We discuss and comment on the role agriculture will play in the containment of the CO2 problem and address protocols for terraforming the planet Earth.
A model farm template is imagined as the central methodology. A broad range of timely science news and other topics of interest are commented on.
Monday, December 14, 2015
Guide to the EU – Chapter 10 Rotational Effects
As I have posted before. we have produced Dark Matter in a vacuum tube in a lab. It really does exists and it is the dominant source of gravity in the Galaxy. However, it forms a non compressible fluid and regular matter gives us all the local variation. Thus the Faraday Motor aspect should also be significant.
Dark matter on its own is sufficient to provide the magnitude of apparent gravitational potential but must not be mistaken for mass.
Essential Guide to the EU – Chapter 10 Rotational Effects
One of the reasons for the assumption
of large amounts of Cryogenic (or Cold) Dark Matter (CDM) in the
Gravity Model is to explain the observed rotation of galaxies.
Astronomers have found that the individual stars in galaxies do not
orbit the center of the galaxy in accordance with Kepler’s Laws for the
motion of the planets. More specifically, the stars outside the central
bulge of a galaxy all have approximately the same angular velocity,
rotating more like a rigidly connected disk, but according to Kepler’s
laws, the velocity should be less as distance from the center increases.
A diagram of stars’ angular velocity
(increasing upward on the y-axis) plotted against radial distance from
the center along the x-axis, left to right, rises at first, then
flattens out past the “bulge” as the stars all start to have more or
less the same rotation rate regardless of distance. This is the
puzzling “flat galaxy rotation” curve often discussed in science.
Galaxy M33's rotation curve, courtesy U. of Sheffield (UK), Particle Physics and Astrophysics Group
Adding a large quantity of Dark Matter
in a halo around each galaxy could modify the gravitational force
sufficiently to make the stars behave in the way they do. This is now
accepted as part of the Standard Model in astrophysics. Dark matter
itself has never been directly observed or handled in a lab setting. It
is dark, after all, by definition; and by definition only
interacts via the gravitational force with “normal” observable matter.However, there is another way stars could be made to orbit a galaxy in
Michael Faraday found (circa 1831-1832, from The Electric Life of Michael Faraday
by Alan Hirshfeld, Walker & Co., 2006) that a metal disk rotating
in a magnetic field aligned with the axis of the disk would cause an
electric current to flow radially in the disk, so he invented the first
generator, known as a Unipolar Inductor, or Faraday Generator. The
effect eventually was proved to be a result of the Lorentz Force acting
on the electrons in the disk as they moved across the magnetic field.
Sample Faraday disk, worked problem, from Electromagnetics, 2d Ed., Schaum's Outlines, courtesy McGraw-Hill
If the current is supplied by an
external circuit, the disk is made to rotate by the same force now
acting on the electrons in the current. Of course the rotational
velocity of the disk sets up different forces which oppose the driving
current, and a balance is reached between the two. This arrangement is
known as a Faraday Motor.
Galaxies are known, through precise
Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the polarization of the light they
emit, to possess magnetic fields aligned with their axes of rotation,
and they also have conducting plasma among their stars. Assuming that
currents exist in the plane of the galaxy similar to the equatorial
current sheet known to exist in the Solar System, then the conditions
appear to be similar to that in a Unipolar Inductor or Faraday Motor. Of
course the disk in this case is not rigid. The exact mode of rotation
would depend on the balance between the radial driving current and the
rotationally induced opposing current, as in a Faraday Motor, but it is
at least possible that it is these electrical effects that are causing
the anomalous rotation that we see, not some huge quantity of invisible
In this context, it is interesting to
see the recent discovery by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of a ring of
stars in the equatorial plane of the Milky Way but outside our galaxy.
The similarity with a toroidal current around a pinch in a large
Birkeland Current along the axis of the Milky Way suggests that once
again electrical forces on a galactic scale may be responsible for the
formations we see.
The Milky Way's unexpected ring of stars, discovered by (and image courtesy of) the Sloan Digital Sky Survey)
Structures similar to Faraday Motors
have been observed in nebulae as well. One of the most obvious examples
is in the Crab Nebula, where the Chandra X-ray image demonstrates very
clearly all the required elements of an inductor or motor arrangement.
courtesy, Chandra X-ray telescope, one of NASA's Great Observatories
10.2 Spiral Galaxies and Birkeland Currents
Anthony Peratt, who was mentioned above,
has also carried out particle-in-cell computer simulations of
interacting Birkeland currents. He found that the shape and rotational
characteristics of spiral galaxies, including barred spirals, which are a
very common form in space, arise naturally from the interplay of
electromagnetic forces in large Birkeland currents.
is inherent in the attractive forces between two parallel currents, as
shown in this supercomputer plasma filament time-step simulation by
Anthony Peratt in Figure 3.19 in Ch. 3 of his textbook, Physics of the
Plasma Universe, 1992, Springer-Verlag
This result may help explain the origin of rotational energies in galaxies, which gravity-based theories find hard to do.