Monday, October 13, 2014

Andrea Rossi's E-Cat Confirmed!


 This report finally bells the cat on the reality of what was discovered two decades ago by Pons et all and instantly labeled cold fusion.  This is full and formal demonstrable production of nuclear energy in a real world working device that establishes method and byproducts and even real fuel consumption. 

 

It is also a powerful reminder of just how long it takes to get here.  Five years have gone by since Rossi opened up and almost thirty since the original discoverers were hounded out of their positions.  It remains disgusting how belief systems dominate science.

 

What we learn here is that the primary mechanism at work is that isotpes of both nickel and lithium are converting to a main Isotope.  This is singular and even unexpected and powerfully suggestive that this will also be possible for a wide range of isotopes of many other elements.

 

The result is a powerful source of heat.

 

 .

Apocalypse Revealed – The Four Horsemen of Andrea Rossi's E-Cat


The Hot-Cat test setup in the dark to show glowing aspect.
 
Lithium Iron Nickel Hydrogen 

Not only did the recent report show clear and credible evidence of anomalous heat as well as isotopic ratio changes, proving that Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer is a clean nuclear process, with no externally measurable radioactivity involved, but it also divulged some important information that may enable replication.

 http://pesn.com/2014/10/10/9602543_Apocalypse-Revealed--The-Four-Horsemen_of_Andrea-Rossis_E-Cat/
 


 

Sterling D. Allan's Preface:

The following report was prepared by Hank Mills of PESN. Hank has been following the E-Cat developments, forums, back-room conversations, news postings, perhaps more carefully than anyone, including those directly involved with the E-Cat. He can be a valuable asset for anyone seriously interested in understanding how the E-Cat works.

For newcomers, on October 8, a long-awaited third-party test report was finally made available. As an apparent miscommunication or misunderstanding, it was the full-length, 54-page version, instead a of a 15-page version intended for the public, providing crucial information about the technology. Operating under very conservative parameters for safety and performance, it ran for 32 days continuous, and was still operating when it was shut down by the observers, satisfied that it could have run for much longer. It produced around 3.5 times more energy than was required to keep the clean nuclear reaction going. This historic development not only validates the E-Cat, but provides a major boost to the LENR (aka "cold fusion") field of energy research.


By Hank Mills
Pure Energy Systems News
An apocalypse has taken place, and something wonderful has transpired. This may sound illogical and contradictory, unless you understand that apocalypse means "revelation" in Greek. No disaster, calamity, or tragedy has taken place: only a huge information dump, in the form of a brand new paper on the E-Cat or “Energy Catalyzer", that basically reveals most of the secrets those following the evolution of this technology have desired to obtain for years. This release of data not only vindicates the validity of the technology, but may also be the catalyst, pun intended, that sparks a series of replications. 

For those who are not aware, the E-Cat or Energy Catalyzer is the invention of Andrea Rossi, a businessman, engineer, scientist, and industrialist. He came to America as an immigrant from Italy and immediately entered the energy sector. Only several years ago, he developed a technology that allows for massive amounts of heat to be produced from safe nuclear reactions involving common elements on the periodic table, such as nickel and hydrogen. The reactions provide all the benefits of nuclear power – such as massive power density – with none of the drawbacks, the most obvious being radiation. The E-Cat uses no radioactive materials, produces zero radiation that escapes the reactor, and produces no nuclear waste. Just as importantly, it can produce dirt cheap power from a device that can fit on a table top.

Over the past few years, the E-Cat has been tested repeatedly by Andrea Rossi and other parties. Although a few tests have had issues due to malfunctions – such as possible contamination of fuel – the majority of them were resounding successes. The technology has proven to produce more power than it consumed repeatedly. This is called the COP, or coefficient of performance. For example, if an E-Cat consumes one unit of power and produces one unit of power, the COP would be 1. If it consumed one unit of power and produced two units of power, the COP would be 2. Some of these tests stirred up controversy, however. Despite the fact large amounts of excess heat were produced by several different model of E-Cats via multiple forms of calorimetry, some skeptical parties continued to cast mostly unfounded criticism. 

The paper that is the subject of this article goes further than to describe an ordinary test. As a whole, the test is beyond remarkable. In the paper not only is a successful test described, but it provides a detailed analysis of the fuel or powder that is used in the E-Cat. Multiple types of scientific instruments are used to examine the elemental and isotopic composition of the powder. In addition, a limited amount of theory as to what nuclear reactions may be taking place is provided. In fact, there are even scanning electron microscope images of the nickel (and other) particles which could potentially give major nuggets of information for those attempting replication. 

In every way, this paper is a revelation – a glimpse into a technology that will soon be changing the world. First and foremost, Andrea Rossi should be thanked for sacrificing a small personal fortune, years of his life, and thousands of long work days developing this technology. Without his persistence, despite the opposition of skeptics, internet trolls, parties falsely claiming to be competitors who had little or nothing to compete with, and obsessive individuals seeking to push their own agendas, the E-Cat would not exist; and this paper – along with the information it contains – would have never been published. 

To this very day, Andrea Rossi works to enhance and improve the E-Cat. The focus of his efforts at this time is the perfection and consolidation of a one megawatt thermal plant that has been installed in the facility of his customer. While we read this report and study about the technology from the comfort of our homes and arm chairs, he is working in the literal trenches of a factory on an actual product. While doing so, he takes the time to answer countless questions on his blog, The Journal of Nuclear Physics, and even do interviews on programs like Coast to Coast AM.

Edison has nothing on Andrea Rossi. 


The Report
This report was written by a number of different authors. They included Giuseppe Levi of Bologna University; Evelyn Foschi of Bologna, Italy; Bo Hoistad, of Uppsala University; Roland Pettersson of Uppsala University; Lars Tegner of Uppsala University; Hanno Essen of the Royal Institute of Technology; D. Bianchini of Bologna; Ennio Bonetti of the University of Bologna; Ulf Bexell; Josefin Hall; and Jean Pettersson of Bologna. Knowing the stigma attached to LENR and cold fusion research, these eleven individuals have risked their academic and scientific reputation by signing onto this report. For their bravery in standing up against such adversity, they should all be commended. They are fearless individuals who are willing to risk the scorn and ridicule by skeptical members of the scientific community to advance our understanding of this technology. As this article is being written, so-called scientists – in reality closed minded cynics – mock their efforts and work on various internet websites. When all is said and done, those who signed this report will be remembered throughout history.

The report begins by explaining the setup of the E-Cat reactor provided by Industrial Heat. According to Andrea Rossi, he did not personally manufacture the E-Cat or “hot cat” (a high temperature version of the hot cat) that was tested. According to him, it was independently produced by Industrial Heat. This refutes the idea proposed by some cynics that only devices produced by Rossi will work, due to some hidden power source that he adds in a fraudulent manner. Although this ridiculous notion has already been disproven in previous tests, a successful test of an E-Cat produced by a third party should hopefully be a stinging slap in the face to certain critics. 

The device seems to be simple in construction, although the authors did not have access to the inside of the reactor. The report describes it as an alumina cylinder 2cm in diameter by 20cm in length. On each end there is a cap approximately 4cm in diameter and 4cm long. Along the cylinder there are triangular ridges that help promote convective heat exchange to prevent melting of the nickel fuel, which is claimed to end the nuclear reactions. If the reaction sites melt, the reactor will no longer function. 

A hole is located on both caps where high temperature grade inconel cables are connected to the internal electric resistor that is located inside the cylinder. It is spirally wound and serves to provide heat to the reactor. Also, it is speculated that the alternating current (Andrea Rossi has specified that only AC can be used to power the device and DC does not work) creates an alternating magnetic field, perhaps with special harmonics, that stimulates the reactions. These magnetic fields seem to be an important part of the “secret sauce” that allows the E-Cat to function optimally.  

 E-Cat Fact: The application of heat and/or magnetic fields by the resistor can have both a stimulating and stabilizing effect on the reactor. Andrea Rossi has stated in the past that often the drive or resistors must be turned on to keep the reactor under control. By doing so, the device will not “run away” and melt the nickel powder. However, unlike a traditional nuclear reactor, a melt down in an E-Cat does not release radioactive materials into the environment. In repeated torture tests of the E-Cat in which it was made to self destruct, no radiation was detected. At some point in the future, we may learn how these fields interact with the powder in the reactor. 

To each side of the reactor, there are long alumina tubes or “rods” that shield and protect the inconel cables. The cables are connected to copper wires from the power supply that is controlled by a computer. In an additional hole in one cap of the device, a thermocouple probe is inserted. This sensor is connected to the control system and provides data the computer uses to determine how much power should be applied to the reactor at any given time. 
The report indicates that after a dummy run – of the cylinder without a charge of fuel – to obtain calibration information, the fuel was inserted via a small hole on one of the caps. One gram of fuel was provided in a small envelope. (To put this in perspective, a US dime weighs 2.26 grams.) Approximately 10 milligrams was taken for analysis, and the remainder was inserted into the device. Interestingly, the fuel does not seem to be affected by atmosphere or humidity in the air. This is far different than many cold fusion or LENR systems. Many cold fusion devices have to be purged of all gases in a vacuum before the hydrogen is added. In some other systems, if the fuel is exposed to the environment it can be made inert. 

Previous versions of the E-Cat – devices that only produced low temperatures of a few hundred degrees Celsius – used hydrogen canisters to provide gas for the reactor. The hot cat, instead, uses a lithium hydride -- likely Lithium Aluminum Hydride (LiAlH4) -- that releases hydrogen when heated. This way, a potentially dangerous hydrogen canister is not required. It should be mentioned that only a miniscule amount of hydrogen was used by the device, and no additional hydrogen was inserted for the duration of the test. 

To calculate the input power, several high tech devices were utilized, such as two power and harmonic analyzers and three digital multimeters, to make sure no DC current was being fed into the reactor. This was to quench the rumors from cynics that “ground loops” were somehow providing extra power to the reactor that their other test equipment could not detect. To measure the output, two infrared cameras were used to determine the temperature of the surface of the reactor. By using the Stefan-Boltzmann formula, they were able to calculate the amount of power radiatively emitted in the form of infrared radiation.


32 Days of Excess Heat
The test started, and for ten days no adjustments were made. The reactor continued to operate at a constantly temperature of 1260 degrees Celsius for this time period at a COP of approximately 3.2. When the testers increased the voltage of the input power, the temperature rose in four minutes to 1,400 degrees Celsius and remained at that temperature for the duration of the test. At that temperature the COP increased to around 3.6 to 3.8. 

These COP figures may seem low from one point of view. They do not reach the COP of 6 that Rossi has repeatedly stated as his minimum goal for products using the E-Cat technology. However, anyone who reads the report will see that the authors explain how the test was not conducted in a manner to optimize performance or efficiency. It was conducted only to prove that excess heat, of some level, was produced beyond any possible doubt. 

There are two main reasons the COP was seemingly low. First, they did not utilize a self sustaining mode of operation. This is when an E-Cat operates at a stable or increasing temperature for a length of time (minutes, hours, or longer) without any input whatsoever. The problem with this mode of operation is that it can lead to a runaway effect which can cause the nickel powder to melt and the reactor to cease functioning. This mode may not have been available to the testers, and they would not have used it anyway. They had no need to use self sustain mode, because a COP of even 2 or less would have been a resounding success. All that mattered is that they measured a significant excess heat production beyond what was possible by any possible chemical reactions and was greater than any possible margin of error. 

Secondly, they did not utilize the on/off mode that was used in the previous test. In this mode, the drive of the E-Cat is turned on for a period of time to allow the reactions to be stimulated and then turned off. When the power is turned off, the nuclear reactions start to fizzle out and the temperature of the reactor drops. This cycle is repeated over and over again. Due to the fact some level of nuclear reactions are occurring when there is no input power, the overall COP of the test is increased significantly. There were a couple reasons this mode was not used. Simply put, it was much simpler to calculate the output power with a constant input and a constant temperature. If the temperature of the E-Cat was fluctuating up and down, it would have made the equations very complicated. Also, since a high COP was not needed for the test, the mode was not utilized.  



High COP

There are many reasons why the COP in this test actually was high. 
1- A COP of 3.2 to 3.8 is a far higher COP than any experimental conventional hot fusion generator has ever produced. Billions upon billions of dollars have been spent on hot fusion projects, but there has yet to be a single reactor built that produced any usable output. In fact, the first working hot fusion power plant, if the funding is not cut, is not planned to go into operation for decades. The E-Cat produces high COPs right now at high temperatures. 

2 – A COP of 3.2 to 3.8 is very high considering that the proverbial “breaks” of the E-Cat were applied the entire experiment by a constant application of power to the resistors. This serves to constantly consume input power and stabilize and limit the intensity of the nuclear reactions. If the reactor had been operated in a different manner, the COP could have been pushed much higher. This would have been a very good thing in terms of convincing the most die-hard naysayers who have continually tried to belittle this technology. However, in terms of the goals of this test, it was not needed. 

3 – A COP of 3.2 to 3.8 is far beyond the margin for error. The report indicates that the uncertainty in the measurement of input power (in the form of electricity) was 5% and the output power (in the form of heat) was 3%. This yields a total uncertainty in the COP of 8%. Even if we increased this figure to ten percent, the output was many times the margin of error or uncertainty. This means, beyond any possible doubt, the E-Cat was producing large amounts of excess power. 






The output produced by the E-Cat in this test was clearly beyond any possible conventional source. Two “Ragone energy plots” (shown above) were provided in the report. In terms of both energy content per kilogram (gravimetric) and per liter (volumetric), the fuel of the E-Cat exceeds the power storage of any known material. Moreover, the paper explains how if one were to include the total volume of the reactor, in addition to the volume of the fuel (one gram) the power density would still be beyond any chemical source. 
Considering the fact the E-Cat could have potentially continued operating for weeks or months without a recharge of fuel, the energy density mentioned on the report is on the low end of the actual energy density. It could be several times more energy dense. 

The idea that some hidden chemical power source could be what allows for the E-Cat to produce high levels of power has now been totally overruled. There is no possible way any known substance, including the ideas of cynics such as a hidden battery or thermite, could be what is allowing for these amazing power densities. The hard reality, proven by scientific testing, is that the E-Cat produces power that can only be accounted for if nuclear reactions are taking place. 

Calculations performed by researchers on certain internet forums, based on the energy density values provided in the report, indicate the one gram of powder in the E-Cat produced an equivalent amount of power as almost one barrel of oil. Who knows how many barrels worth of energy could have been produced if the test had been extended. 


The Four Horsemen and Fuel Analysis
For years, there has been ongoing speculation about the elements used in the fuel of the E-Cat and what allows for such high levels of power production. Unlike other claimed cold fusion and LENR devices, the E-Cat can produce kilowatts of excess power instead of only tens of watts or even single digits. Andrea Rossi has stated in the past that there are several aspects of the technology that allows high levels of output at high COP to be possible. First, he has stated that certain “catalysts” or chemical elements other than nickel and hydrogen were present in the reactor. Secondly, he stated that the size and surface features of the nickel powder were critical. Thirdly, he stated that using an alternating current is required and that certain “frequencies” may be applied that produce stimulation of the nuclear reactions. 

This new report reveals many details of the composition of the contents of the “hot cat” version of the E-Cat. Or, at least the composition of the “charge” in the “cat” portion of the device. You see, the device tested was a new version of the E-Cat that Rossi has described as utilizing two separate portions – a mouse and a cat. The “mouse” is said to have a charge that produces a COP of only slightly over 1, but the “cat” version (that the mouse stimulates) produces a much higher COP because it contains a different charge. Rossi has stated that in the recent test, the charge placed in the reactor and extracted from the device was from the “cat” portion. So, the information that has been shared in the report about the powder is of the highest performing of the two charges in the device. This is good news, because it means that the information about the “secret sauce” that has been released in this report is of the best of the two versions. If someone attempts to replicate, they would not be trying to duplicate the powder of the “mouse” that barely obtains a COP of over 1. 

Several tests were conducted on the powder used in the E-Cat. In the report, the powder that was sampled before the test began is referred to as “fuel” and the powder extracted after the month long test is referred to as “ash.” 

The Tools of the Test

Many high end pieces of scientific equipment were used in the analysis of the fuel and ash. Here are the names of some of the devices plus a short description. 
Electron Microscopy (SEM) – Used to study the surface features of the particles in the fuel. 
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) – Provides information on what elements are in the fuel. 
Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) – Provides information on what elements are in the fuel. 
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) – Provides information on what elements are in the fuel plus their isotopic composition.
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectometry (ICP-MS) – Provides information on what elements are in the fuel plus their isotopic composition. Also gives the average isotopic composition of an entire sample. 
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) – Like the ICP-MS, but also gives the mass values. 
The results of the analysis of the fuel and the ash is astonishing. We learn that the main constituents of the powder charge are Li (lithium), Al (aluminum), Fe (iron), H (hydrogen), Ni (nickel), C (carbon), and O (oxygen). There are additional small amounts of other elements that are found in the fuel but not the ash that may or may not be contaminants. However, the most abundant element in the fuel is nickel. 
The analysis conducted on the powder is complex, and the report provides many graphs and charts. Thankfully, the authors have summarized the most important findings for those of us who are not physicists. One of these findings is that the isotopic ratio of the nickel and lithium in the ash is far different than the fuel. The isotopic ratios are of the natural percentage in the fuel, but those ratios significantly change in the ash. 
DEFINITION OF ISOTOPE – A form of an element that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. 
One isotopic change that took place is that all of the isotopes of nickel that were detected in the fuel were depleted in the ash, except for the isotope 62NI, which increased. In the ash, the percentage of isotopic 62NI increased from 3.6% to 98.7%. The percentages of all other isotopes of nickel went down. This is unexplained, and the authors of the report cannot explain it. The massive shift in isotope ratio is rock solid proof of nuclear changes taking place in the nickel. This should be associated with a massive release of energy in the reactor (which is present in the form of heat) and a massive amount of radiation. 
Amazingly, no radiation of any type was found before, during, or after the test. Multiple types of sensors and detectors were utilized, but no radiation was detected outside the normal background of the environment. This includes alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiation. The fact such a massive nuclear change can take place in the nickel without the release of radiation is an enigma, but this miracle is also one reason the E-Cat represents such a revolutionary source of energy. 

There was another isotopic anomaly as well. A significant amount of lithium was detected in the device, most likely added as both as a catalyst and a lithium hydride to release hydrogen into the device. The lithium in the fuel was of the natural isotopic ratio, but the Li7 in the ash became depleted. In the fuel 93% of the lithium was of the isotope 7Li, but it went down as low as 7.9% in the ash. In another test, the 7Li percentage in the ash was measured as 42.5%. This is a dramatic change and should be accompanied by a massive release of radiation and a huge production of power. Like with the change in the isotopic ratio of nickel in the ash, there was a huge production of power during the test (that is greater than any known chemical energy source) but no radiation whatsoever. 

The above isotopic changes are impossible according the mainstream science. They just can't happen. Neutrons cannot be added or subtracted without huge amounts of power being used to smash the particles through the Coulomb barrier that prevents nuclear reactions from taking place except at high energies. The conditions in the E-Cat were no where near what mainstream science claims is required to produce nuclear reactions that can change isotopic ratios. However, this report provides solid evidence they are happening. But instead of in some giant particle accelerator or a billion dollar hot fusion reactor (that may never produce more power out than it consumes) these reactions are taking place in a small device that is already producing kilowatts of usable power in the form of heat. 

Another element, in addition to Nickel and Lithium, found in the analysis of the fuel is iron. In a previous analysis of the fuel used in an E-Cat (although much less detailed), iron was found as well as lithium. The authors of the report do not go into much discussion about the iron found in the E-Cat. Further in this article you will read about how it may be one of the catalysts that enables this technology to work. 

Perhaps one of the most important elements in the E-Cat is hydrogen. There have been many proposed theories as to how hydrogen may work to produce power in the E-Cat. At one point in time, Andrea Rossi proposed that his technology was producing copper as a transmutation product of nickel-hydrogen fusion, but since then he has stated that is probably only a minor source of power in the device. In this analysis no copper was detected. This means that the hydrogen must be contributing to the production of power in some other way. One proposed possible reaction mentioned in the report is as follows: p + 7LI → 8Be -->4He. In this reaction p, representing a proton from a hydrogen atom, interacts with a lithium atom and transforms into beryllium and then into helium. Another proposed reaction is one in which a proton interacts with nickel, is transformed to copper, and then decays back to nickel. This could be a way in which transmutation takes place but with little or no copper in the ash. 

The paper “The Nature Of The Chemonuclear Transition” by Hidetsugu Ikegami makes many predictions about how lithium may function in an E-Cat reactor. According to the author, not only do hydrogen-lithium reactions produce power, but they trigger a cascade of additional reactions. Also, he explains how even though the E-Cat may only use ordinary hydrogen, deuterium-deuterium reactions may be taking place and producing a significant amount of power in the E-Cat. Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen. Ordinary hydrogen contains one proton in the nucleus and one electron in orbit. A deuterium atom contains one proton and one neutron in the nucleus. Approximately one out of every six thousand hydrogen atoms in a sample of ordinary hydrogen gas is actually deuterium. He proposes that the small amount of deuterium in the E-Cat actually produces a significant amount of the power output. More interestingly, he gives a theory about how the E-Cat can breed deuterium. 

These four elements – lithium, iron, nickel, and hydrogen – seem to be the most important elements in the E-Cat. Lithium and iron seem to be the “catalysts” that those of us who have been following this saga have been curious about for years. There is more to building a powerful E-Cat capable of high COP and kilowatts of power than simply throwing in a handful of elements, however. These elements may have to be prepared in certain precise ways. 


Enter the Almighty Tubercle
At the following website, you can read a blog posting where the author details how Rossi explained to him that having tubercules or spike like extensions on the surface of the nickel particles (in addition to having nickel particles of the proper size) is critical to producing kilowatts of excess power. This aspect of the E-Cat may be every bit as important, or more so, than the application of lithium. 

Here is a quote from the website. 
“The tubercles are essential in order for the reaction rate to reach levels high enough for the implied total power output per volume or mass to reach orders of magnitude KW/kg – this level of power density is required for any useful application of the process.
“Rossi tells that he worked every waking hour for six months straight, trying dozens of combinations to find the optimal powder size for the Energy Catalyzer, or E-Cat. He further stresses that specific data about the optimal grain size cannot be revealed, but can tell us that the most efficient grain size is more in the micrometer range rather than the nanometer range.”

The question now becomes, how do you obtain powder that has tubercule like protrusions?
The answer is simple: either make it or buy it. 

Most likely, Rossi makes his own nickel powder. He has already stated that producing the powder is the most important part of his process. However, there is also the possibility he may purchase carbonyl nickel powder from a manufacturer – you can buy it off the internet – and further process it. 

Compare the following image {} of nickel powder grains in the recent Rossi report to the images of the commercially available products such as carbonyl nickel. The image found in the recent report is not nearly as zoomed in as those found on manufacturers websites, but the small micrometer nickel particles appear bumpy like they have petals or protrusions. I would say they are very similar, but small differences in the geometry of surface features may produce significant changes in power output.  



Rossi's Nickel Particles with Tubercules
Inco Type 123 nickel powder
Hunter Chemical nickel powder AH50 nickel powder
 


There is a possibility that there are fine surface features on Rossi's powder we cannot make out without higher resolution images. If the authors of the report have such higher power images, showing detailed surface features, I hope they will post them. But for replication attempts, powders available from commercial dealers may be a good place to start. 
So how does iron come into play here? How could it be a catalyst?

One hint comes from the Azom website where one of the above images came from.  

Nickel Powder Morphologies
Although the versatile nickel carbonyl gas process can produce fine nickel powders with spherical, cubic and filamentary shapes, one structure dominates the market. The spiky dendritic structure shown in figure 1 is the PM industry standard particle as it gives all the necessary properties. The powder is produced to a tolerance of within 1um in terms of particle size range. This allows the powder to meet industry demands for consistency and so limit any dimensional changes in PM components. 

The needle-like dendrites at the surface of the particles help in the mixing with other powders and in binding to, for example large iron powder particles. The distribution and shape of the particles is important to the diffusion that occurs during sintering. This ensures that the correct metallurgical structure is achieved in the finished part to give it, for example, the desired fatigue properties. The only other particle shape to find use in the PM industry is a large, filamentary structure which offers some specific benefits owing to its larger surface area.

The above text brings several thoughts to mind. In the report, it is stated that there are mixed particle sizes in both the “fuel” and the “ash.” The nickel tends to be small, but in one image (Particle 3 on page 43) there is a large particle – far larger than the nickel particles – that according to the analysis seems to be a large iron particle. 
Could it be that in the E-Cat the nickel particles remain small, perhaps using the tubercles to bond tightly with larger iron particles? This is one possible use of the protrusions. Another might be to allow the lithium (which would be in a molten state due to the low melting temperature of 180.5C) to melt and fill in some of the spaces between the tubercles. By this taking place, many things could be happening at the same time: hydrogen could be delivered to the nickel particles, material may be placed between the pointy tips of the tubercles where quantum tunneling might take place when a high level of charge is developed, and lithium may be positioned to interact with fast moving protons when nickel-hydrogen reactions take place. 

In regards to the use of iron in the E-Cat, there is another possibility. Although we have an image of a large iron particle, there is a possibility there could be a use for very fine, nano particles of iron. One researcher by the name of Bob Higgins on the Vortex L list has performed experiments with E-Cat like systems and nano-iron powder in the form of Fe2O3. He proposes that that the nano-iron may perform multiple functions on the surface of the nickel. For one, he claims it may help convert the molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. In addition, it may create even finer tubercule like structures on the nickel. 

Here are two posts of his on Vortex L, an email mailing list used by cold fusion and LENR researchers.  

Bob Higgins' posts:

Now we know several details about how these elements, the four horsemen of the E-Cat, may be used appropriately in the E-Cat. These details about Lithium, iron, nickel, and hydrogen may be enough to allow for a replication of the hot cat. Since we now have all this information from the report, kindly provided to us by the testers, I hope researchers around the world will use this information to duplicate the test results. Replications by multiple additional parties would accomplish many objectives. 
1) Reaffirming the reputations of the testers who participated and wrote the report. They have taken a risk by being involved in the test of such a controversial device. If multiple – tens or maybe hundreds – of replications take place, it would further protect their reputations. No one, not even the most ardent cynic, could refute a series of replications taking place around the world, by completely different institutions or qualified individuals. The testers would be seen as heroes to science. Instead of shrieking away from a controversial technology with enormous potential to better our civilization, they allowed their scientific curiosity to guide them to investigate. I could see them all – including Andrea Rossi – winning Nobel Prizes. 

2) Replications would provide even more proof to convince the mainstream scientific community that the E-Cat technology works. The report provided already constitutes such proof. It is rock solid evidence of excess power and nuclear isotopic shifts. Sometimes, however, to get someone to recognize a truth you have to beat them over the head with it. If dozens of teams were successfully replicating the E-Cat this technology would become the biggest news story ever. But instead of simply being another slutty article about how some movie star cheated on his wife, it would be about a technology that could directly affect the lives of every human being on this planet.

3) Many teams working on the technology would advance the development of optimal control systems. The heat producing aspect of this technology may already be as good as it can get. Andrea Rossi has created a marvel. [Sterling's note: Researchers using Zeolite crystals via a "jitterbug transformation" using palladium and deuterium claim to be able to achieve power densities of 1 MW/g, compared to Rossi's 4 kW/g of nickel.] If you can produce a reactor that can produce temperatures exceeding 1,400 Celsius in self sustain mode without input power, there cannot be anything better. What can improve is the CONTROL SYSTEM and CONTROL MECHANISMS. When replications start taking place, researchers will begin to come up with ways of reducing or eliminating input power (allowing operation at self sustain mode or closer to it) while maintaining stability and preventing a runaway. This will increase the practical COP (not the COP in torture tests that is currently unrealistic in actual products) to extremely high levels. The more teams replicate and start working on this issue the faster it will be resolved.


Taking Action for the Future
This new report proves, beyond any doubt, that the E-Cat can produce large amounts of excess heat via nuclear reactions. The high COP, far higher than the margin of error, proves no chemical reaction could be producing the power, and the isotopic shifts prove the energy is nuclear in origin. Now, the scientific community, the mainstream media, the honest skeptics, business leaders around the world, and everyone who cares about the future of humanity and their children need to wake up. They need to recognize this technology for what it represents and start taking action.

If they have the ability, means, or resources to replicate safely in a lab setting with qualified individuals, they should do so. (An amateur playing around with these chemicals in his kitchen or garage would be taking a huge risk that could cause injury or other body harm. Also, using kilowatts of electricity without the experience to know what you are doing can start fires.) 

If they have the ability to spread the word to others about this technology – to colleagues, co-workers, professors, teachers, government representatives, and family members – they should do so. Everyone on the planet needs to learn about the existence of this technology. 

If they have a computer and internet access, they should request that the mainstream media start reporting about this paper. This means everyone reading this article on PESN. They should send emails, tweets, texts, and posts to every reporter, pundit, correspondent, and media personality. Every day I read a new article about a marginally improved solar panel, a slightly more efficient LED bulb, or a faster computer chip. Unlike all these almost irrelevant technologies, the E-Cat is a breakthrough that is the equivalent of a fuel-less source of fire being discovered. At a minimum, it's the most important discovery since the electric motor or the internal combustion engine. For them not to be covering this technology shows their ignorance, lack of foresight, and cowardice to cover the most important news stories, just because they have hitherto been considered too controversial. But now that controversy is giving way to clear vindication, they need to put on their reporter hat, with a nose for significant news, and do their job.

The E-Cat right now is in an embryonic state. Andrea Rossi, in only a few years with a limited amount of financial resources and, as Chief Scientist at Industrial Heat, with seventeen employees has created an ideal source of power. With all the research that will commence when teams start replicating, the technology will continue to evolve. Eventually, if people that care about our civilization will start spreading the word about this technology so replications can start, solid state versions of the E-Cat could be developed in relatively short periods of time. Of course the first E-Cat generators will most certainly use turbine generators to transform the heat into electricity. But future models may work like a battery you can buy today at any dollar store in the USA. I can imagine buying a pack of batteries that can go into any current device I own today but could provide non-stop power for months or years. 

Imagine electric cars that can go a hundred thousand miles on a few grams of E-Cat fuel, never needing to stop to recharge batteries. Or perhaps consider a home E-Cat generator that could cut your energy costs to a tenth or less of what they are today. And in not too many years, we will be able to fly in an airplane powered by these clean nuclear reactions. All of these things are possible. They are not fantasy, because the E-Cat exists. It is every bit as real as a solar panel or a windmill, except it holds many advantages and few drawbacks. 

If you have ever wanted a “free” or very low cost energy technology: you now have it. There is no longer any reason to wait. The E-Cat has been proven. This report has given you most of the secrets about how it works: fuel composition, isotopic composition, particle size, and more. Now, if you want this technology to ever be used – which Andrea Rossi and Industrial Heat are already working towards – help accelerate the effort by taking action! If you don't, there is no reason for you to ever complain again about high energy costs or some advanced, exotic technology that's suppressed or sitting on a shelf in some oil company. The E-Cat is HERE and YOU have the recipe! 


Apocalypse – The Dark Side
Many revelations of knowledge come with a dark side. Of course the dark side for one party could be a very good and bright side for another group of people. In the Bible, there is a lot of death and despair (but also hope for a better future) in the last book of the New Testament. When it comes to the E-Cat technology, there will also be a healthy dose of death. 
  • Expensive hot fusion projects that are going no where will die. Their funding will cease. Instead the funding can either be saved or, if governments are interested in doing so, they could start their own Cold Fusion or LENR projects. 
  • The fossil fuel and traditional nuclear power age that's destroying our planet will die. Instead of using dirty, polluting, and expensive energy, humanity will have the ultimate green source of power: the E-Cat. No more Fukushimas, Chernobles, or Three Mile Island disasters.
  • Carbon taxes and other aggressive, economy killing environmental regulations will die. The adoption of the E-Cat will make them moot. This is because the E-Cat technology (once home E-Cat units emerge) could replace every coal, gas, oil, or conventional nuclear power plant in the world.
  • Conventional renewable power would die. Solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and bio-fuels would not be able to compete. The E-Cat will become a primary source of power for our planet, at least until all the minds it opened come up with something even better.
(Sterling's memo: The E-Cat is but one of many exotic free energy modalities close to becoming available. See http://Top5Energy.com)

On the flip side of all the death, despite the positives aspects of them, the rapid adoption and proliferation of the E-Cat could boost the global economy and give mankind a tool that could, if used appropriately, transform our civilization from one of scarcity to one of abundance. With the cheap and clean energy of the E-Cat being used with other emerging technologies to feed the billion or so people who go hungry each day on this planet, provide shelter for the poverty stricken, distribute medicines (perhaps anti-aging therapies as well) to the sick, and reverse much of the environmental damage humanity has done to this planet, countless lives could be saved.

The names who signed onto the report, and of course Andrea Rossi and all of his associates, are heroes who have shared something amazing with us: a document that can inspire enough hope in our hearts to get us up and moving to spread the word about a power source of the next hundred years. If we appreciate this gift, we should make haste.

Whatever you do with this report, do so quickly, for everything under the sun there is a season and on October 8th of 2014 the age of the E-Cat dawned – guided by a virtual star in a bottle.

Off now – you have work to do.

1 comment:

tyy said...

Oh no.

No such thing has happened.

It's the same old story again with Andrea Rossi moving the goal posts trying to obfuscate the obvious: it's a scam.

- the new test was conducted again by Rossi's associate Giuseppe Levi
- the report addressed no issues the previous report was critisized of. Instead, Rossi had changed the "reactor design"
- the input power and radiated heat measurements are a joke
- Andrea Rossi was intervening the experiment at critical moment

Just to mention a few facts, that make the new "independent party test" just a theater show.

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