As i posted back in 2007 from my manuscript Paradigms Shift, the Carolina Bays are part of the evidence suite supporting the impact of a large comet onto the norther Ice Cap around 13,900 BP. That they were identified by others as likely caused by ballistic ice from the Ice Cap is very welcome. This is geology at its best. That it has been ignored is irrelevant as that demands understanding the critical importance to human history of the Pleistocene nonconformity in the first instance.
Rather obviously you cannot accept the one without the other and that means understanding human history restarted after that event wiped the slate clean. Cultural records say as much and plenty of other evidence abounds. Yet old fashioned denial holds sway.
My contribution to all this has been to understand that the comet blow was targeted in order to induce a critical crustal movement that continues to play out today in order to eliminate the Northern Ice Cap. That was the central purpose. Ultimately it also flooded huge tracts of what is now the continental shelve, then hospitable for agriculture and opened up the whole northern hemisphere to agricultural development now well begun. This represents a vast increase in usable land toward a potential human population of around 100 billion.
Problem solved: Carolina Bays are shock liquefaction impact features from hypersonic ice boulders launched from the glacial ice sheet by a cosmic impact at the Younger Dryas
Ellipses are mathematical conic sections formed by the intersection of a plane and a cone. The elliptical geomorphology of the Carolina Bays and the Nebraska Rainwater Basins can be explained if the bays originated from slanted conical cavities that were later remodeled into shallow depressions by geological processes. A width-to-length ratio of 0.58 corresponds to a cone inclined at 35° using the relationship sin(θ) = W/L. The proposed conical cavities could have been made by impacts of material ejected at approximately 35° in ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence in the Great Lakes Region. The small variations of the width-to-length ratio correspond to slightly different angles that are consistent with possible ballistic trajectories
The LiDAR images also reveal that some terrains do not have elliptical bays. Davias and Harris (2015) describe six archetype bay shapes that may be determined by the geological characteristics of the terrain. The thickness of the layer of unconsolidated material required to produce an elliptical bay can be estimated by the formula tan(θ) × L/2, where L is the length of the major axis and θ is the angle of inclination. A conical cavity inclined at 35° corresponding to a bay with a major axis of 400 m would require a layer of unconsolidated material with a depth of approximately 140 m.
The author thanks Cintos.org for the use of LiDAR images licensed
under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
3.0 Unported License. The author would also like to thank two anonymous
referees and Prof. Andrew Plater whose comments helped to improve
Appendix A. Supplementary data
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the
online version, at doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.01.019. This data include
the Google maps of the most important areas described in this
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