We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Monday, April 25, 2016
Did Butter Get a Bad Rap?
Butter sucumbed to a marketing effort put on by the vegetable crowd. It was based on self serving science and promotional lies to grab market share. This took place over sixty years ago. Now the science has begun to catch up and hte bunkum is been flushed.
Now it turns out that data confirming a higher death rate among corn oil users was simply omitted in the published work.
The corporate world continues to treat science as malleable which is obviously very dangerous..
Did Butter Get a Bad Rap?
Butter might not be a health food, but UNC and NIH
researchers unearthed more evidence that replacing it with vegetable
oils does not decrease risk of heart disease.
Newswise — CHAPEL HILL, NC – A research team led by scientists at
the UNC School of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health has
unearthed more evidence that casts doubt on the traditional “heart
healthy” practice of replacing butter and other saturated fats with corn
oil and other vegetable oils high in linoleic acid.
The findings, reported today in the British Medical Journal,
suggest that using vegetable oils high in linoleic acid might be worse
than using butter when it comes to preventing heart disease, though more
research needs to be done on that front. This latest evidence comes
from an analysis of previously unpublished data of a large controlled
trial conducted in Minnesota nearly 50 years ago, as well as a broader
analysis of published data from all similar trials of this dietary
The analyses show that interventions using linoleic
acid-rich oils failed to reduce heart disease and overall mortality even
though the intervention reduced cholesterol levels. In the Minnesota
study, participants who had greater reduction in serum cholesterol had
higher rather than lower risk of death.
research leads us to conclude that incomplete publication of important
data has contributed to the overestimation of benefits – and the
underestimation of potential risks – of replacing saturated fat with
vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid,” said co-first author Daisy
Zamora, PhD, a researcher in the Department of Psychiatry at the UNC
School of Medicine.
[ this is cooking the lab results - arclein]
Along with corn oil, linoleic acid-rich oils include safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and cottonseed oil.
belief that replacing saturated fats with vegetable oils improves heart
health dates back to the 1960s, when studies began to show that this
dietary switch lowered blood cholesterol levels. Since then, some
studies, including epidemiological and animal studies, have suggested
that this intervention also reduces heart attack risk and related
mortality. In 2009, the American Heart Association reaffirmed its view
that a diet low in saturated fat and moderately high (5-10 percent of
daily calories) amounts of linoleic acid and other omega-6 unsaturated
fatty acids probably benefits the heart.
controlled trials – considered the gold standard for medical research –
have never shown that linoleic acid-based dietary interventions reduce
the risk of heart attacks or deaths.
The largest of these trials,
the Minnesota Coronary Experiment (MCE), was conducted by researchers at
the University of Minnesota between1968 and 1973. It enrolled 9,423
patients in six state mental hospitals and one state-run nursing home.
Its results did not appear in a medical journal until 1989. The
investigators reported then that a switch to corn oil from butter and
other saturated fats did lower cholesterol levels but made no difference
in terms of heart attacks, deaths due to heart attacks, or overall
In the course of investigating the health effects of
linoleic acid-rich oils, the team of investigators led by Chris Ramsden,
a medical investigator at the National Institutes of Health, came
across the MCE study and the 1989 paper.
“Looking closely, we
realized that some of the important analyses that the MCE investigators
had planned to do were missing from the paper,” Zamora said.
the help of Robert Frantz, the son of the deceased MCE principal
investigator, the team was able to recover much of the raw data from the
study, which had been stored away for decades in files and on magnetic
tapes. The team also found some trial data and analyses in a University
of Minnesota master’s degree thesis written by written by Steven K.
Broste, a student of one of the original investigators.
recovered data to perform analyses that had been pre-specified by the
MCE investigators but never published, the team confirmed the
cholesterol-lowering effect of the dietary intervention.
But they also
found that in the recovered autopsy records, the corn oil group had
almost twice the number of heart attacks as the control group.
most strikingly, graphed summaries contained in Broste’s thesis
indicated that in the intervention group, women and patients older than
65 experienced roughly 15 percent more deaths during the trial, compared
to their control group counterparts.
“We did not recover the
individual patient data underlying those graphs and so we couldn’t
determine whether those differences were statistically significant,”
She also cautioned that the other analyses were based
on only partial recovery of patient data from the MCE files, so it
would be premature to conclude from them that replacing saturated fats
with corn oil is actually harmful to heart health.
In a much-cited
study published in 2013, however, Ramsden, Zamora and colleagues were
able to recover unpublished data from a smaller trial, the Sydney Diet
Heart Study, and there they also found more cases of heart disease and
death among patients who received a linoleic acid intervention
(safflower oil), compared to controls.
Following their recovery of
data from the MCE study, the researchers added new data to their
existing datasets from the Sydney study and the other three published
randomized clinical trials of linoleic acid-based dietary interventions.
In a meta-analysis of the combined data, they again found no evidence
that these interventions reduced deaths from heart disease or deaths
from all causes.
“There were some differences among these studies, but on the whole they didn’t really disagree,” said Zamora.
linoleic acid-containing oils would lower cholesterol but worsen or at
least fail to reduce heart attack risk is a subject of ongoing research
and lively debate. Some studies suggest that these oils can – under
certain circumstances – cause inflammation, a known risk factor for
heart disease. There is also some evidence they can promote
atherosclerosis when the oils are chemically modified in a process