We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Monday, February 22, 2016
Scientists Work out how Create Matter from light, to Finally prove Einstein’s E=mc2
I do think that matter can be produced from light, although we need to understand that the photons involved have to be large enough and to have sufficient energy. Then i do not think that smashing them together is likely to be productive. I suspect that they need to be sub parallel at the least.
We have galactic jets produced by so called black holes. It is my contention that mass is consumed and is converted into light which exits the gravitational pull of the so called Black Hole. This light is all generally sub parallel accommodating a coalescence back into matter in the obvious form of hot hydrogen atoms.
This is why it is possible to have a 5000 year long jet that is not affected by gravity as would be inevitable if we were dealing with matter. In fact short range Black Hole Radiation produces a natural cloud of hot Hydrogen atoms. Thus we have a huge bright object in the center of the Galaxy.
The jet itself is formed by another natural phenomena in which a part of the surface of the Black hole temporarily subsided and converted an appreciable amount of matter into light in one huge pulse. Magnetics will control when and where and it may never repeat as a long term balance is then established.
Scientists work out how create matter from light, to finally prove Einstein’s E=mc2
Physicists in England claim they have discovered how to create matter from light, by smashing together individual massless photons– a feat that was first theorized back in 1934, and has been considered practically impossible until now. If this new discovery pans out, the final piece of the physics jigsaw puzzle that describes how light and matter interact would be complete. No one’s quite sure of the repercussions if matter can indeed be produced from photon-photon collision, but I’m sure something awesomely scientific will emerge before long.
Way back in 1930, British theoretical physicist Paul Dirac theorized that an electron and its antimatter counterpart (a positron) could be annihilated (combined) to produce two photons. Then, in 1934, two physicists — Breit and Wheeler — proposed that the opposite should also be true: That two photons could be smashed together to produce an electron and positron (a Breit-Wheeler pair). In other words, that light can be converted into matter, and vice versa — or, to phrase it another way, E=mc2 works in both directions. This would close one of the last gaps in particle physics that has been theorized, but has proven very hard to prove through observation.
Various photon-mass reactions, theorized and proven over the years
The reason it’s proven hard to observe is that photons, a lot like neutrinos or electrons, are incredibly small. Furthermore, photons are massless. These two factors make it very, very hard to collide two photons together. Basically, the only real way of guaranteeing any collisions is to pump some beams of photons up to massive energy levels (think billions of times more energetic than normal visible light), inject them into a small space, and then hope that a few Breit-Wheeler pairs are created.
That is essentially the crux of this new discovery: Steven Rose and Oliver Pike of Imperial College London have come up with a way of getting the photons up to the necessary energy levels to guarantee some collisions. They propose the use of a high-powered laser, which would then slam into a slab of gold, producing a high-intensity gamma ray (photons). Then, further down the line you would have a gold hohlraum (literally hollow space), also excited by a laser to produce a big, fat field of photons. You then smash the gamma ray into the hohlraum (pictured at the top of the story) and, according to Rose and Pike, you get some electrons and positrons flying out the other end. Voila: Proof that Breit and Wheeler knew what they were talking about. [doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.95 – “A photon–photon collider in a vacuum hohlraum”]
What a gamma ray burst might look like
In nature, photon-photon collisions are thought to occur during gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs are the most violent explosions that our universe can produce — that we’ve discovered, anyway — and they occur vary rarely, usually during a super or hypernova. A nearby GRB would probably wipe out most of the life on Earth. Perhaps more importantly, though, it’s believed that the Big Bang itself — during the first 100 seconds or so of the creation of the universe — would’ve also played host to these photon-photon collisions. We desperately want to find out more about the universe’s first few seconds, and recreating some of those primordial processes here on Earth is one of the best ways of doing just that.
For now, this discovery is purely theoretical — but Rose and Pike say that there are plenty of laboratories around the world that have the equipment to perform photon-photon collisions. High-power lasers are ten a penny nowadays, and hohlraums are usually used in fusion experiments. “The race to carry out and complete the experiment is on,” Pike says.