ireland. (Jimmy Harris/CC BY 2.0)

Newgrange at a distance. County Meath, Ireland. (Jimmy Harris/ CC BY 2.0 )

Journalist and astronomer Anthony Murphy told Ancient Origins that Newgrange contained both cremated and uncremated remains, and today’s archaeologists, while not prepared to change the description of the site from ‘passage tomb,’ acknowledge the monument likely had many different purposes. Rather than simply being a tomb, it is felt that solar worship could have taken place there, and there’s easy proof to that. 

When the sun rises on the shortest day each year, winter solstice, the illuminating beams shine directly down the long passage, and fill the inner chamber with light, brilliantly revealing the swirling carvings on the walls of the chamber – most notably a triple spiral. The sunlight pours in through a clever roofbox, a purpose-made opening above the main entrance. Newgrange is one of the very few passage tombs to feature this special roofbox. 

Entrance and roofbox at Newgrange. (Clemensfranz/CC BY 2.5)

Entrance and roofbox at Newgrange. (Clemensfranz/ CC BY 2.5 )
A shaft of light at the Newgrange Passage Tomb (Dentp/CC BY-SA 4.0) 
A shaft of light at the Newgrange Passage Tomb (Dentp/ CC BY-SA 4.0 )
Newgrange and the surrounding Boyne monuments in nearby Knowth and Dowth all feature solar alignments, showing that these beliefs were strongly-enough held to create adept and amazing astronomical devices and places of worship. An impressive site, it is imbued with millennia of folklore. In some Irish myths, the monuments were gates or portals to lands of the gods, and this is where Cú Chulainn was born. 

The Spreading Flames of Protection and Worship
In Meath, a hotbed of prehistoric ritual, and not far from the famous Royal Hill of Tara are ancient sites of Hill of Uisneach, and Tlachtga (Hill of Ward). 

The Hill of Uisneach is believed in legend to be the site of the first great Beltane fire to be lit in all of Ireland. Beltane, (held commonly on May 1, halfway between the spring equinox and the summer solstice), is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals. 

World Heritage Ireland writes: “To usher in the first dawn of summer in May, the Uisneach hearth burned biggest and brightest of all; visible to over a quarter of Ireland. Hearths were extinguished in every Irish home and fireplace in the country, in anticipation of a new flame from Uisneach’s Bealtaine fire. It must have been an extraordinary sight, with the country plunged into utter darkness ahead of this sacred festival. Using the flame from Uisneach, fires were then ignited on the other sacred hills of Ireland. When lit, they created a unique ‘fire eye’ over the island, ushering in an entire summer of sunshine.” 

The bonfire lit to welcome Beltane morning. Edinburgh 2008. (Public Domain) 
The bonfire lit to welcome Beltane morning. Edinburgh 2008. ( Public Domain )
Uisneach is steeped in solar mythology, as it is said to be the location where Lugh met his end. 

Dagda, leader of the Tuatha Dé Danann was believed to live at Uisneach and stabled his ‘solar horses’ at the site. Interestingly, a wheel-shaped enclosure was uncovered here, which concealed two underground cavities. One was in the shape of a divine mare being pursued by a galloping stallion. 

God Dagda of the Gundestrup cauldron. (Public Domain)

God Dagda of the Gundestrup cauldron. ( Public Domain )
Winter is Coming 

Tlachtga was a powerful druid in Irish mythology, associated with the Hill of Ward, County Meath, a center of Celtic religious worship over two thousand years ago. Tlachtga’s father, Mug Ruith was said to fly across the sky in a flying machine, roth rámach . Such feats, and a very long lifespan, signaled him to be a sun god.

Hill of Ward, Athboy, Co. Meath (Kieran Campbell/CC BY-SA 2.0)

Hill of Ward, Athboy, Co. Meath (Kieran Campbell/ CC BY-SA 2.0 )
The major ceremony held at Tlachtga was the annual lighting of the winter fires at Samhain (November 1). This Great Fire Festival signaled the onset of winter, and these energetic blazes on the hill would reassure that the approaching time of darkness would be overcome. The warmth and light of the fire must have felt like a powerful physical connection to a solar god, and a bolstering of hope in uncertain times of darkness and cold, wet winds. 

A ritual bonfire demonstrates the ancient Celtic way of life. (Martyn Pattison / Beltain Festival at Butser Ancient Farm / CC BY-SA 2.0)

A ritual bonfire demonstrates the ancient Celtic way of life. (Martyn Pattison / Beltain Festival at Butser Ancient Farm /  CC BY-SA 2.0 )
Because prehistoric dedication to solar gods and worshiping of the sun is simply, as 19th-century historical writer James Bonwick notes, “the reverent bowing to the material author of all earthly life,” we cannot condemn those who admired the sky; those who created such memorable, shining gods, and the awe-inspiring monuments and megaliths of ancient Ireland. Indeed, if it made a difference in the island’s renowned changeable weather, so the better. 

The Druidess, oil on canvas, by French painter Alexandre Cabanel (1823–1890) (Public Domain)

The Druidess, oil on canvas, by French painter Alexandre Cabanel (1823–1890) ( Public Domain )

Top image: Solar gods were worshiped in prehistoric Ireland. (Public Domain/Deriv)

Bicycle Carved 2000 Years Ago - Advanced Ancient Technology Proved?

This video discusses this particular carving that plausibly predates the European invention.  That the bicycle was invented in the past is completely reasonable.  Certainly we do not see actual pedals and chains.   A two wheel bicycle simply kicked along would still be useful and at least a toy for a court.

What happened in Europe is that we developed mass production of steel to make these machines and that led quickly to the chain and cog system.  Recall the large wheel allowed effective kicking to get started

Doing the same using iron or even bronze was way too expensive or simply unsuitable.

The idea was surely always there but simply impossible to exploit until the late nineteenth century. .

Bicycle Carved 2000 Years Ago - Advanced Ancient Technology Proved?

Tasmanian Tiger Photographed?:

We have had reports over the years and the few i have seen suggest plenty more exist. We are now getting the odd photo as well. Odds are the creature does exist and is also adept at avoiding humanity as well.
This needs to be addressed. Animals rely on mind to mind imaging with a limited range which improves with the larger and more intelligent.  This means that human avoidance is an excellent possibility.
Throw in the reality of the human rifle and any animal community would soon learn to give us a wide berth in the same way we avoid Lions. Yet this is a recent phenomena only centuries old though the bow taught the same lesson as well.
It is plausible that the Tasmanian Tiger  community simply wised up.

Tasmanian Tiger Photographed?: 

An Australian man suspects that he may have encountered and photographed the infamous Tasmanian Tiger. Known scientifically as a thylacine, the canine-like creature was declared extinct decades ago, but, like a ghost, has lingered in the minds of many Australians who believe that the animal may not have actually died out and could still exist to this day. Although such a hypothesis has largely been dismissed by scientists, photos and videos of potential Tasmanian Tiger sightings have kept the theory alive for all these years. Find out about the latest possible piece of evidence here

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Can He Rehabilitate Wounded Warriors With New Age Medicine?

This item is a source of great hope.  Here Holistic medicine has become a thing and is been successfully measured and reported on.  It is the real future of medicine.

What is remarkable is that we are now addressing mind condition as a matter of course.  Soon perhaps we can understand a lot of mind driven phenomena enough to guide them.  This must include addiction.

I personally see a lot of promise out there, not least with the sudden rise of CBDs in particular.  It is not the only effective herbal, but the real list of useful herbal protocols is actually disappointingly short but also misapplied as well.  The aspirin experience is a good source of instruction.  After a century of been a magic bullet, it has turned out to have multiple applications across a spectrum of disease.  The same will be true for CBD and ayahuasca. for starters..

Can He Rehabilitate Wounded Warriors With New Age Medicine?

By Molly Fosco & Nick Fouriezos

As Dr. Fred Foote winds his gray Honda Civic up 10 floors of concrete, the normally Zen Navy physician allows himself a moment to gripe. “I hate parking garages,” the 67-year-old recent retiree says. “I want to paint them all with murals of whales and stuff.” So far, the military hasn’t approved his request. But the unaesthetic journey to the top of the parking garage is a necessary evil to get an aerial view of Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, the flagship military hospital where Uncle Sam’s latest medical advances are workshopped before being adopted by dozens of hospitals serving roughly 9 million soldiers and veterans nationwide.

Fred Foote feels more Zen amid the trees than he does in parking garages.

Source Nick Fouriezos/OZY

From here, Foote can point out the fruits of his efforts. The gleaming hospital buildings, barely a decade old, use evidence-based architecture, such as single-patient rooms, to improve health outcomes. When families are allowed to live with the patients and help determine their medical care, you cut mortality in half, Foote says, so whole suites, including laundry services and kitchens, have been built to accommodate them. There is an integrated care center, where doctors work as a team rather than focusing only on their organ of expertise. Below is a path winding through a forest, dubbed the military’s first “healing green space” project. Even acupuncture is being taught to combat nurses. “They slap needles on troops in Afghanistan now,” Foote says.

Because nontraditional therapies are hard to measure, the medical community is often reluctant to take them seriously.

If these sound to you like strange forms of treatment for the buttoned-up military, you’re not alone. “For a long time, I was considered a kook — although an amiable kook,” Foote says, laughing. Not anymore. Foote’s brand of holistic medicine — one that tries to avoid surgery and drugs — has gained steam as wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have left veterans with new traumas. A rise in roadside bombs led to a surge in cases of brain damage and post-traumatic stress disorder. Not only was Foote tasked with suggesting new approaches to treat wounds that aren’t visible but he also had to develop a system to prove his methods actually worked. Recently, he published a paper doing exactly that — laying groundwork for the first scientific approach to measuring the effects of holistic healing.

Because nontraditional therapies are hard to measure, the medical community is often reluctant to take them seriously. Foote’s work, however, is changing that. His research shows integrative care and changes in diet and exercise can reduce the duration of patients’ hospital stays and more quickly improve their performance on various cognitive assessments. A new method of assessment developed by Foote and several other “mad scientists,” as he calls them, also shows the benefits of holistic medicine to the entire body. Foote and his team have developed different metrics for measuring therapeutic effects, including genomics, analysis of language, machine learning and stress biomarkers. Using these mathematical evaluations, Foote has begun reliably measuring the efficacy of holistic medicine.

Foote was born in Arlington, Virginia, but grew up all over the country as a military brat. When his father retired, the family returned to the D.C. area, and Foote joined the Navy — his passive rebellion against his dad’s Air Force career. For decades, Foote jumped among medicine, the arts and military duty. He attended Middlebury to study poetry, then St. John’s College in Annapolis, the University of Chicago and Georgetown medical school. Eventually, he became chief resident at Yale School of Medicine and then returned to the Navy, where he worked as a physician aboard the supertanker-turned-floating-hospital USNS Comfort.

Deployed to the Persian Gulf aboard the Comfort in 2003, Foote was expecting to treat wounded American soldiers but ended up caring primarily for wounded Iraqis instead. It was difficult to heal “the enemy,” Foote says, but by the end of treating the soldiers, he often felt an emotional connection to them — no matter their nationality.

In Iraq, Foote learned just how devastating the effect of bombs can be on those who survive. Amid an ill-equipped military’s struggles to handle brain injuries, Foote was tapped to develop a new, whole-body approach beyond medications and surgeries.

At Walter Reed, Foote and his team have put holistic healing into practice in a variety of ways. They teach art, music and poetry. The green space offers healing through nature — wheelchair-accessible paths wind through untamed woods with streams and deer.

Over the past few years, the federal government has become one of the biggest testing grounds for holistic care largely because of Foote’s efforts. “Many people would say it can’t be done, but Fred just keeps on going,” says Dr. Brian Berman, president and founder of the Institute for Integrative Health, who has worked with Foote for 15 years. “He’s not afraid to take risks.”

Such methods still face plenty of skepticism. Timothy Caulfield, a professor in law and public health at the University of Alberta, cautions against the narrative that modern medicine only focuses on treating symptoms. “Of course, this is nonsense,” Caulfield says. “Science-informed practices are also focused on prevention — we know what preventative strategies work because of science!” While Caulfield is glad more people are thinking about healthy lifestyles, he warns that too much focus on holistic approaches can distract from science-informed strategies on how to live healthfully. “Don’t smoke, exercise, eat real food, sleep,” says Caulfield.

But Foote isn’t trying to replace modern medicine. Art, exercise and nature can work in addition to medication and surgery, he insists.

Outside of the factual evidence, there is the anecdotal proof. Take the journal left on a bench in the green space, where veterans reflect and write about how the space helps them process the complex emotions of the wounded. Some notes are positive, some are sad. “It’s a wonderful place and very calm,” says one entry, while another reads, “I love someone who is far away. Will I ever see her again?”

Foote’s methods can’t answer all of the questions, but expression itself is part of the mission.

Read more: Could the love hormone help with PTSD? She wants to find out.

World's Most Congested City Finally Shifts Gears

Good news for Jakarta.  Like China, the real revolution begins with converting blocks of single story housing into blocks of residential towers close by train stations.  This ultimately opens thing up.

There are now just too many excellent examples to learn from, that all cities are getting with the program. 

That is also the foundation of global wealth creation as well...

World's Most Congested City Finally Shifts Gears

By Nithin Coca

You could call Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital, Los Angeles on steroids. More people, fewer roads and less public transit mean massive traffic. The metropolitan area is home to more than 20 million, and while it’s designed to hold only a fraction of that, the number is still growing. Overdevelopment has left it vulnerable to floods, and lacking sidewalks and green spaces. The city, a web of clogged roads, was ranked the most congested city in the world last year by Castrol’s Stop-Start index, which uses GPS satellites to track the number of times that vehicles need to stop. But now that might be changing.

After years of false starts, the city is ready to unveil a rail-based mass rapid transit (MRT) system that will eventually stretch across 67 miles of the metropolitan area and carry more than a million people daily. In October, Japan committed to funding $619 million for the second phase of the MRT, allowing construction to get underway. In late 2018, the city also launched a light rail (LRT) system to connect the city center to Jakarta’s suburbs, which is expected to cost $4 billion. The LRT is expected to help 12 million people each week avoid Jakarta’s congested streets. The city’s bus rapid transit (BRT) system, which launched in 2004 with just one line, is also expanding, with two new lines expected to open alongside the MRT and LRT.

Now, I have hope that it [Jakarta’s traffic transformation] might happen.

Raska Soemantoro, Jakarta resident and college student.

The city’s planners and analysts are counting on these mega projects tying in with private sector initiatives that have taken off. The ride-hailing motorcycle taxi app GO-JEK, which launched in 2010, has been downloaded by more than 11 million people in the city. These motorcycle taxis, called ojeks, are able to weave through traffic jams or traverse roads and alleys too small for cars, making them a speedier way to get around the city. Collectively, these transport solutions are finally giving many people hope that Jakarta could be turning the corner on decades of misguided, unplanned development. If Jakarta’s strategy works, it could also serve as an example for similarly packed cities struggling with urban transport, from Dhaka to Lagos to Cairo.

Going nowhere fast in Jakarta traffic.

Source Getty Images

“I am really excited for the project to be finished,” says Raska Soemantoro, a college student and native Jakarta resident, about the MRT and LRT projects. “I’ve been waiting for years and years for Jakarta to finally become a proper world-class city, and now, I have hope that it might happen.”

Before those dreams of a “world-class city” are realized, Jakarta needs these transport solutions simply to keep the capital of Asia’s fifth-largest economy — after China, Japan, India and South Korea — running, many experts argue. Traffic and congestion have huge costs, and Indonesia’s economy is burdened by these and other infrastructure shortcomings that reduce its attraction to investors.

“There is a direct effect on ease of doing business caused by issues such as power outages and traffic congestion in ports, roads and airports,” says Julian Smith, leader of the Capital Projects & Infrastructure advisory team at PricewaterhouseCoopers Indonesia. “Logistics costs are among the highest in the world, which makes it difficult to get goods to consumers and difficult to source goods in the country.”

Turning the congested, overpopulated city into one that is sustainable won’t be easy. But crises often spark innovation, and Jakarta has proven no different. Look no further than the GO-JEK app, or its principal competitor Grab, another popular ride-sharing app that counts Indonesia as its largest market. In theory, these ride-sharing services could serve as feeders complementing the planned mass transport systems for short distance trips, suggests Yoga Adiwinarto, the Indonesia country director for the New York-headquartered Institute for Transportation & Development Policy (ITDP). But at the moment, there is no plan to integrate fares or payment systems across even the multiple mass transport systems — the MRT, LRT and BRT, much less among smaller offerings. Connections between the MRT and the BRT are non-existent, meaning people will have to cross busy streets to transfer between modes.

“There will be a major problem when passengers want to shift modes,” says Adiwinarto. “[I] don’t yet see any plan or commitment and government or transit management companies to integrate modes.”

’Gojek’ drivers wait for passengers in Jakarta.

Source Shutterstock

To make its efforts at fixing transport woes really effective, Jakarta needs to go one step further and synchronize the soon-to-be-unveiled mass transport systems with the ride-sharing apps that are widely used at present, suggests Adiwinarto. “We need more integration between public transit and ojeks,” he says.

Walkability is another major challenge. Outside of a few main arteries, Jakarta lacks sidewalks and pedestrian overpasses. Don’t bother thinking about bike lanes. The very same ojeks that are at one level a part of the solution to Jakarta’s traffic crisis can also be part of the problem: They often jump onto sidewalks, making them too dangerous for pedestrians.

But if Jakarta is to realize dreams of emerging as a global investment hub — a vision its mayor has repeatedly articulated — it doesn’t have an option other than betting on a hodgepodge of mass transport efforts and ride-sharing apps. “Jakarta’s gridlocked streets are the biggest headache” for the city’s population, many of whom are “stranded for hours in buses, cars and motorcycles each day,” says Julius Galih, a writer based in Jakarta.

(The first trial run of the Light Rail Transport system in Jakarta in June 2018.)

The scale of Jakarta’s challenge is also why its success or failure will be watched closely by urban transportation experts and by cities with similar challenges across Asia and beyond. If the city with the world’s worst traffic can do it, a fix is possible anywhere.

Nithin Coca, OZY Author

Where Abused Elephants Go to Heal

It is fitting that this should be happening in India.   This is after all the foundation stock of what will be a global elephant herd in the millions.

We have the capacity of communicating with them through mind images.  This will lead to herd management of our global forest tracts.  Think about the boreal forest in particular.
All good.

Where Abused Elephants Go to Heal

By Vijay Pandey

In Hindu mythology, Lord Ganesha, son of Shiva and Parvati, is considered the god of wisdom, good luck and success. On his birthday, celebrated in August or September and referred to as Ganesh Chaturthi, huge processions of singing and dancing devotees take place in various Indian cities. Ganesha, the playful elephant-headed god is a symbol of new beginnings in India. And elephants form a big part of these religious festivities.

On a board titled “Forgotten Past” hang chains and hooks that have been used on these elephants to tame them.

But they suffer, and sometimes significant abuse, to become mere showpieces in these festivities and other celebrations, royal functions and circuses — and the elephants’ bodies finally give way. To deep wounds. To arthritis. To broken bones. And serious infections.

There are currently 27,312 elephants in India, according to the 2017 elephant census, conducted by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. And many live and die serving and entertaining human beings. During their captivity, elephants are controlled with big hooks that sink into their skin, and iron hobbles and tethering chains, which cause serious damage to their bodies. And souls.

Just this past November, in Mathura, a town 112 miles south of Delhi, in the dusty neighborhood of Churmura, the first-ever hospital for ailing elephants was opened by the conservation nonprofit Wildlife SOS India. The facility, built next to an elephant conservation center, is spread over some 12,000 square feet and currently has 20 rescued elephants who are undergoing treatment for various diseases and afflictions.

Doctors and mahouts (trained elephant keepers) insist that these “tuskers” can’t be left alone in jungles. “They have always been in human company. They won’t be able to live in the wild,” explains senior veterinary officer Dr. Yaduraj Khadpekar. And because each elephant has its own individual handler who knows and recognizes its behavior, mannerisms and routine, “in most cases we try and rehabilitate the elephant’s handler as well [so they don’t lose their livelihoods],” says Arinita Sandilya, a Wildlife SOS spokesperson. In cases where this isn’t possible, “we do have mahouts who then take charge.”

A handler treats an elephant’s foot with turmeric powder. This is a daily care routine at the hospital.

Ailing tuskers have been brought to the Wildlife SOS Elephant Hospital from different parts of the country. Elephants being treated at the hospital, and subsequently rehabilitated at the conservation center, fall between the ages of 10 to 80 years. Almost all of them have stark wounds in their feet and deep cracks on their legs and other areas of their body as a result of their “taming” — inflicted by massive chains and pointed knuckles. One elephant rescued from a temple had developed deep wounds, but they were always concealed with bright clothes to attract foreign tourists. His injuries went unnoticed until he was rescued. Many tourists are shocked when they hear the elephants’ stories, handlers say.

A handler gives fruit to an elephant as it undergoes treatment for his wounds.

Inside the center, these tuskers have formed friendships and families. Some become friendly toward one another, and some are irked by the presence of others. Peanut and Coconut, two female elephants, are kept in a single enclosure inside, and they play and bathe together in the Yamuna River nearby. Maya and Phoolkali, two other females, have formed their own “girl group.”

Vijay Pandey, OZY AuthorContact Vijay Pandey

The Daily DoseJAN 08 2019

The Democrats' Opposition to the Electoral College Reveals Their Distaste for Real Democracy

 I wonder if the old DEMS would have liked a popular vote in which the slaves voted?
The other variation used most everywhere is the first past the post riding system.  High density areas tend to be under reped there as well.  It still delivers a hard decision as often as not and avoids coalition systems which have their own weaknesses.  
The howl over popular support is merely convenient and endemic DEM voter fraud has plausibly pumped numbers for decades. I believe that is now going to be ended and those popular vote wins are going to prove false.  That alone argues for the electoral college been kept.

The Democrats' Opposition to the Electoral College Reveals Their Distaste for Real Democracy

Ryan McMaken

That didn't take long. Now that the Democrats hold a majority in the House of Representatives, Democratic Rep. Steve Cohen (Tenn.) introduced a constitutional amendment to abolish the electoral college.

Cohen surely doesn't expect the bills to pass. But now that the Democrats have the Speakers' chair and committee chairmanships, Cohen can now get more political milage out of the bill rather than have it immediately "disappeared" by a Republican House leadership.

The bill does little more than revive the longstanding claim among leftwing populists that the US presidency ought to go to whichever candidate wins a majority of all the votes from all the states added together.

The effect would be to lopsidedly favor heavily urbanized coastal regions over other regions of the US. Without an electoral college, it becomes far more economical for candidates to focus their views and election efforts on a small number of highly-populated regions, while ignoring the rest of the country.

In an age when politicians continually decry how the US is so "divided," abolishing the electoral college would only serve to further drive apart politically distinct regions of the US by eliminating a political institution that encourages candidates to take positions more likely to appease voters outside the areas with the most heavily-concentrated populations.

Moreover, in an age when we're told to decry populism, and embrace a politics of "compromise," a rejection of the electoral college seems rather odd indeed.

After all, the purpose of the electoral college is to ensure that a successful presidential candidate appeals to a broader base of voters than would be the case under a simple majoritarian popular vote.

This, by the way, is a big reason that Hillary Clinton lost, and why the Democrats are convinced the electoral college is stacked against them.

The electoral college makes it harder to win by doing what Clinton did during the 2016 campaign: focus on a thin sliver of rich Hollywood and business elites, coupled with urban ethnics. It's true that those two groups can offer a lot of votes and a lot of campaign dollars. But they also tend to be limited to very specific regions, states, and metro areas.

The groups Clinton ignored: the suburban middle class and working class make up a much larger, more geographically diverse coalition. This can be seen in the fact that Trump won such diverse states as Alabama, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.

In 2016, the electoral college worked exactly as it's supposed to — it forces candidates to broaden their appeal. Or as a cynic like myself might say: it forces politicians to pander to a broader base.
There's Nothing "Undemocratic" About the Electoral College

The party-line on the electoral college, of course, has long been that it's undemocratic. In its coverage on Cohen's bill, the Huffington Post editorialized:

Another bill would get rid of the Electoral College, an archaic system of electing presidents that allowed Trump to win the presidency despite his rival, Hilary Clinton, receiving millions more votes.

The conclusion you are supposed to draw here, of course, is that the electoral college works against what we can all see is common sense: that the candidate with the most votes ought to win.

Unfortunately, many supporters of the electoral college adopt this line of thinking as well, and many think the primary benefit of the electoral college is that it's undemocratic. These claims are often accompanied by tiresome bromides about how the United States is allegedly "a republic not a democracy."

The truth, however, is not that the electoral college is undemocratic. It is, in fact, more democratic.

It's true that the electoral college prevents Clinton-style demagoguery. But 50 separate presidential elections (plus DC and the territories) is not somehow less democratic than holding one big national election. It's simply a democratic method designed to ensure more buy in from a larger range of voters, not less. Other similar tactics include "double majorities" as used in Switzerland. And for all these reasons, as I note here, the electoral college should be expanded:

Double-majority and multiple-majority systems mandate more widespread support for a candidate or measure than would be needed under an ordinary majority vote.

Unfortunately, in the United States, it is possible to pass tax increases and other types of sweeping and costly legislation with nothing more than bare majorities from Congress which is itself largely a collection of millionaires with similar educations, backgrounds, and economic status. Even this low standard is not required in cases where the president rules via executive order with " a pen and ... a phone ."

In response to this centralization of political power, the electoral college should be expanded to function as a veto on legislation, executive orders, and Supreme Court rulings.

For example, if Congress seeks to pass a tax increase, their legislation should be null and void without also obtaining a majority of electoral college votes in a manner similar to that of presidential elections. Under such a scheme, the federal government would be forced to submit new legal changes to the voters for approval. The same could be applied to executive orders and treaties. It would be even better to require both a popular-vote majority in addition to the electoral-vote majority. And while we're at it, let's require that at least 25 states approve the measures as well.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Qanon Major events expected

Right now all things point to Ruth Bader Ginsberg soon stepping down and at least retiring if not actually passing.  As anticipated, her successor will likely be female and we know who.  I do not think this will take long either.  The DEMs may fold on this because the last go around with Kavanaugh caused them maximum political damage.
Q is indicating that four major events ( BOOM ) are now pending and should roll out this week.  

I also noticed that Bill and Hilary surfaced.  At the same time DEMs are showing cracks over financing the Wall and the gov't Shutdown.  In the meantime Trump has been seen working to ameliorate damage to government employees.  This only weakens the DEMs.
Q !!mG7VJxZNCI ID: 09f0b8 No.4708257 
Jan 11 2019 05:15:03 (EST)

If a woman is selected as the nominee does that eliminate the wrap up smear re: sexual assault?
What other tactics might be planned to block and/or force name removal?
Why is the Senate important?
Who controls the Senate?


Enjoy the show.


2670 Q !!mG7VJxZNCI ID: 9b77a9 No.4707306 
Jan 11 2019 03:36:09 (EST) 237C3A8C-300C-4CC6-AD4F-266F3AC64225.jpeg

At what point is it mathematically impossible?
The very next day.

Red Castle.
Green Castle.
Public access to intel?

Q 2669 Q !!mG7VJxZNCI ID: 9b77a9 No.4707199 
Jan 11 2019 03:27:18 (EST) 46ABED65-02BB-4E0D-B71C-42203826DB8C.png

Awaiting VIP arrival.
What senior US official is arriving in China?

Q 2668 Q !!mG7VJxZNCI ID: 467fd2 No.4707080 
Jan 11 2019 03:19:34 (EST)



The Surprising Link Between Ghosts and Cheap Rent in Japan

  Gettyimages 802423584

 This is actually delightful and the law needs to happen here as well.  After all, folks do need to know this.

It is no trick to have an exorcism or even to have a medium make contact and help any ghost pass over.  That obviously ends the problem if one exists.

In the meantime we suddenly have a need for a real service that can recruit mediums and trained exorcists for real money.  Great plan.

The Surprising Link Between Ghosts and Cheap Rent in Japan
Japan ain’t cheap. And Tokyo consistently ranks in the top 10 for the world’s most expensive cities. As in, if you’re traveling through you might find yourself spending an affordable night in a room the size of a coffin. But for a longer-term stay, there may be a solution. Unfortunately, it has a ring of death to it. According to executives at Japanese real estate companies:
In surprisingly superstitious Japan, apartment hunters can save 50 percent by renting “incident houses” — properties where a death has occurred.

In Japan they’re known as jiko bukken, and the law actually recognizes them. Any property in which an occupant has died of unnatural causes — suicide, murder or neglect — means it has a defect that must be explained to the consumer. So if a gruesome murder-suicide occurred in an apartment, it’s against the law to conceal that information from prospective renters. In a country abounding in superstitions about death, this transparency leads to a significant drop in demand. And so to get a property moving, the price is often reduced. A lot. There is a loophole, though: Only the first tenant after the incident needs to be notified. And then the price is likely to zoom back up to Tokyo standards.
Sei-ichiro Ishimaru, president of a Japanese real estate company in Tokyo, says that his company has been approached about selling incident houses. “Japanese people hate jiko bukken,” he says. “It is a ghost problem.” But his company is honest, telling prospective buyers what happened. For example, when renting out an apartment in 2015 in the Shinjuku-ku area of Tokyo, Ishimaru’s sales agents told the client about the single man who had killed himself there. And then they offered a 30 percent discount on rent. He says that owners often perform cleansing ceremonies to try to prevent “incidents” from happening again. “Ceremony is not terribly expensive. Renovation is expensive,” Ishimaru explains.
It’s really the murders where the price needs to be cut in half. Those are the spirits Japan fears most.
The death stigma of apartments likely has a real effect on Japan’s elderly. The country has the fastest-aging population in the world — 40 percent are projected to be over age 65 by 2050 according to the International Longevity Center–Japan. With a modern cultural change away from close family living, it’s led to an epidemic of so-called lonely deaths for elderly single Japanese. Owners don’t like renting to that demographic, says Ishimaru. It’s really the murders — though few and far between in relatively safe Japan — where the price needs to be cut in half, he says. Those are the spirits Japan fears most.

Gettyimages 802423584
The Ghost of Kohada Koheiji (from One Hundred Ghost Stories), 1831. 
It’s not unique to Japan to stigmatize property associated with a death. Phillips Stevens Jr., an associate professor of anthropology at the University at Buffalo and an expert on spiritualism and superstition, says there are a couple of reasons why people generally shy away from such places. 

There’s the ghost factor. “In some cultures the mood of the ghost might depend on the way he died,” Stevens explains. “A murdered person might be angry, wanting revenge; a suicide might be profoundly depressed and be dangerous for that reason.” Also, death could be seen as “polluting,” making the space “unclean.” That’s the basis for folklore and haunted places, Stevens says.
For those interested in finding or avoiding jiko bukken, a handy site called Oshimaland maps such properties (started in Tokyo, it is now global). But there’s still one potential loophole. Airbnb recently entered Japan. Yoshikuni Fujita, who also works in Japanese real estate brokering, says the laws are too new to know whether Airbnb hosts must disclose any “incidents” that took place in their homes. Just something to keep in mind if an Airbnb deal seems too good to be true.

The Cure for Poverty

Piggy bank with glasses

All this changes when you remember and then ensure that every individual is clearly part of a community.  It is there that all these issues are properly eliminated.  The one other concept is the base four hour shift which establishes base value around a safe night's sleep, access to prep services, and breakfast and lunch.

Every community establishes what all that means and unused labor shifts can be applied usefully to forest grooming.

What is critical a natural community provides natural support that makes poverty impossible.  Poverty is the real need to devote all your time in an effort to merely survive.  The natural community and the minimum shift makes all this impossible. .

The Cure for Poverty

Tags Poverty
01/05/2019Henry Hazlitt
[Chapter 20 of The Conquest of Poverty, 1996.]

The theme of this book is the conquest of poverty, not its "abolition." Poverty can be alleviated or reduced, and in the Western world in the last two centuries it has been almost miraculously alleviated and reduced; but poverty is ultimately individual, and individual poverty can no more be "abolished" than disease or death can be abolished.

Individual or family poverty results when the "breadwinner" cannot in fact win bread; when he cannot or does not produce enough to support his family or even himself. And there will always be some human beings who will temporarily or permanently lack the ability to provide even for their own self-support. Such is the condition of all of us as young children, of many of us when we fall ill, and of most of us in extreme old age. And such is the permanent condition of some who have been struck by misfortune — the blind, the crippled, the feeble-minded. Where there are so many causes there can be no all-embracing cure.

[Think community enterprise and natural credit support. - arclein]

It is fashionable to say today that "society" must solve the problem of poverty. But basically each individual — or at least each family — must solve its own problem of poverty. The overwhelming majority of families must produce more than enough for their own support if there is to be any surplus available for the remaining families that cannot or do not provide enough for their own support. Where the majority of families do not provide enough for their own support — where society as a whole does not provide enough for its own support — no "adequate relief system" is even temporarily possible. Hence "society" cannot solve the problem of poverty until the overwhelming majority of families have already solved (and in fact slightly more than solved) the problem of their own poverty.

All this is merely stating in another form the Paradox of Relief referred to in Chapter 18: The richer the community, the less the need for relief, but the more it is able to provide; the poorer the community, the greater the need for relief, but the less it is able to provide.

And this in turn is merely another way of pointing out that relief, or redistribution of income, voluntary or coerced, is never the true solution of poverty, but at best a makeshift, which may mask the disease and mitigate the pain, but provides no basic cure.

Moreover, government relief tends to prolong and intensify the very disease it seeks to cure. Such relief tends constantly to get out of hand. And even when it is kept within reasonable bounds it tends to reduce the incentives to work and to save both of those who receive it and of those who are forced to pay it. It may be said, in fact, that practically every measure that governments take with the ostensible object of "helping the poor" has the long-run effect of doing the opposite. Economists have again and again been forced to point out that nearly every popular remedy for poverty merely aggravates the problem. I have analyzed in these pages such false remedies as the guaranteed income, the negative income tax, minimum-wage laws, laws to increase the power of the labor unions, opposition to labor-saving machinery, promotion of "spread-the-work" schemes, special subsidies, increased government spending, increased taxation, steeply graduated income taxes, punitive taxes on capital gains, inheritances, and corporations, and outright socialism.

But the possible number of false remedies for poverty is infinite. Two central fallacies are common to practically all of them. One is that of looking only at the immediate effect of any proposed reform on a selected group of intended beneficiaries and of overlooking the longer and secondary effect of the reform not only on the intended beneficiaries but on everybody. The other fallacy, akin to this, is to assume that production consists of a fixed amount of goods and services, produced by a fixed amount and quality of capital providing a fixed number of "jobs." This fixed production, it is assumed, goes on more or less automatically, influenced negligibly if at all by the incentives or lack of incentives of specific producers, workers, or consumers. "The problem of production has been solved," we keep hearing, and all that is needed is a fairer "distribution."

What is disheartening about all this is that the popular ideology on all these matters shows no advance — and if anything even a retrogression — compared with what it was more than a hundred years ago. In the middle of the nineteenth century the English economist Nassau Senior was writing in his journal:

It requires a long train of reasoning to show that the capital on which the miracles of civilization depend is the slow and painful creation of the economy and enterprise of the few, and of the industry of the many, and is destroyed, or driven away, or prevented from arising, by any causes which diminish or render insecure the profits of the capitalist, or deaden the activity of the laborer; and that the State, by relieving idleness, improvidence, or misconduct from the punishment, and depriving abstinence and foresight of the reward, which have been provided for them by nature, may indeed destroy wealth, but most certainly will aggravate poverty.1
Man throughout history has been searching for the cure for poverty, and all that time the cure has been before his eyes. Fortunately, as far at least as it applied to their actions as individuals, the majority of men instinctively recognized it — which was why they survived. That individual cure was Work and Saving. In terms of social organization, there evolved spontaneously from this, as a result of no one's conscious planning, a system of division of labor, freedom of exchange, and economic cooperation, the outlines of which hardly became apparent to our forebears until two centuries ago. That system is now known either as Free Enterprise or as Capitalism, according as men wish to honor or disparage it.

It is this system that has lifted mankind out of mass poverty. It is this system that in the last century, in the last generation, even in the last decade, has acceleratively been changing the face of the world, and has provided the masses of mankind with amenities that even kings did not possess or imagine a few generations ago.

Because of individual misfortune and individual weaknesses, there will always be some individual poverty and even "pockets" of poverty. But in the more prosperous Western countries today, capitalism has already reduced these to a merely residual problem, which will become increasingly easy to manage, and of constantly diminishing importance, if society continues to abide in the main by capitalist principles. Capitalism in the advanced countries has already, it bears repeating, conquered mass poverty, as that was known throughout human history and almost everywhere, until a change began to be noticeable sometime about the middle of the eighteenth century. Capitalism will continue to eliminate mass poverty in more and more places and to an increasingly marked extent if it is merely permitted to do so.

In the chapter "Why Socialism Doesn't Work," I explained by contrast how capitalism performs its miracles. It turns out the tens of thousands of diverse commodities and services in the proportions in which they are socially most wanted, and it solves this incredibly complex problem through the institutions of private property, the free market, and the existence of money — through the interrelations of supply and demand, costs and prices, profits and losses. And, of course, through the force of competition. Competition will tend constantly to bring about the most economical and efficient method of production possible with existing technology — and then it will start devising a still more efficient technology. It will reduce the cost of existing production, it will improve products, it will invent or discover wholly new products, as individual producers try to think what product consumers would buy if it existed.

Those who are least successful in this competition will lose their original capital and be forced out of the field; those who are most successful will acquire through profits more capital to increase their production still further. So capitalist production tends constantly to be drawn into the hands of those who have shown that they can best meet the wants of the consumers.

Perhaps the most frequent complaint about capitalism is that it distributes its rewards "unequally." But this really describes one of the system's chief virtues. Though mere luck always plays a role with each of us, the increasing tendency under capitalism is that penalties are imposed roughly in proportion to error and neglect and rewards granted roughly in proportion to effort, ability, and foresight. It is precisely this system of graduated rewards and penalties, in which each tends to receive in proportion to the market value he helps to produce, that incites each of us constantly to put forth his greatest effort to maximize the value of his own production and thus (whether intentionally or not) help to maximize that of the whole community. If capitalism worked as the socialists think an economic system ought to work, and provided a constant equality of living conditions for all, regardless of whether a man was able or not, resourceful or not, diligent or not, thrifty or not, if capitalism put no premium on resourcefulness and effort and no penalty on idleness or vice, it would produce only an equality of destitution.

Another incidental effect of the inequality of incomes inseparable from a market economy has been to increase the funds devoted to saving and investment much beyond what they would have been if the same total social income had been spread evenly. The enormous and accelerative economic progress in the last century and a half was made possible by the investment of the rich — first in the railroads, and then in scores of heavy industries requiring large amounts of capital. The inequality of incomes, however much some of us may deplore it on other grounds, has led to a much faster increase in the total output and wealth of all than would otherwise have taken place.

Those who truly want to help the poor will not spend their days in organizing protest marches or relief riots, or even in repeated protestations of sympathy. Nor will their charity consist merely in giving money to the poor to be spent for immediate consumption needs. Rather will they themselves live modestly in relation to their income, save, and constantly invest their savings in sound existing or new enterprises, so creating abundance for all, and incidentally creating not only more jobs but better-paying ones.

The irony is that the very miracles brought about in our age by the capitalist system have given rise to expectations that keep running ahead even of the accelerating progress, and so have led to an incredibly shortsighted impatience that threatens to destroy the very system that has made the expectations possible.

If that destruction is to be prevented, education in the true causes of economic improvement must be intensified beyond anything yet attempted.