Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named β-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and β-haplogroup, coined the α-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups α- and β-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from β-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups.
A tree of 141 of 32 marker haplotypes of haplogroup A. Haplotypes were taken from SMGF and FTDNA’s “Y-Haplogroup A Project”(http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Haplogroup_A/default.aspx?section=yresults).
A series of previously unreported haplotypes from Cameroon was assigned to A1b subclade according to STR values, being nearly identical to those found in Bahamas ( Simms et al., 2011).
A tree of 31 of 37 marker haplotypes of haplogroup A with somesubclades. Haplotypes were taken from YSearch FTDNA’s "African Project"(http://www.familytreedna.com/publicwebsite.aspx?vgroup=African.DNAProject§ion=yresults).
Haplogroups C through T
The same methodology was applied to 7415 of 67 marker haplotypes of all known haplogroups and their subclades, re-duced to the slow 22 marker haplotypes, taken from databasesYSearch and SMGF and a multitude of FTDNA Projects (see Appendix). The base haplotypes of principal haplogroups andsome of their subclades, including those of haplogroups A andB, are listed below, and chronology of their appearance is shown in Figure 3
Lack of the African SNP (Haplogroup A) in Non-Africans
A critical datapoint has emerged that disproves the "Out of Africa" concept; specifically, recent data shows that non-African people have neither M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114,P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs), nor M60, M181, P90 (hap-logroup B SNPs) in their Y-chromosomes. In fact, according to the data obtained from the "Walk Through the Y" (chromosome) international project conducted by Family Tree DNA (Texas and Arizona) [see Appendix] not one non-African participant out of more than 400 individuals in the Project tested positive to any of thirteen "African" sub-clades of haplogroup A, SNPs for which indicated above. If to take, for example, bearers of R1a haplogroup, they each have the ladder of SNPs from M42 and M139 (haplogroup BT, butnot haplogroup B, which, as it was described above, split andmigrated to Africa around 46,000 ybp or earlier), through M168and M294 (haplogroup CT), P143 (haplogroup CF), M89 andP158 (haplogroup F), L15 and L16 (haplogroup IJK), M9(haplogroup K), М 74, L138, P69, P230, P243, P244, P280,P284, P286 (haplogroup P), М 207, P224, P227, P229, P232,P280, P285 (haplogroup R), P231, P241, P242, Р 245, Р 294haplogroup R1), L145 and L146 (haplogroup R1), L120 and