This is an excellent analysis of the difficulties of internal ramping systems or for that matter external ramping systems or for that matter any such ramp at all. They can be used for much smaller structures and have been but never for something this huge.
The important thing is that it can be done on time and on budget using their technology and demanding no special dispensation. Even as important it was the contract that ignited the European Bronze Age and the Atlantean Global Thalassocracy only truly replicated under the Spanish and the British during the past four centuries. This era lasted from 2400 BC through 1159BC and is extremely important although not yet understood at ball.
- This pyramid appears to be the final evolution of pyramid building that evolved from the mud brick mastabas which were supposedly the resting place of important dignitaries.
- The Great Pyramid has only one cartouche above the King’s chamber that purports to indicate that it is the burial chamber of Khufu (Cheops).[ i am comfortable that this cartouche was faked - arclein ]
- This pyramid was covered with smooth white casing stones that partially collapsed after a severe earthquake and were later used as a “quarry” to construct some buildings in Cairo, notably the Mosque and Madrassa of Sultan Hassan (completed in 1359). Some of these stones contained hieroglyphics. The Greek historian Herodotus claims to have seen the Great Pyramid before the casing stones were removed.[ conforming to 2400 BC dates i suspect - arclein ]
- If some of the casing stones did contain hieroglyphics and if these stones were scattered around Lower Egypt, finding them and deciphering them could lead to some further understanding as to the construction of the pyramid.
- Such a void would have to be quite a bit inboard of the outer face of the pyramid so that there is enough solid pyramid stone above the void thereby allowing an adequate pathway for the structural transfer of loads to the walls of the void. Even so, as the ancient Mayans intuitively understood, there would be a tendency to “spread” the ceiling stones of the internal ramp apart, leading to instability and collapse; the Mayans solved this by installing timber tie-beams across the spring point of their vaulted ceilings.
- Following this train of thought, there is a reason why the King’s Chamber is approximately in the center of the pyramid; the tendency of the granite roof slabs to “spread” is limited by the equal dead weight of the pyramid mass on either side of the spring point of these stones. If the Chamber was closer to the outboard face of the pyramid, there would be an unequal dead load resisting the spread of the granite slabs and the “outboard” limestone core blocks could not resist the horizontal thrust forces.
- If the internal ramp could be constructed without “corbelling”, it would require a significant amount of very stout granite slabs, and the question is, how would these much larger and heavier stones be placed? Using the King’s Chamber as an example, each one of these void ceiling stones in the internal ramp could weigh 20-30 tons, or more, each. That is an enormous amount of Aswan granite to haul up the pyramid ramps just to form the internal ramp as it advances!
- For an internal ramp to make any sense for building the upper two-thirds of the pyramid – assuming that the bottom third was constructed with an external ramp – the entire length of the internal ramp would have to be maintained for the entire duration of the construction phase. This would create quite a large “hollow” space around much of the perimeter of the entire pyramid. This would be a considerably unstable exterior for the entire pyramid. And, given the frequency of earthquakes in the area, the probability of a catastrophic failure of the pyramid would be assured. Since we know that a catastrophic earthquake dislodged the casing stones, it would have also have impacted such an unstable internal ramp.
- Even if the internal ramp was used, and it had to be somewhat “inboard” of the perimeter of the pyramid, it begs the question, once a stone is delivered to the head of the internal ramp, how is it placed between the side of the internal ramp and the exterior plane? Even more difficult would be the placement of the final casing stones if the internal ramp already existed. This leads to a further question and that is; in the internal ramp scheme, how are the casing stones placed and how are they dressed and carved with hieroglyphics?
- One would also question what becomes of the sleds that were dragged up the ramps once they delivered their cargo of limestone core blocks.
- The ancient Egyptians had no ability to empirically determine the size and spanning ability of stone. Their entire building technology was developed over millennia by the “trial and error” method. The failure of the earlier “bent pyramid” attests to that. So, there doesn’t appear to be any precedent for having built such an internal ramp either before or after the Khufu pyramid. It is therefore seemingly illogical to conclude that such a challenging and unique “solution” would have been devised “out of the blue” and used just once.
- Egyptologists have demonstrated the feasibility of a number of ancient Egyptian technologies and construction techniques through actual example in the field. This approach is admired to solving a problem. However, the use of highly sophisticated 3-D computer technology software programs that were used to graphically show an internal ramp, only demonstrates that something can be drawn, but does not support the probability that it can actually be built in the real world. Yes, some complex shapes can be drawn and built, but just because a complex shape can be drawn does not mean that the shape makes any sense to actually build. Computer graphics can mislead us into believing that since something is in the memory cells of our hard drive, it must be buildable and therefore the solution must be correct!
- The slope of a six-foot wide ramp would require a great amount of work to maintain. As this ramp sloped higher and higher, the corbelled vault above it would have to be elevated also. This would introduce a level of complex geometry that would slow construction and add unnecessary difficulty.
- To pull a 2.5-ton stone efficiently, the surface on which it is pulled needs to have a low coefficient-of-friction. This is difficult to attain between a sled and stone and the sloped ramp surface, and at the same time provide a reasonable surface on which the “pullers” are able to gain traction.
- As a ramp ascends upward at, say 6-degrees, it would rise approximately 24″ every 21′ of run. If the run was 100′, the rise would be about 10-feet’. To make a complete four-sided turn around the pyramid, the rise in this internal ramp would be over 40-feet. This would require that virtually every course be sloped to allow for a continuous 6′ wide x 6′ high passage, plus the height of the corbel vault. It would also require that every corbelled course change in elevation to allow for headroom. This would require an unwarranted amount of labor and skill to create such a ramp.
- A 2.5-ton stone in a 6′ wide ramp leaves no room for more than one rope to pull the stone and a maximum of one puller on each side of this rope, forming a column of multiple pullers.
- A 2.5-ton stone = 5000# ; each “puller” can exert approximately 100# –125# of pulling force, at best, on a level plane. This would result in 20-25 “pullers” when the coefficient-of-friction of a sled and stone was 0.4–0.5. However at a 6-degree slope (the near maximum attainable slope for “pulling” in ancient Egypt), the number of pullers would have to increase to perhaps 30-40 pullers. If these pullers were spaced 5′ apart and the puller nearest to the stone was at 8′ from the stone, the total pulling column would be 20 pullers x 5-feet, plus 8-feet, plus the length of the sled, or about 115-feet long. Assuming that the first puller in the column didn’t want to fall off the pyramid, the rear of the stone would be about 115-feet from the edge of the pyramid at the head of the ramp so that a crane could lift it and then rotate it to the next upward sloping ramp. This required space would result in a large corner opening of 115-feet x 115-feet on each side; an enormous opening that would be very difficult to fill in later because of its location.
- If each corner had such a large gap, one would certainly question not only the feasibility of closing in such an opening later in construction, but in maintaining the geometry of the four sloped sides and the diagonal lines of the corners.
- By even a conservative calculation, core stones for the pyramid had to be delivered every minute and returning timber sleds had to be recycled down the same internal ramp. This would not be possible within such a confined space as an internal ramp.
- The internal ramp is too dimensionally restrictive and requires a high level of specialized stonemasonry when construction duration may have been a strong or real consideration.
- In reviewing other rational approaches to building a pyramid, a combination of outside earthen ramps and exterior “ledge ramps” should be considered. The external ramp approach should not be discounted so quickly by those who are infatuated by the new and novel “internal ramp solution”. A continuous ledge ramp corkscrewing around the outer edge of the pyramid is a real possibility.