Monday, July 11, 2016

Wolfberry




Measured use of goji berries is well indicated as a health tonic for the aging.  This is just as obviously indicated by the usage by noted long lived individuals as well.  Too much may be well too much but a daily serving should work well.

This sort of spells out the science.  i particularly note that it counteracts physical stress and thus wear and tear.  i think that this observation may be somewhat unique as i know of no other claim comparing to that claim except resting.  It may be important.

I think that i will add goji berries to my craisin and raisin mix.  It looks good.

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Wolfberry Plant

Wolfberry or goji berry is the common name for the fruit of two very closely related species: Lycium barbarum (寧夏枸杞) and L. chinense (枸杞), two species of boxthorn in the family Solanceae. Other members of this family are potato,tomato, eggplant, deadly nightshade, chili pepper and tobacco. [A]Wolfberry Fruit These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 1–2-cm deep. The number of seeds in each berry varies widely based on cultivar and fruit size, containing anywhere between 10–60 tiny yellow seeds.

Wolfberry contains zeaxanthin, carotene, polysaccharides, betaine, cerebroside, beta-sitosterol, p-coumaric, andvarious vitamins. [3, 11]
____________________________________________________________________________________________Wolfberry BenefitsWolfberry has been used for nourishing the liver, and in turn, improving the eyesight in traditional Chinese medicine. 

Despite the fact that wolfberry has been used for centuries, its beneficial effects to our bodies have not been comprehensively studied with modern technology to unravel its therapeutic effects at the biochemical level. Preliminarily lab studies of shows the anti-oxidative activities of wolfberry polysaccharides have anti-oxidative activities and thus, it is believed that wolfberry extracts, wolfberry tea or juice may have biological effects or health benefits. More important, wolfberry contains zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin is a potent carotenoid antioxidant. Intake of wolfberry can lead to an increased plasma levels of zeaxanthin. [A] 

Wolfberry leaves are commonly used to prepare tea and wolfberry root bark is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory skin diseases. 

According to a test-tube study, most polysaccharides from wolfberry were found to be anti-oxidative. [6] Published studies also suggest the possible health benefits of wolfberry for cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cancers. [A]

Alzheimer's Disease and GlaucomaRecently, laboratory has demonstrated wolfberry's neuroprotective effects to counter neuronal loss inneurodegenerative diseases. [11] 

Polysaccharides extracted from wolfberry was able to protect neurons against beta-amyloid peptide toxicity in neuronal cell cultures, and retinal ganglion cells in an experimental model of glaucoma. [11] 

A test-tube study showed that a fraction of polysaccharide from Wolfberry exerted significant neuroprotective effects on cultured cortical neurons exposed to glutamate. Glutamate excitotoxicity is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This fraction of polysaccharide has also been shown to protect rat cortical  neurons against beta beta-amyloid. [5] 

Thus, it is reasonable to believe that wolfberry extract or its juice or tea may benefit people at risk of certain neuronal diseases. Fatigue Researchers have even isolated the active component of polysaccharide which can attenuate stress kinases and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. [11] 

In a 30-day exhaustive exercise program, wolfberry polysaccharides administration significantly increased glycogen level and anti-oxidant enzyme activities, and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and creatine kinase activities in rats. Thus, wolfberry was able to reduce the oxidative stress in rats during exhaustive exercise. [9] 

While, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-days clinical trial of 34 subjects showed that wolfberry juice reduced fatigue and stress and improved regularity of gastrointestinal function.[8] 

Thus, wolfberry extracts including its juice may benefit people under constant stress. Cancer and Infection  bnAglucopyranoside and phenolic amides isolated from wolfberry rook bark are found to have activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi in vitro studies. [A] Wolfberry polysaccharide was shown in vitro to inhibit the growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells. [4]

 A study of 79 advanced cancer patient s demonstrated that Wolfberry polysaccharides could enhance the anti-cancer effect of a chemotherapy on patients suffered from malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, malignant hydrothorax. 

[1] Wolfberry mayhave some benefits for people at risk of certain cancers.

A study of estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 model suggested the use of gogi as an anti-cancer agent for estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer. It may also have less side effects compared with certain types of chemotherapy. [7]

Though there are some basic supports for the proposed health benefits of wolfberry, clinical data are insufficient to draw a conclusion.
___________________________________________________________________________________________Side Effects of Wolfberry or Goji

Prolonged large intake of wolfberry tea has been reported to increase bleeding. An in vitro study suggests that it may interact with warfarin. [10] Atropine, a toxic alkaloid, is also found in wolfberry fruit, but its normal concentration in the berries is far below the toxic level. [A] If you are on medicine, you must consult with your doctor about the side effects of wolfberry and the potential interaction, before taking any wolfberry products including goji juice.
____________________________________________________________________________________________Reference:[A] Wikipedia, August 2009

[1] Cao GW, Yang WG, Du P. Observation of the effects of LAK/IL-2 therapy combining with
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the treatment of 75 cancer patients. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1994 Nov;16(6): 428-31. 


\[2] Huang L, Lin Y, Tian G, Ji G. Isolation, purification and physico-chemical properties of immunoactiveconstituents from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998 Jul;33(7):512-6. 


[3] Xie C, Xu LZ, Li XM, LiKM, Zhao BH, Yang SL. Studies on chemical constituents in fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.2001 May;26(5):323-4. 

[4] Gan L, Wang J, Zhang S. Inhibition the growth of human leukemia cells by Lycium barbarum
polysaccharide Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2001 Nov;30(6):333-5. 


[5] Ho YS, Yu MS, Yik SY, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Antagonizes Glutamate Excitotoxicity in Rat Cortical Neurons. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009Jun 5. 

[6] Lin CL, Wang CC, Chang SC, Inbaraj BS, Chen BH. Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolatedfrom Lycium barbarum Linnaeus. Int J Biol Macromol. 2009 Aug 1;45(2):146-51. Epub 2009 May 3. 

[7] Li G, Sepkovic DW, Bradlow HL, Telang NT, Wong GY. Lycium barbarum inhibits growth of estrogen receptor positive human breastcancer cells by favorably altering estradiol metabolism. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(3):408-14. 

[8] Amagase H, Nance DM. Arandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study of the general effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum (Goji) Juice, GoChi. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 May;14(4):403-12. 

[9] Niu AJ, Wu JM, Yu DH, Wang R. Protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of exhaustive exercise rats. Int J BiolMacromol. 2008 Jun 1;42(5):447-9. Epub 2008 Feb 29. 

[10] Leung H, Hung A, Hui AC, Chan TY. Warfarin overdosedue to the possible effects of Lycium barbarum L. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 May;46(5):1860-2. Epub 2008 Jan 15. [11] 

Chang RC, So KF. Use of anti-aging herbal medicine, Lycium barbarum, against aging-associated diseases. What dowe know so far? Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008 Aug;28(5):643-52. Epub 2007 Aug 21.

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