The official HAARP facility is located in Gakuna, Alaska. The site consists of a collection of antennae, arranged in a computer-controlled grid, known as a "phased array." A phased array has the ability to focus radio signals in a precise direction, without the necessity of turning the antennae. Modern radar systems no longer use the revolving dish that we have come to recognize. The new radar antennae, which rely on phased arrays, look more like the flat screen of a drive-in movie, speckled with small umbrella-like antennae in neat rows. The phased array in HAARP is not a radar, but it uses some of the same extremely high frequencies to focus a powerful radio beam to specific locations in the Earth's ionosphere.
The ionosphere is a layer of charged particles (or "ions") located about 60-90 kilometers above the Earth's surface. It is the layer which reflects short wave radio waves and makes it possible for a transmitter in New York to send a signal to Tokyo. Short waves may be good enough to send The Voice of America broadcasts, but they are subject to noise and static. Short wave signals lose much of their power as they travel and can even be blocked by the weather and sunspot activity.
Extremely High Frequency waves, on the other hand, are much shorter than short waves. They travel in compact, narrowly focused, beams. They do not encounter static or deteriorate from rain or clouds. Since they retain their strength over long distances, they are preferred for most point-to-point communications. Unfortunately, though, EHF waves (including microwaves) do not naturally reflect and bounce off of the ionosphere. For this reason, high frequency waves are said to propagate along the "line of sight." If you own a satellite television dish, you know that it is important for your antenna to be pointed in the direction of the satellite. This is because you are receiving extremely high frequency waves.
The heated portion of the ionosphere expands like heated plastic and is raised to a higher altitude, causing an atmospheric "bulge." Eastlund discovered that this bulge was highly reflective to radio waves, and, because of its altitude, it could bounce high frequency radio signals to points well beyond the horizon. Even efficient ELF and microwaves signals, which normally would pass through the ionosphere into space, could be deflected without much loss of strength. He called this heated "bulge" the "lens effect."
Eastlund's first patent (US #4,686,605) was for a "method and apparatus for altering a region in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and or magnetosphere." His second patent described the reflection of a second signal, using the ionospheric bulge, to distant locations on the Earth's surface. Eastlund had been working with the Atlantic Richfield Company, holders of a massive reserve of natural gas under Alaska's north slope. ARCO bought Eastlund's first two patents with the understanding that this new technology would make it possible for their natural gas reserves, too expensive to be piped from Alaska, to be converted to electrical energy on the north slope, and then bounced off the heated ionosphere to customers in remote locations around the globe. Also, because Eastlund's "heaters" could elevate the Earth's ionosphere, his discovery provided the ability to control weather! Jet streams could be altered, tornadoes could be zapped and rain could be made-- anywhere and anytime-- right here and right now! But the military had other plans.
Eastlund's patents were sealed under a US Secrecy Order. The military realized that his first patent outlined the recipe for an over-the-horizon radar apparatus, capable of detecting Soviet launched ICBM's within seconds of their launch. His second patent was even more appetizing. President Ronald Regan's infamous Star Wars program had challenged the military with tall order. Their complex laser systems, nuke satellites and rail-guns didn't work. The military were years from meeting Pentagon goals. Now, unexpectedly, their prayers had been answered. Eastlund's "energy transmission system" would be turned into the ultimate "death ray."
When we speak of "short" waves or "extremely short" waves, we are speaking about the distance that a radio signal must travel to produce one complete (often called "sign wave") positive and negative cycle. Electrons travel at the speed of light, a constant velocity in the universe, estimated to be 300,000,000 meters per second. The frequency of a radio signal is the number of complete "positive-negative" cycles that occur in a second (called "hertz"). A frequency of 15,000,000 (or 15 million hertz) means that the electrical energy is changing from positive to negative at the rate of 15-million times a second. To determine the "length" of this frequency, or "wavelength," we simply divide the velocity of light, 300,000,000 meters per second, by the frequency, say 15,000,000 cycles per second, to arrive at a distance in meters. Thus, 15 MHz would equal 20 meters.
The length of a radio antenna is determined by the frequency that it is designed to transmit or receive. In the case above (15 MHz), the ideal length of a long wire antenna would be 20 meters. However, this is not always practical. Engineers have found that they can successfully divide the length in half, or in a quarter of the full wavelength, and still maintain both transmission and reception of the prescribed signal frequency.
If one uses this formula to determine the wavelength of ELF signals, which range from 30 to 3000 hertz, one can easily see why extremely long antennae are needed, as pictured in Viewzone's Unusual Photograph of January 1999, even if a quarter wavelength is used.
The US military was not the only investigator of "ionospheric heaters." The Russians conducted their own research with similar systems, based on Eastlund's technology. Other heaters also conducted research in Norway, Brazil and Puerto Rico. Russian "bigger is better" programs, however, beamed huge amounts of electromagnetic power at the ionosphere, successfully bouncing volleys of electromagnetic energy back to the Earth's surface. At these higher power levels, the heated ionosphere acted like a powerful battery, storing, amplifying and discharging destructive beams of energy that could devastate a distant target on demand, in seconds. At that time, the Russians (USSR) lacked the powerful computing facilities that were required to direct and control this energy beam.
To be precise, calculations for bouncing these energy beams must take into account the rotation of the Earth, the angle of reflectance, and a variety of complex, dynamic factors. The US had the power of CRAY and EMASS computer systems, but lacked the power output capabilities of the Russian heaters. HAARP would change that.
In 1995, the US military sought congressional funding for a "super-heater," a world class HAARP installation that would be capable of exceeding the Russian power outputs many times over. But there was a snag. The American public had been told that the Star Wars program was a "defensive" weapon. President Regan had even offered to share this technology with other countries to establish a "shield of peace" that would forever inhibit nuclear proliferation. But would the American public fund a "death ray" which could deliver "first strike" capabilities to any point on the globe within seconds? Even the military doubted that this would be an easy sale.
Since their installation in America's dairyland, ELF signals were becoming a sensitive topic. Research was showing that ELF radiation was extremely harmful. Dr. Cletus Kanavy, chief of the biological effects group of the Phillips Laboratory's Electromagnetic Effects Division at Kirkland Air Force Base in New Mexico, stated that "the entire issue of human interaction with electromagnetic (RF & microwave) radiation is... a major national population health concern." (Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation: A White Paper, Microwave News at 12, September/October 1993).
Dr. Kanavy noted the "large amount of data, both animal experimental and human clinical, to support the existence of chronic, non-thermal effects." These effects include behavioral aberrations, neural network perturbations, fetal (embryonic) tissue damage (inducing birth defects), cataractogenesis (cataracts), altered blood chemistry, metabolic changes and suppression of the endocrine and immune systems. There were also cases of sudden and unexplained mutations in frogs and wildlife in the radiation paths of ELF installations. It was only a matter of time before the public outcry would prohibit ELF transmitters.
(see Superimposing Spatially Coherent Electromagnetic Noise Inhibits Field Induced Abnormalities In Chick Embryos, Journal Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 15, No.2 at 105-113, 1994; Adey, Whispering Between Cells: Electromagnetic Fields And Regulatory Mechanisms In Tissue, Frontier Perspectives, Vol. 3, No. 2, Fall 1993; Smith, Best, Electromagnetic Man, Chapter 10, St. Martin's Press, N.Y. 1989; "Effects of Electromagnetic Fields" in Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 51:140 at 410-411, 1993))
Someone in Congress realized the public safety implications of ELF waves-- even if they were to be generated by HAARP. The funding for HAARP was delayed while the Pentagon quickly assured the congressional committees that the ELF programs would be scuttled and replaced by HAARP's "high frequencies" which were, after all, "harmless." Congress thereby appropriated 16 million dollars for HAARP's initial expansion. But was the HAARP really doing away with ELF radiation? Not at all.(see 104th Congress, 1st session, Report 104-24 at 190, July 28, 1995)
The military's own Executive Summary of the HAARP program clearly states their reliance on ELF waves. Instead of transmitting these waves from ground based transmitters, HAARP created these waves through the use of "pulse" transmissions of their HF energy beams. Or, to put it another way, HAARP duplicated the ELF signals by turning their signal on and off at rates (30 to 3000 cycles per second) within the ELF range. The result was that ELF radiation could be directed to a specific area on the surface of the planet, at will.
"The potential exists for generating such waves by ground-based heating of the ionosphere. The heater is used to modulate the conductivity of the lower ionosphere, which in turn modulates ionospheric currents. This modulated current, in effect, produces a virtual antenna in the ionosphere for the radiation of radio waves. The technique has already been used to generate ELF/VLF signals at a number of vertical HF heating facilities in the West and the Soviet Union. To date, however, these efforts have been confined to essentially basic research studies, and few attempts have been made to investigate ways to increase the efficiency of such ELF/VLF generation to make it attractive for communications applications. In this regard, heater generated ELF would be attractive if it could provide significantly stronger signals than those available from the Navy's existing antenna systems in Wisconsin and Michigan." "Recent theoretical research suggests that this may be possible, provided the appropriate HF heating facility was available. Because this area of research appears especially promising, and because of existing Department of Defense requirements for ELF and VLF, it is already a primary driver of the proposed research program."
(Executive Summary, Section 2.2) All of these potentially harmful effects clearly violate the US government's own Environmental Protection Agency's doctrine. Congress established, through NEPA, that it is the policy of the federal government to "create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony." 42 U.S.C. Sec. 4331(a).
To date, there have been eleven other patents derived from Eastlund's original work. These patents describe the reflective alterations of the ionosphere for such uses as "nuclear scale explosions without radiation," "power-beaming systems," "over-the-horizon radar systems," and "nuclear missile detection and destruction systems." Further, the patents are now owned by Raytheon, a long-standing defense contractor, and can now be combined with other military patents and used for battlefield applications.
Eastlund's original research recognized the military uses for his discoveries. A review of his patent applications shows how this technology can be used:
"...ability to put unprecedented amounts of power in Earth's atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more precise and better controlled than heretofore accomplished by the prior art, particularly by detonation of nuclear devices of various yields at various altitudes..." "...It is possible not only to interfere with third party communications but to take advantage of one or more such beams to carry out a communications network even though the rest of the world's communications are disrupted. Put in another way, what is used to disrupt another's communications can be employed by one knowledgeable of this invention as a communication network at the same time..."
"...large regions of the atmosphere could be lifted to an unexpectedly high altitude so that missiles encounter unexpected and unplanned drag forces with resultant destruction."
Additional research indicates that funding was approved to develop a tomographic scanning apparatus back in 1996. This ability to penetrate deep within the Earth, to scan for caves, munitions storage and potential enemy shelters, is specifically outlined as part of the funding agreement. But the same wavelengths used in this tomographic scanning are powerful ELF radiation. And once located, strategic targets can be destroyed by changing the frequency and power of the directional beam. In short, the 104th Congress was duped into funding a "death ray." Recent (FY-1999) budget requests have included huge appropriations for the Navy, with emphasis on anti-missile technologies. The Navy is also developing high-altitude manned and unmanned vehicles at secret locations, such as those in Nevada. One such project is called "Aurora," suggesting a link to this new technology. It is our belief that this electromagnetic beam system is currently on-line.
Perhaps we can justify this dangerous manipulation of nature by convincing ourselves that America is the only remaining super-power, with morality and capability to be Earth's police force. Certainly this kind of lethal power is better controlled by a democracy than, say, a terrorist regime like Libya, or an unstable government like Iraq. The potential for building a HAARP type of installation is well within the technology and budget of even the poorest country. It involves no nuclear fuel and can be constructed covertly. Computing power is now virtually unlimited. The country that has such a capability on-line first, and is able to detect and destroy other such devices, could maintain the balance of power and control of the globe.
HAARP technology is presently under suspicion by a number of scientists around the world. The ionosphere has been described as a delicate "bubble" of charged particles that, much like the ozone layer, serves as a thin skin, protecting us against high energy particles that regularly stream towards Earth from the Sun. Even a temporary "hole" or rip in this ion field could result in the collision of these particles with our genetic and biologic molecules, causing mutations or death. Some scientists even worry that the ionosphere could collapse from electrical imbalance. They ask, "Can we really afford the risk of tampering with something that we do not yet fully understand, and which belongs to all life (not just human) on this planet?" HAARP has even been accused of environmental vandalism.
The Earth has a solid metallic core and a rotating mass of electrical conducting, liquid rock called the mantle. This makes the Earth behave like a giant dynamo, with a strong magnetic field. Not every planet has this. The magnetic field, or magnetosphere, is important for the existence of life, as we know it. It effectively diverts the solar wind as it throws charged, high energy particles towards the Earth. These magnetic fields are furthest from the Earth at the equator and they actually meet the planet surface in the Arctic regions. The latter phenomenon is the reason for locating ionospheric "heaters" near the polar regions of Earth, where they are most accessible and vulnerable to unnatural influences.
The solar wind is so powerful that it distorts the magnetosphere, causing the part facing the Sun to become compressed (left) and the side opposite to the Sun (right) to have a "tail," similar to the tail of comets. Together with the lower ionosphere, these charged atmospheres are essential for maintaining the radiation-free environment on our planet. Like the ozone layer, they are fragile but essential to life. The irresponsible damage to these ecosystems could turn HAARP into a weapon of total destruction. For more information on Solar Wind, and the dangers that these periodic disturbances cause to life on Earth, see "Storms on the Sun" in February's Viewzone. ViewZone contacted HAARP, through their web site, in the preparation of this story. At first, our inquiries were treated lightly. We were assured that HAARP was purely a research facility with no classified status. When we submitted some of the material referenced in this story, we were told that there was no basis to support such activity at HAARP's Gakona facility. We were reminded that HAARP has an open web site, with ample pictures and public disclosures. We were asked, "Would a classified military operation act this way?"
A review of the Congressional appropriations indicates that the proposed HAARP facility was to be located in Alaska's Poker Flat rocket range (see Executive Summary parts 4.3 and 4.2.1) a flat, spacious and remote facility about 30 miles north of Fairbanks. The Executive Summary states any number of reasons why this tundra location is ideal. However, Gakona, the site depicted on HAARP's web site, is located 260 miles south of Poker Flats, in the rugged mountain country of the Alaska Range. Was there some mistake, or was the "public" HAARP program built in Gakona, while the classified projects were being constructed at Poker Flats, as planned?
We put this question bluntly to HAARP. Rather than answer with their usual candor, we received the following reply:
Viewzone: Can you comment on the wording of the appropriations statement that was submitted to the 104th Congress, as quoted in my e-mail?
"As I have mentioned to you numerous times, this e-mail account is for the purpose of answering "technical" questions about the HAARP program. The anti-HAARP claims are easily refuted on a technical basis alone and I have given you the technical facts which do exactly that. The bottom line is that HAARP is technically capable of operating as an ionospheric observatory capable only, of conducting limited ionospheric studies which will yield enormous knowledge that will be useful in the design of reliable, high performance communication and navigation systems for the DoD as well as the private sector. It has about as much value as a weapon as the Keck Observatory in Hawaii or the Very Large Array in New Mexico."
Viewzone also asked the inventor, Dr. Bernard Eastlund, about his technology. Dr. Eastlund informed us that the patents he transferred are capable of doing everything that he stated. We asked him to comment on the fact that his discoveries had been acquired for military, rather than humane use.
Doctor Eastlund: "With some funding from the European Space Agency I have been able to address some of the issues you raised. In particular, I have continued to develop concepts that speak to the civilian (or humane) issues rather than the military. I have taken a hard look at the potential beneficial effects of the root technology and have developed a new concept for prevention of tornado formation in mesocylones based on heating cold downdrafts within the storm with microwave radiation from a satellite based source. The concept is called the Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite. I presented a paper entitled, "Systems Considerations of Weather Modification Experiments Using High Power electromagnetic Radiation" at the "Workshop on Space Exploration and Resources Exploitation-Ex[plospace 20-22 October, 1998, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. The Systems Study indicates a possibility it might work, but raises issues of safety and the ability of diagnostics and numerical simulation capabilities to monitor and predict behavior of a storm.
If successful, it might be possible to prevent the formation of destructive tornadoes. This could be a very positive outgrowth of my original work. Further extrapolations of the technology may also be useful in hurricane mitigation.
Regarding safety. I believe it is the paramount issue. Unless these applications can be shown to be safe no experimentation should be initiated. My Company has adopted safety guidelines which include guidelines prepared by the NAS for global warming mitigation experiments and a few that were added to ensure that the systems are not used for military purposes. The guidelines are included in a paper I gave yesterday at a conference on '"The Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS for Disaster Management." held January 19-21, 1999 at the George Washington University. Copy attached. Note in the guidelines I have made a strong recommendation for international control. In the future, Dr. Eastlund's technologies will change our planet. Electrical energy will be available everywhere, without the need for transmission lines. Disasters from severe thunderstorms and tornadoes will be minimized, climates will be made milder, and food production will be enhanced by illuminated skies and ample rainfall. Global communication will be inexpensive. Critical ozone will be replenished. And, most importantly, nuclear weapons will have been made obsolete by the abilities to detect and destroy enemy installations. Terrorism will also be made much more difficult. In short, Eastlund's discoveries provide inexpensive energy and an end to draught and hunger-- the major causes of human violence.
But these humane applications are still in the future. Eastlund's patents remain under the control of the military industrial complex. We are more likely to see an instantaneous "death ray," or mass "mind control" mechanisms, before Eastlund's discoveries make the planet a better place to live.
"And he performed great and miraculous signs, even causing fire to come down from heaven to Earth in full view of men." —Revelations 13:13
International Committee of the Red Cross, Expert Meeting on Certain Weapons Systems and on Implementation Mechanisms in International Law ,July 1994;
Metz, Kievit, The Revolution In Military Affairs And Conflict Short Of War, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College at 9 (July 1994);
Heating Up The Air Waves, Jane's Defense Weekly, Vol. 23, No.13;
Hayeslip, Preszler, NIJ Initiative On Less-Than-Lethal Weapons, National Institute of Justice at 16-18 ,March 1993;
Edwardson, The Right To Prevent The Commission Of International Crimes, International Health And Alternative Medicine Conference (October 9-10, 1993);
Smith, Best, Electromagnetic Man, Chapter 10 (St. Martin's Press, N.Y. 1989)