There is plenty to digest in this chapter, but all examples of the same processes.
They do not create the current.
When B is in the z direction and F is in the y direction in Cartesian coordinates, then the resulting velocity vp is in the x direction.
How this comes about is as follows:
- In Case A, the perpendicular velocity is independent of the charge on the particle. This results in the special case of ions and electrons both drifting in the same direction, as we saw when considering the concentration of matter by filamentary currents.
- Ions and electrons will therefore move in opposite directions, resulting in a current, charge separation, and zones of different potential (i.e., electric fields). All these effects will occur simply as a result of the interaction of gravity and a magnetic field. Obviously these effects will then start to cause secondary effects of their own, and complex plasma behavior can result. (Ref: Fundamentals of Cosmic Electrodynamics, Boris V. Somov, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994, Chapter 2, Motion of a Charged Particle in Given Fields)
- In addition, the dependence of the velocity on the mass of the particles can also result in chemical separation of different ions, or Marklund Convection.
- One case in particular is of interest here. Consider the Earth and its magnetic field, which can be visualized as field lines spreading out into near space arranged somewhat like the segments of an orange. In the equatorial plane, the field will be aligned north-south. The gravitational force will be radially inwards and so at right angles to the field.
- Any ions and electrons in the vicinity, for example, in the ionosphere, will therefore acquire velocities perpendicular to both B and g under the combined influence of gravity and the magnetic field. Because the velocities of ions and electrons are in opposite directions, this is equivalent to a current flowing in a ring around the equatorial plane. The Van Allen belts are examples of ring currents.
- This is an inevitable result of the presence of charged particles in a magnetic field orientated at right angles to the gravitational field. A current will always be generated in this situation. Several of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn exhibit these currents, evidenced by the electromagnetic radiation where the induced currents come in contact with the planets’ atmospheres in the vicinity of their polar auroral ovals.
- If a volume of plasma is accelerated to a particular velocity due to, for example, an I × B force in the region (which accelerates oppositely moving ions and electrons in the same perpendicular direction), then the plasma has acquired kinetic energy at the expense of the circuit driving the current.
- If this volume of moving plasma then enters another region where it can establish a circuit in the local plasma, its velocity vp will cause a current perpendicular to both B and vp . The interaction of this current with B will cause a force on the moving plasma which slows it down. In other words, the plasma’s kinetic energy is given up again in generating a current in a new location.
- Therefore the interaction of the inertial motion of charged particles and a magnetic field is a means by which kinetic energy can be exchanged with electromagnetic energy, and therefore it is a means by which energy can be transported between different locations.
By contrast, the Gravity Model postulates very high density neutron stars rotating up to thousands of times a second in order to explain this commonly-observed phenomenon.