Thursday, August 2, 2018

Ringmakers of Saturn 9 - Iapetus Mystery Unraveled

There is a history of extreme events here and zero evidence of volcanic drivers to explain away any of it.  Again we piece together evidence of super scaled machines causing all the activities.

More precisely unexplained occasional evidence is itself evidence of a suitably scaled Deus ex Machina.  Otherwise you are trying to have it both ways while working against entropy.  That is the big point for both this moon-let and the last one.  Entropy is being countered and that applies to the whole ring complex.  The only thing that does that is intelligence.

Otherwise do note the equatorial ring outlining a perfect geodesic.  That is impossible by anything other than intelligent intervention.


Iapetus Mystery Unraveled

Thirteen A-ring diameters distant from the center of Saturn pinpoints the orbital radius of Iapetus. Discovered by Cassini in 1671 Iapetus has been enigmatic from the very beginning of its recorded history. During the two years following discovery, Cassini found Iapetus to be invisible for months at a time. His observations indicated that the satellite would appear only in some parts of its orbit, and not at all in others. He concluded that, during the moon's passage around Saturn, various exposed faces exhibited considerably different reflectivities.

Cassini held to his position for about 30 years when, to his dismay, he found Iapetus visible within a "forbidden" region. About a century later, Sir William Herschel took the view that the discoverer's original position was the only one possible. However, Cassini's skepticism is meritorious in light of more recent data. American Professor Edward E. Barnard, in 1889, reported sudden disappearances
of Iapetus while engaging in ring translucency observations.

Further, in 1913, Harvard advocated more study of Iapetus because some observations had revealed sudden and large, irregular brightness fluctuations. Attempts to explain Iapetus must contend with these horns of an historical dilemma.

Plate 37 shows Iapetus exhibiting dichotomous facial topography adjacent to an active zone populated with circular and elongated light sources. Topography of Iapetus poses a scientific puzzlement in that two abruptly different surface compositions exist side by side. Water ice is thought to compose the light region, (1). The dark region, (2), is postulated to be a reddish-brown carbonaceous material akin to asphalt. Ice and asphaltic material indeed do have widely different surface reflectivities. With constant reflectivities, Iapetus could appear consistently visible in certain orbital sectors and invisible in others, as Cassini first surmised. However, Harvard's data indicate that surface reflectivity definitely does not remain constant. To the contrary, reflectivity is unpredictably quite variable. Identification of a suitable mechanism to explain any variability is a confounding problem.

Volcanic action is rendered quite improbable inasmuch as a gradual admixture transition, (3), exists between the light and dark regions.

1. Iceous region
2. Asphaltic region
3. Transition region
4. Light sources 
5. Isolated light source
6. Quiescent zone
7. Active zone

Plate 37: Iapetus exhibiting dichotomous facial topography adjacent an active zone populated  with circular and elongated light sources.

Characteristically, volcanic flows have sharply cut-off edges. On the other hand, identification of an external mechanism for depositing dichotomous substances is equally perplexing. Topography created by meteor impacts is not an adequate model because there are no radial rays emanating from circular areas which might be interpreted as craters. Clearly, some new mechanism is called for.

In addition to the dichotomous surface of Iapetus in Plate 37, there are also intriguing nearby light sources, (4). Circular and elongated, these sources are numerous; and their zonal distribution is biased.

Except for a single source, (5), none lies within a quiescent zone, (6), formed by extending boundaries of the obtuse dark region, (2). Light sources being nearly exclusively confined to one active zone, (7),indicate a possible correlation with the iceous and asphaltic regions.

1. Cylindrical body
2. Nose end
3. Tongue
4. Isolated light source
5. Large light sources
6. Active zone
7. Quiescent zone
8. Underbody emissions
9. Radial links
10. Roll filaments
11. Roll filament source
Plate 38: Composite photograph of Iapetus showing illumination by, and a peripheral linking to, an electromagnetic vehicle.

This situation might be likened to Dione in that electromagnetic light sources can selectively brighten particular topographical regions, per Plate 36.

As with Dione, enhancement of peripheral space around Iapetus is necessary in order to disclose what comprises the environs. Again, superimposed images are employed to capture available spatial detail while preserving topographical clarity. Results are exhibited in Plate 38. This composite* photograph records Iapetus illuminated by, and peripherally linked to, an electromagnetic vehicle. Its cylindrical body, (1), is positioned horizontally across the top of the picture. Body diameter is estimated at 1000 km (620 mi). Illumination in the upper left corner reveals the nose end, (2). Protruding below the nose is a long tongue, (3), which extends past Iapetus along the left picture border.

Except for isolated source (4), all the large light sources, (5), are included within the heretofore defined active zone, (6). The quiescent zone, (7), shows signs of activity, but of a different nature.

 *For reasons already noted with respect to Dione in Plate 36, a white edging appears
circumferentially around Iapetus.

In Plate 38 profuse underbody emissions, (8), extend aft of the tongue a distance of at least 2 body diameters. Underbody emissions and the nose tongue are positioned essentially at right angles to one
another. In effect, these two active components frame Iapetus into a corner. This corner-framing effect creates topographically an approximate three-quarter hemispherical sector of exceptional brightness. 

Shielded from tongue and underbody-emission radiation, the remaining sector is darker and appropriately shaped to reflect the corner framing. At the periphery of the white three-quarter region on Iapetus, tongue and underbody emissions form radial links, (9). At the periphery of the dark sector, the surface pattern extends into space. 

Inspection of the sectoral periphery reveals roll filaments, (10), which connect with an adjacent slender-body filament source, (11). Radial links and contrasting sectoral topography are a manifestation of vehicle activity. With an electromagnetic vehicle operating on Iapetus, Cassini's and Harvard's exceptional observations are quite understandable.

Iapetus has a diameter of about 1460 km (900 mi). Envelopment of such a large body by electromagnetic-vehicle emissions and appendages has ramifications of extreme importance. To augment illustrative detail, a montage* of localized micro-photographs has been assembled covering the entire photograph of Plate 37. This photographic endeavor is exhibited in Plate 39. The montage shows Iapetus subjected to an electro-potential field created by an electro-magnetic vehicle. Six items appearing in Plate 38 are re-identified for orientation purposes: (1) cylindrical body; (2) nose end; (3) tongue; (4) underbody emissions; (5) roll filaments; and (6) roll-filament source. Additional items identified subsequently serve to identify formation of an electro- Potential (current-voltage) field.

Commencing at the side of the cylindrical body a projection, (7) is evident along the right side of the  picture. Sprouting from this body projection is a long branch, (8), which connects with the tongue near the lower left corner of the montage. A sub-branch, (9), turns out to be the roll-filament source, (6), previously identified. Though of smaller * Use of a montage enables exposure time to be adjusted locally for the negative density of the

1. Cylindrical body
2. Nose end
3. Tongue
4. Underbody emissions
5. Roll filaments
6. Roll-filament source
7. Body projection
8. Branch projection
9. Sub-branch projection
10. Streamlines
11. Current lines
12. Singular point

Plate 39: cMreaicterod- pbhyo atong eralepchtirco mmaognnteatgiec vsehhoiwclien.g 

Iapetus subjected to an electro-potential field breadth, another manifestation of branches from the body projection are streamlines labeled (10). A streamline possesses the same electrical potential along its entire length; and various streamlines have different levels of potential. Current flowing from one potential level to another takes the shortest route. The result is that current lines, (11), arrangethemselves perpendicularly to equal potential lines. One streamline terminates at the surface of Iapetus. At this termination point, a  localized flow stoppage occurs and energy is released. 

Singular point, (12), is such a point wherein flow around Iapetus experiences adjustment electrically as well as physically. Heretofore, this singularity point has been identified in Plates 37 and 38 as an isolated light  source. Uniqueness of this particular source is attributable to its special relation to the electro-potential field around Iapetus. Other light sources are vehicle related and identify localized regions at which voltage adjustments are occurring.

(a) Current paths 
(b) Streamlines
1. Sphere profile
2. High-voltage source
3. Low-voltage source
4. Stagnation streamline
5. Up-stream singularity
6. Down-stream singularity
Plate 40: Electro-potential flow field for a conducting sphere located between bi-level voltage

A model approximating an electro-potential field around Iapetus can be calculated from equations governing ideal fluid flow past a sphere. These equations are also the same ones which describe an analogous electrical flow field around a sphere. Plate 40 pictorializes an ideal electro-potential flow field for a conducting sphere located between bi-level voltage sources. Part (a) depicts the current paths and part (b), the streamlines or equi-potential* lines as they are sometimes called.

In Plate 40, a cross-section of a conducting sphere, (1), is located between a high-voltage source, (2), and a low-voltage source, (3). In part (a), electrical current travels from the high-voltage source (top)
to the low-voltage source (bottom). In traveling from high to low potential, the obstructing sphere induces the current paths to bend Some current paths pass through the sphere as indicated by dashed
lines. Those paths which enter and exit do so perpendicularly to the circular profile. In part (b), streamlines are shown moving from right to left. Curvature of the streamlines is such as to accommodate the circular profile and the straight-line sources (2) and (3). The stagnation streamline, (4), on the axis of symmetry terminates at the circular profile. This terminal locates the up-stream singularity point, (5), also known as a stagnation point. Another singularity point, (6), exists on the down-stream side for the ideal-flow condition assumed. In highvelocity real flow, though, turbulence prevails on the down-stream side preventing formation of coherent streamlines and a second stagnation point.

Electrical-current paths and equi-potential paths exist concurrently and occur orthogonally. That is, the two types of paths simultaneously occur mutually perpendicular to one another. Plate 41 illustrates a network of current and equi-potential paths calculated for ideal flow in front of a sphere. Flow proceeds toward the sphere, (1), from the right as indicated by the direction of the equi-potential paths, (2). All potential paths pass by the sphere. The streamline on the axis of symmetry, (3), becomes the sphere boundary commencing at the stagnation or singularity point, (4). In contrast, only those current paths, (5) forward of the stagnation point pass by the sphere. All other
current paths, (6), immediately downstream of the stagnation point enter the sphere radially. Intersections of current and equi-potential paths form a network of distorted squares and rectangles. 

A small, unique stagnation region, (7), is formed forward of the stagnation point. This region is bounded by the sphere, two streamlines astride the axis of symmetry, and two current paths. One current path is aft of the stagnation point and enters the sphere. The other is forward of this singularity point and does not enter the sphere. Within the region there is a concentration of energy corresponding in location to the isolated light source labeled (4) in Plate 38. Further, the network of distorted  rectangles and squares resembles analogously located actual ones displayed by Iapetus in Plates 38 and 39.

*Equi-potential is a short form of the words "equal potential" and means that a sing streamline is at the same potential along its entire length.

1. Sphere profile
2. Equi-potential paths
3. Axis of symmetry
4. Stagnation point
5. Non-entering current paths
6. Entering current paths
7. Stagnation region

Plate 41: Network of electrical current and equi-potential paths calculated for a sphere in
ideal flow.

Additional information can be deduced about Iapetus. Plate 42 illustrates Iapetus constrained by the forward electro-potential field of an electromagnetic vehicle as rendered from Plates 38 and 39.

Constraint physically is quite real in that substantial forces are present in the field. For example, streamline flow, (1) from the right forces

1. Streamline flow 3. Vehicle body
2. Tongue 4. Underbody emissions
Plate 42: Illustration of Iapetus constrained by the electro-potential field of an electro-magnetic
vehicle as rendered from Plates 38 and 39.

Iapetus toward the left (white arrow); but tongue, (2), prevents lateral movement (black arrow). In the vertical direction, Iapetus is pushed away from the vehicle body, (3), by underbody emissions, (4), (black arrow). This push is balanced by an opposing force generated by the asymmetrical flow (white arrow). Balanced forces maintain Iapetus at a steady position relative to the vehicle. However, were forces unbalanced, the satellite would drift into a different orbit. Though orbital-path changes have not been cited over long-term observations of Iapetus, a vehicle mechanism for moving the satellite nevertheless does exist.

Exposure of Iapetus to the electro-potential field illustrated by Plate 42 will leave divers surface scars when the field disappears. The tongue, for example, will leave a long, broad depression with spidery edges.

Turbulent flow and electrolytic* action over the surface will produce deposits, the composition of which derives from emitted vehicle products. Most pre-existing topographical prominences within the
flow will undergo severe erosion. Depending upon circumstances, prominences might assume streamlined shapes from coherent flow or peculiar forms due to turbulence. Electrical-current entry and exit areas will be marked by craters whose interiors are pitted from stray subordinate fingers of current. Dominantly, however, prolonged application of heat from the tongue and underbody emissions will, in time, melt the surface. Evidence of current-formed craters and other formations will be erased and, in turn, the surface will be left smooth.

Observers of Iapetus have wondered how the iceous region, being shadowed from the sun, can be so intensely bright. They have wondered how the iceous surface can change so abruptly into a radically different asphaltic composition. They have wondered about unexpected flashes of light, large variations in surface reflectivity and sudden disappearances from view. The mystery is resolved completely and satisfactorily by the nearby presence of an active electromagnetic vehicle.
*Chemical decomposition by the action of electric current.

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